# Physics Jonathan Dowling. Final Exam Review

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1 Physics 2102 Jonathan Dowling Physics 2102 Final Exam Review

2 A few concepts: electric force, field and potential Electric force: What is the force on a charge produced by other charges? What is the force on a charge when immersed in an electric field? Electric field: What is the electric field produced by a system of charges? (Several point charges, or a continuous distribution) Electric potential: What is the potential produced by a system of charges? (Several point charges, or a continuous distribution)

3 Plus a few other items Electric field lines, equipotential surfaces: lines go from +ve to ve charges; lines are perpendicular to equipotentials; lines (and equipotentials) never cross each other Gauss law: Φ=q/ε 0. Given the field, what is the charge enclosed? Given the charges, what is the flux? Use it to deduce formulas for electric field. Electric dipoles: field and potential produced BY a dipole, torque ON a dipole by an electric field, potential energy of a dipole Electric potential, work and potential energy: work to bring a charge somewhere is W = qv (signs!). Potential energy of a system = negative work done to build it. Conductors: field and potential inside conductors, and on the surface. Shell theorem: systems with spherical symmetry can be thought of as a single point charge (but how much charge?) Symmetry, and infinite systems.

4 Conductors and insulators Will two charged objects attract or repel? Can a charged object attract or repel an uncharged object? What is the electric field inside a conductor? What is the direction of the electric field on the surface of a conductor? What happens to a conductor when it is immersed in an electric field?

5 Electric forces and fields: point charges Figure 22N-14 shows an arrangement of four charged particles, with angle θ = 34 and distance d = 2.20 cm. The two negatively charged particles on the y axis are electrons that are fixed in place; the particle at the right has a charge q 2 = +5e (a) Find distance D such that the net force on the particle at the left, due to the three other particles, is zero. (b) If the two electrons were moved further from the x axis, would the required value of D be greater than, less than, or the same as in part (a)? Other possible questions: what s the electric field produced by the charges XXX at point PPP? what s the electric potential produced by the charges XXX at point PPP? What s the potential energy of this system?

6 Electric dipoles What s the electric field at the center of the dipole? On axis? On the bisector? far away? What is the force on a dipole in a uniform field? What is the torque on a dipole in a uniform field? What is the potential energy of a dipole in a uniform field?

7 Electric fields of distributed charges Possible problems, questions: What s the electric field at the center of a charged circle? What s the electric field at the center of ¼ of a charged circle? What s the electric field far from the ring? far from the disk? What s the electric field of an infinite disk?

8 Gauss law A long, non conducting, solid cylinder of radius 4.1 cm has a nonuniform volume charge density that is a function of the radial distance r from the axis of the cylinder, as given by ρ = Ar 2, with A = 2.3 µc/m 5. (a) What is the magnitude of the electric field at a radial distance of 3.1 cm from the axis of the cylinder? (b) What is the magnitude of the electric field at a radial distance of 5.1 cm from the axis of the cylinder?

9 Gauss law At each point on the surface of the cube shown in Fig , the electric field is in the z direction. The length of each edge of the cube is 2.3 m. On the top surface of the cube E = -38 k N/C, and on the bottom face of the cube E = +11 k N/C. Determine the net charge contained within the cube. [-2.29e-09] C

10 Gauss law: applications

11 Electric potential, electric potential energy, work In Fig , point P is at the center of the rectangle. With V = 0 at infinity, what is the net electric potential in terms of q/d at P due to the six charged particles?

12 The figure shows conducting plates with area A=1m 2, and the potential on each plate. Assume you are far from the edges of the plates. What is the electric field between the plates in each case? What (and where) is the charge density on the plates in case (1)? What happens to an electron released midway between the plates in case (1)?

13 Derive an expression in terms of q 2 /a for the work required to set up the fourcharge configuration of Fig , assuming the charges are initially infinitely far apart. The electric potential at points in an xy plane is given by V = (2.0 V/m 2 )x 2 - (4.0 V/m 2 )y 2. What are the magnitude and direction of the electric field at point (3.0 m, 3.0 m)?

14 Questions: from checkpoints and questions in the textbook! U = 5U 0, 7U 0, +3U 0, +5U 0

15 Problem Calculate electric field at point P. x dx L a P E Field very far away?

16 Potential of Continuous Charge Distribution Uniformly charged rod Total charge Q Length L What is V at position P shown? V! = Q / L dq =! dx = kdq L k# dx! =! r ( L + a " 0 x) x P = " [! ln( L + a! x ] L k ) 0 dx L a V = & L + k' ln \$% a a #!"

17 Problem Field at center of arc?

18 Line Of Charge: Field on bisector dx d P! x o L de a Charge per unit length Q de = k( dq) d 2! = 2 2 Distance d = a + x q L de y = de cos" = 2 ( a + cos! = ( a 2 + a k(! dx) a x 2 ) x 1/ 2 2 ) 3/ 2

19 Line Of Charge: Field on bisector Line Of Charge: Field on bisector! " + = 2 / 2 / 2 3/ 2 2 ) ( L L y x a dx a k E # What is E very far away from the line (L<<a)? L a a L k + =! 2 / 2 / L L a x a x a k! " # \$ % & ' + = ( a k L a L k E y!! = = E y ~2kλL/a(2a)=kλL/a 2 =kq/a 2 What is E if the line is infinitely long (L >> a)?

20 Problem: Gauss Law to Find E

21 Gauss Law: Cylindrical Symmetry Approximate as infinitely long line E radiates outwards. Choose cylindrical surface of radius R, length L co-axial with line of charge. " = E A = E 2! RL # = q =! " L 0! 0 E =! L 2"# RL 0 =! 2"# 0 R R = 1 mm E =? 1 m! = 2k R

22 Potential Energy of a System of Charges

23 Potential Energy of A System of Charges 4 point charges (each +Q) are connected by strings, forming a square of side L If all four strings suddenly snap, what is the kinetic energy of each charge when they are very far apart? Use conservation of energy: Final kinetic energy of all four charges = initial potential energy stored = energy required to assemble the system of charges +Q +Q +Q +Q Do this from scratch! Don t memorize the formula in the book! We will change the numbers!!!

24 Potential Energy of A System of No energy needed to bring in first charge: U 1 =0 Energy needed to bring in 2nd charge: Charges: Solution U = QV = 2 1 Energy needed to bring in 3rd charge = kq U3 = QV = Q( V1 + V2 ) = + L kq 2 2 Energy needed to bring in 4th charge = 2kQ U 4 = QV = Q( V1 + V2 + V3 ) = + L 2L kq 2 2 kq L 2L 2 +Q +Q +Q +Q Total potential energy is sum of all the individual terms shown 2 on left hand side = kq L ( 4 + 2) So, final kinetic energy of each 2 charge = kq 4L ( 4 + 2)

25 Electric fields: Example Calculate the magnitude and direction of the electric field produced by a ring of charge Q and radius R, at a distance z on its axis.

26 Sample Problem Figure 22N-14 shows an arrangement of four charged particles, with angle θ = 34 and distance d = 2.20 cm. The two negatively charged particles on the y axis are electrons that are fixed in place; the particle at the right has a charge q 2 = +5e (a)find distance D such that the net force on the particle at the left, due to the three other particles, is zero. (b) If the two electrons were moved further from the x axis, would the required value of D be greater than, less than, or the same as in part (a)?

27 Exam 2 (Ch 26) Capacitors: capacitance and capacitors; caps in parallel and in series, dielectrics; energy, field and potential in capacitors. (Ch 27) Current and Resistance: current, current density and drift velocity; resistance and resistivity; Ohm s law. (Ch 28) Circuits: emf devices, loop and junction rules; resistances in series and parallel; DC single and multiloop circuits, power; RC circuits.

28 Capacitors E = σ/ε 0 = q/aε 0 E = V d q = C V C = ε 0 A/d C = κ ε 0 A/d C=ε 0 ab/(b-a)

29 Current and resistance i = dq/dt Junction rule R = ρl/a V = i R E = J ρ ρ = ρ 0 (1+α(T T 0 ))

30 DC Circuits Loop rule V = ir P = iv Single loop Multiloop

31 Resistors and Capacitors Resistors Capacitors Key formula: V=iR Q=CV In series: same current same charge R eq = R j 1/C eq = 1/C j In parallel: same voltage same voltage 1/R eq = 1/R j C eq = C j

32 Capacitors and Resistors in Series and in Parallel What s the equivalent resistance (capacitance)? What s the current (charge) in each resistor (capacitor)? What s the potential across each resistor (capacitor)? What s the current (charge) delivered by the battery?

33 RC Circuits Time constant: RC Charging: q( t) = CE 1! e Discharging: q( t) =! t / RC ( ) q e 0 i(t)=dq/dt! t / RC

34 Capacitors: Checkpoints, Questions

35 Problem When switch S is thrown to the left, the plates of capacitor 1 acquire a potential V 0. Capacitors 2 and 3 are initially uncharged. The switch is now thrown to the right. What are the final charges q 1, q 2, and q 3 on the capacitors?

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38 Current and Resistance: Checkpoints, Questions

39 Problem A cylindrical resistor of radius 5.0mm and length 2.0 cm is made of a material that has a resistivity of 3.5x10-5 Ωm. What are the (a) current density and (b) the potential difference when the energy dissipation rate in the resistor is 1.0W?

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41 Circuits: Checkpoints, Questions

42 1. HRW7 27.P.018. [406649] Figure shows five 5.00 resistors. (Hint: For each pair of points, imagine that a battery is connected across the pair.) Fig (a) Find the equivalent resistance between points F and H. (b) Find the equivalent resistance between points F and G.

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44 5. HRW7 27.P.046. [406629] In an RC series circuit, E = 17.0 V, R = 1.50 MΩ, and C = 1.80 µf. (a) Calculate the time constant. (b) Find the maximum charge that will appear on the capacitor during charging. (c) How long does it take for the charge to build up to 10.0 µc?

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46 Magnetic Forces and Torques r r r r F = q v! B + q E F v mv r = qb r r r df = i dl! B L r " r = µ! B r

47 Ch 28: Checkpoints and Questions

48 5. HRW7 28.P.024. [566302] In the figure below, a charged particle moves into a region of uniform magnetic field, goes through half a circle, and then exits that region. The particle is either a proton or an electron (you must decide which). It spends 160 ns in the region. (a) What is the magnitude of B? (b) If the particle is sent back through the magnetic field (along the same initial path) but with 3.00 times its previous kinetic energy, how much time does it spend in the field during this trip?

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51 Checkpoints/Questions Magnetic field? Force on each wire due to currents in the other wires? Magnitude of B ds?

52 The current in wires A,B,D is out of the page, current in C is into the page. Each wire produces a circular field line going through P, and the direction of the magnetic field for each is given by the right hand rule. So, the circles centers in A,B,D are counterclockwise, the circle centered at C is clockwise. When you draw the arrows at the point P, the fields from B and C are pointing in the same direction (up and left).

53 A length of wire is formed into a closed circuit with radii a and b, as shown in the Figure, and carries a current i. (a) What are the magnitude and direction of B at point P? B = µ 0i" 4! R (b) Find the magnetic dipole moment of the circuit. µ=nia

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55 Induction and Inductance Faraday s law: EMF Inductance: L=NΦ/I r d! r d! B = " or \$ E # ds = " dt dt C For a solenoid: L=µ 0 n 2 Al=µ 0 N 2 A/l B Inductors: E L = L di/dt RL circuits: i(t)=(e/r)(1-e -tr/l ) or i(t)=i 0 e -tr/l i Magnetic energy: U=Li 2 /2; u=b 2 /2µ 0

56 Magnitude of induced emf/current? Checkpoints/Questions Magnitude/direction of induced current? Magnitude/direction of magnetic field inducing current? Given B, db/dt, magnitude of electric field? Given E ds, direction of magnetic field? Current inducing E L? Current through the battery? Time for current to rise 50% of max value? Largest L? Largest current? R,L or 2R,L or R, 2L or 2R,2L?

57 When the switch is closed, the inductor begins to get charged, and the current is i=(e/r)(1 e -tr/l ). When the switch is opened, the inductors begins to discharge. The current in this case is then i= (E/R) e -t2r/l

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59 Maxwell s s Equations: Gauss! E da = q / " 0 S nameless Ampere- Maxwell s Faraday s! B da = 0 S " C d B ds = µ! " E da + µ 0 0 dt! E ds = "! B C d dt S S da 0 i Displacement current

60 Checkpoints/Questions Given A, B at top and bottom, flux through curved sides? Given a uniform E(t) in a circle, magnetic field at the edge? Rank integration paths according to B ds Discharging capacitor: direction of displacement current, magnetic field? B= Magnetic field induced by E. Is E increasing or decreasing? Charging capacitor: Which curve is for the B in the wire, which for B in the capacitor gap? Map points: a,b,c,d into 1,2,3

61 A parallel-plate capacitor has square plates 1.0 m on a side as in Fig A current of 3.2 A charges the capacitor, producing a uniform electric field E between the plates, with E perpendicular to the plates. (a) What is the displacement current through the region between the plates? (b) What is de/dt in this region? (c) What is the displacement current through the square dashed path between the plates? (d) What is B ds around this square dashed path?

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