# Section Divisors

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1 Section Divisors Daniel Murfet October 5, 2006 Contents 1 Weil Divisors 1 2 Divisors on Curves 9 3 Cartier Divisors 13 4 Invertible Sheaves 17 5 Examples 23 1 Weil Divisors Definition 1. We say a scheme X is regular in codimension one (or sometimes nonsingular in codimension one) if every local ring O X,x of X of dimension one is regular. Recall that a regular local ring is a noetherian local ring with dimension equal to dim k m/m 2. A regular local ring of dimension one is precisely a discrete valuation ring. If V is a nosingular variety then t(v ) is a scheme with all local rings regular, so t(v ) is clearly regular in codimension one. In this section we will consider schemes satisfying the following condition: ( ) X is a noetherian integral separated scheme which is regular in codimension one. Before defining a divisor we recall some results proved earlier in notes: Let X be a scheme. Two closed immersions Z X, Z X of reduced schemes determine the same closed subscheme iff. they have the same image in X (FCI,Corollary 9). In particular there is a bijection between reduced closed subschemes of X and closed subsets of X given by associating a closed subset with the corresponding induced reduced scheme structure. Extending the previous result, for any scheme X there is a bijection between integral closed subschemes of X and irreducible closed subsets of X, where we associate the induced reduced scheme structure with an irreducible closed subset. We proved in Ex 3.6 that if X is a scheme and Y X a closed irreducible subset with generic point η, then dimo X,η = codim(y, X). If X is an integral scheme with generic point ξ then K = O X,ξ is a field and for every x X there is an injection of rings O X,x K such that K is the quotient field of all these local rings. Consequently if two sections s O X (U), t O X (V ) (with U, V nonempty) have the same germ at ξ then s U V = t U V. If f K we call f a rational function on X. The domain of definition of f is the union of all open sets U occurring in the first position of tuples in the equivalence class f. This is a nonempty open set. If the domain of definition of f is V, there is a unique section of O X (V ) whose germ at ξ belongs to f. We also denote this section by f. 1

2 Definition 2. Let X satisfy ( ). A prime divisor on X is a closed irreducible subset Y X of codimension one. Equivalently, a prime divisor is an integral closed subscheme of codimension one, and given a prime divisor Y X we associate it with the corresponding induced reduced closed subscheme. A Weil divisor is an element of the free abelian group DivX generated by the prime divisors (DivX = 0 if no prime divisors exist). We write a divisor as D = n i Y i where the Y i are prime divisors, and the n i are integers, and only finitely many n i are different from zero. If the n i are all 0 we say that D is effective. If Y is a prime divisor on X, let η Y be its generic point. Then dimo X,η = codim(y, X) = 1 so O X,η is a discrete valuation ring. We call the corresponding discrete valuation v Y on K the valuation of Y. If f K is a nonzero rational function on X then v Y (f) is an integer. If it is positive, we say that f has a zero along Y of that order; if it is negative, we say f has a pole along Y, of order v Y (f). We make the following remarks: If Y is a prime divisor on X with generic point η and f K then v Y (f) 0 if and only if η belongs to the domain of definition of f, and v Y (f) > 0 if and only if f(η) = 0 (that is, germ η f m η ). If X satisfies ( ) then so does any open subset U X. If Y is a prime divisor of X then Y U is a prime divisor of U, provided it is nonempty. Moreover the assignment Y Y U is injective since Y = Y U (provided of course Y U ). If Y is a prime divisor of U then Y is a prime divisor of X and Y U = Y, so in fact there is a bijection between prime divisors of U and prime divisors of X meeting U. If A is a normal noetherian domain then X = SpecA has the property ( ), since any affine scheme is separated (see (MAT,Definition 18) for the definition of a normal domain). A prime divisor Y X is V (p) for a prime ideal p of height 1. If Q is the quotient field of A there is a commutative diagram O X,p O X,0 A p Q The discrete valuation v Y on Q with valuation ring A p is defined on elements of A p by v Y (a/s) = largest k 0 such that a/s p k A p. If Q is a field then the scheme X = SpecQ has the property ( ) but there are no prime divisors on X, so the case DivX = 0 can occur. But this is the only way it can occur. If X = SpecA is an affine scheme satisfying ( ) with no prime divisors, then it follows from (I, 1.11A) that A must be a field. If X is a scheme which satisfies ( ) and has no prime divisors, then any point x X must have an open neighborhood V = SpecA where A is a field. Since every open subset of X has to contain the generic point, this is only possible if X is a closed point (therefore isomorphic to the spectrum of its function field). Lemma 1. If X satisfies ( ) then so does the scheme Spec(O X,x ) for any x X. If f : Spec(O X,x ) X is canonical then Y f 1 Y gives an injective map from the set of prime divisors of X containing x to the set of prime divisors of Spec(O X,x ). Proof. Suppose X is a scheme satisfying ( ). Then O X,x is a noetherian integral domain, so Spec(O X,x ) is clearly noetherian, integral and separated. Let V = SpecB be an open affine neighborhood of x and suppose p is the prime of B corresponding to x. Then O X,x = Bp and any local ring of the scheme Spec(O X,x ) is isomorphic to (B p ) qbp = Bq for some prime q p. It follows that Spec(O X,x ) is regular in codimension one. 2

3 Let Z be the set of all generisations of x and let Y be a prime divisor of X with x Y. If η, ξ are the generic points of Y, X respectively then ξ Z but ξ / Y while η Z so Y Z is a nonempty proper closed subset of Z. In fact Y Z is the closure in Z of the point η, so Z is a closed irreducible subset of Z. The usual argument shows that Z has codimension one. The map f gives a homeomorphism of Spec(O X,x ) with Z. So f 1 Z is a prime divisor on Spec(O X,x ), and it is clear that this assignment is injective. Lemma 2. Let X satisfy ( ) and let x X. Then x is contained in no prime divisor of X if and only if x is the unique generic point of X. Proof. It is clear that the generic point is contained in no prime divisor of X. For the converse, let x X be a point not contained in any prime divisor of X, and let U = SpecA be an affine open neighborhood of x, with prime p corresponding to x. By assumption p does not contain any prime ideal of height 1. Suppose p 0, and let 0 a p. Then p can be shrunk to a prime ideal minimal containing (a), which must have height 1 by (I, 1.11A), which is a contradiction. Hence p = 0 and x is the generic point of X. Lemma 3. Let X satisfy ( ), and let f K be a nonzero function on X. Then v Y (f) = 0 for all but finitely many prime divisors Y. Proof. Let U be the domain of definition of f. Then Z = X \ U is a proper closed subset of X. Since X is noetherian we can write Z = Z 1 Z n for closed irreducible Z i. Thus Z can contain at most a finite number of prime divisors of X, since any closed irreducible subset of Z of codimension one in X must be one of the Z i. So it suffices to show that there are only finitely many prime divisors Y X meeting U with v Y (f) 0. If Y U then U must contain the generic point η of Y. Hence v Y (f) 0. Now v Y (f) > 0 iff. η U X f, which is a proper closed subset of U (f 0 and therefore cannot be nilpotent by Ex 2.16 since X noetherian and hence U is quasi-compact). Hence v Y (f) > 0 iff. Y U U X f. But U X f is a proper closed subset of the noetherian space U, hence contains only finitely many closed irreducible subsets of codimension one of U. Definition 3. Let X satisfy ( ) and let f K. We define the divisor of f, denoted (f), by (f) = v Y (f) Y where the sum is taken over all prime divisors of X. This is well-defined by the lemma, and we use the convention that if no divisors exist the sum is zero. Any divisor which is equal to the divisor of a function is called a principal divisor. Note that if f, g K then (f/g) = (f) (g) because of the properties of valuations. Therefore sending a function f to its divisor (f) gives a homomorphism of multiplicative group K to the additive group DivX, and the image, which consists of the principal divisors, is a subgroup of DivX. Definition 4. Let X satisfy ( ). Two divisors D and D are said to be linearly equivalent, written D D, if D D is a principal divisor. The group DivX of all divisors divided by the subgroup of principal divisors is called the divisor class group of X and is denoted ClX. It is not hard to check that if two schemes X, Y satisfy ( ) and X = Y then DivX = DivY and ClX = ClY as abelian groups. The divisor class group of a scheme is a very interesting invariant. In general it is not easy to calculate. However, in the following propositions and examples we will calculate a number of special cases to give some idea of what it is like. First let us study divisors on affine schemes. A ring A is normal if A p is a normal domain for every prime ideal p. We say that a scheme X is normal if all its local rings are normal domains, so the scheme SpecA is normal iff. A is a normal ring. Proposition 4. Let A be a noetherian domain. Then A is a unique factorisation domain if and only if X = SpecA is normal and ClX = 0. 3

4 Proof. It is well-known that a UFD is normal, so X will be normal. On the other hand, A is a UFD if and only if every prime ideal of height 1 is principal (I, 1.12A). So what we must show is that if A is a normal noetherian domain, then every prime ideal of height 1 is principal if and only if Cl(SpecA) = 0. One way is easy: if every prime ideal of height 1 is principal, consider a prime divisor Y X = SpecA. Then Y corresponds to a prime ideal p of height 1. If p is generated by an element f A, then considering f as a global section of X we claim that (f) = Y. By the preceding notes for any divisor Z = V (q), v Z (f) = largest k 0 such that f/1 q k A q. It is easy to see that for Z Y we must have v Z (f) = 0. Since f/1 pa p we have v Y (f) 1. Suppose f/1 p 2 A p. Then tf p 2 for some t / p. But then tf = af 2 for some a A, implying that t = af p, a contradiction. Hence v Y (f) = 1 and consequently (f) = 1 Y, as desired. Thus every prime divisor is principal, so ClX = 0. For the converse, suppose ClX = 0. Let p be a prime ideal of height 1, and let Y be the corresponding prime divisor. If Q is the quotient field of A then there is f Q with (f) = Y. We will show that in fact f A and f generates p. Since for any prime divisor Z we have v Z (f) 0 it follows that f A q for all primes q of height 1. It follows from the following algebraic result that f A. Since v Y (f) 1 we have f pa p and in fact f generates the ideal pa p. To show that f generates p, let g be any other nonzero element of p. Then v Y (g) 1 and v Z (g) 0 for all Z Y. Hence v Z (g/f) 0 for all prime divisors Z (including Y ). Thus g/f A q for all q of height 1, so again g/f A. In other words g (f) and thus p is principal. Proposition 5. Let A be a normal noetherian domain. Then A = htp=1 where the intersection is taken over all prime ideals of height 1. Proof. See (MAT,Theorem 112). Corollary 6. Let A be a normal noetherian domain and set X = SpecA. If Q is the quotient field of A and f Q then (f) is an effective divisor if and only if f A. Example 1. Let A = k[x 1,..., x n ] for a field k and n 1, so X = SpecA = A n k. Then A is a normal noetherian domain since it is a UFD. A prime divisor Y X is V (p) for a prime ideal p of height 1, which by (I, 1.12A) is principal. So any prime divisor is V (f) for an irreducible polynomial f, which is unique up to multiplication by a unit. Conversely any irreducible polynomial f determines a prime ideal (f) which has height 1 by (I, 1.11A), so V (f) is a prime divisor. So there is a bijection between prime divisors of A n k and associate classes of irreducible polynomials f k[x 1,..., x n ] (i.e. f g iff. exists u k with f = gu). By Proposition 4 we have ClX = 0. Given an irreducible polynomial f and p = (f), what is the valuation on K corresponding to the discrete valuation ring A p? Definition 5. Let A = k[x 1,..., x n ] for a field k and n 1. Given a nonzero polynomial g and an irreducible polynomial f let v f (g) be the largest integer i 0 such that f i divides g (of course 1 = f 0 always divides g). For any a k it is clear that v f (a) = 0 for all irreducible f. It is also clear that if f, f are irreducible polynomials with f f then v f (g) = v f (g). Given a nonzero nonconstant polynomial g k[x 1,..., x n ], there is an essentially unique factorisation of g of the following form: A p g = uf 1 f n where u is a unit and the f i are irreducible polynomials. The uniqueness of this factorisation means that the number of times a particular associate class of irreducible polynomials is represented among the f i is well-defined, and in fact for an irreducible polynomial f the integer v f (g) is the number of elements of {f 1,..., f n } associated to f. 4

5 Proposition 7. Let A = k[x 1,..., x n ] for a field k and n 1. Let f be an irreducible polynomial and p = (f). The discrete valuation on K with valuation ring A p is defined for nonzero g, h A by v p (g/h) = v f (g) v f (h). Proof. Since v p (g/h) = v p (g) v p (h) it suffices to show that v p (g) = v f (g) for nonzero g A. But we know that v p (g) is the largest k 0 with g/1 p k A p. So it suffices to show that for k 1 g/1 p k A p iff. f k divides g. Since p k = (f k ) one implication is obvious. The other implication follows from the following fact, which is a simple induction on k: for k 1, s / p, 0 g and any irreducible f, if sg = af k then f k divides g. Let X = A n k be affine n-space over a field k and let K be the quotient field of A = k[x 1,..., x n ]. Given nonzero g, h A the corresponding principal divisor is (g/h) = (v f (g) v f (h)) V (f) ht.p=1 v p (g/h) V (p) = f where the second sum is over the set of equivalence classes of irreducible polynomials under the associate relation, and we pick a single f from each class. For example if g is a nonconstant polynomial with factorisation g = up n1 1 pnr r with the p i non-associate irreducible polynomials and n i 1, then (g) = n 1 V (p 1 ) + + n r V (p r ) This makes it obvious why Cl(A n k ) = 0. If D = r i=1 n i Y i is any nonzero effective divisor (n i > 0), write Y i = V (p i ) for irreducible p i. Then D = (p n1 1 pnr r ). So any effective divisor is principal. But any divisor D can be written as a difference D 1 D 2 of two effective divisors, so every divisor is principal and thus Cl(A n k ) = 0. Generalising from the case of the polynomial ring (which is a UFD) there is a similar formula for any Dedekind domain, which we develop over the next couple of results: Proposition 8. Let A be a Dedekind domain. For a nonzero element a A the unique factorisation of (a) as a product of prime ideals is given by (a) = 0 p p vp(a) Proof. The scheme X = SpecA satisfies ( ) since A is a normal noetherian domain. It follows from Lemma 3 that v p (a) > 0 for only finitely many nonzero primes p 1,..., p n, so the product is at least defined. If we write v i for the integer v pi (a) then we need to show that (a) = p v1 1 pvn n Since the p i are distinct the powers are all coprime, so we need to show that (a) is the intersection v p 1 v 1 p n n. By the previous result we know that a p vi i for all i, so we have. Now suppose that b A also belongs to this intersection. Then for all nonzero primes p we have v p (b) v p (a) and hence v p (b/a) 0. By Proposition 5 it follows that b/a A and hence b (a), as required. Corollary 9. Let A be a Dedekind domain with quotient field K. For a nonzero element x K the unique factorisation of the fractional ideal (x) as a product of prime powers is given by (x) = 0 p p vp(x) Proof. As before the nonzero primes with v p (x) 0 form a finite set p 1,..., p n, the difference being that now the integers v i = v pi (x) may be negative. Suppose x = a/b with a, b nonzero elements of A. Then v p (x) = v p (a) v p (b) for any nonzero prime p. Then (x) = (a)(b) 1 = 0 p p vp(a) 0 p p vp(b) = 0 p p vp(a) vp(b) = 0 p p vp(x) as required. 5

6 Example 2. Let A be a Dedekind domain with quotient field K. The nonzero fractional ideals of A form an abelian group I under multiplication, isomorphic to the free abelian group on the set of nonzero prime ideals. These are precisely the prime ideals of height 1, which are in bijection with the prime divisors of X = SpecA. So there is an isomorphism of abelian groups DivX = I defined by 0 p n p Y p 0 p where Y p = V (p) is the prime divisor corresponding to p. A fractional ideal is principal if it is of the form (u) for some nonzero u K. Corresponding to this u K is a global section of X which determines the principal divisor v p (u)y p, which by the preceding Corollary corresponds to (u) under the isomorphism DivX = I. So the principal divisors and principal fractional ideals are identified by this isomorphism. The ideal class group of A is the quotient of I by the principal fractional ideals, so it follows that the ideal class group of A is isomorphic as an abelian group to the divisor class group Cl(X) of SpecA. Now we turn to the scheme X = P rojs for a graded ring S. We assume that the ideal S + is maximal (i.e. S 0 is a field). This has the consequence that for any proper homogenous ideal b with V (b), the radical b is the intersection of all the homogenous primes p V (b) (since every proper homogenous ideal is contained in S + ). Associated to any homogenous ideal a is the closed set V (a), and associated to a subset Y X (not necessarily closed) is the radical homogenous ideal I(Y ) = p Y p (so I( ) = S). Clearly V (a) = V ( a) for homogenous a. We make the following claims: (i) For subsets Y W of X we have I(W ) I(Y ). (ii) For homogenous ideals a b we have V (b) V (a). (iii) For a homogenous ideal a, V (a) = iff. either a = S or a = S +. (iv) For a homogenous ideal a with V (a), I(V (a)) = a. This follows from the fact that S + is maximal by our earlier comment. (v) For any subset Y X, V (I(Y )) = Y. Since the case Y = is trivial we assume Y. Clearly Y V (I(Y )) so Y V (I(Y )). Let W = V (b) be closed and suppose Y W for a homogenous radical ideal b. Then b = IV (b) = I(W ) since we can assume W. Consequently b I(Y ) and so V (I(Y )) W. Hence V (I(Y )) = Y. (vi) The operations V ( ) and I( ) set up an inclusion reversing bijection between homogenous radical ideals of S other than S + and closed subsets of P rojs: p np S + S a b V (a) V (b) (vii) This bijection identifies homogenous prime ideals other than S + with the irreducible closed subsets of P rojs. If a is a radical homogenous ideal and V (a) is irreducible then a is proper and if a, b are homogenous with ab a then (a)(b) a so V (a) V (a) V (b). Since V (a) is irreducible either a a or b a. Conversely if p is a homogenous prime then V (p) is nonempty and if V (p) = V (b) V (c) = V (bc) for homogenous radical ideals b, c then p = p = bc = b c = b c (we can assume V (b), V (c) are nonempty). Hence p = a or p = b, as required. Lemma 10. If A is a nonzero ring, then dim(speca) = dima. If A is a nonzero noetherian ring, then dim(a n A ) = dim(pn A ) = dima + n for any n 1. 6

7 Proof. We proved the first equality in our Section 3 notes. The second equality follow from Corollary of our A & M dimension theory notes. In particular dima = iff. dim(a n A ) =. Now P n A = P roja[x 0,..., x n ] and this scheme is covered by the affine opens D + (x i ) = SpecA[x 0,..., x n ] (xi) = SpecA[x 1,..., x n ]. The dimension of each of these affine opens is dima + n, so by (I, Ex.1.10) we have dim(p n A ) = dima + n also. So dima = iff. dim(pn A ) =. Let k be a field and S = k[x 0,..., x n ] (n 1). Then P n k is an integral scheme of finite type over k, so the conclusions of Ex 3.20 apply. So for any irreducible closed subset Y P n k we have dimy + codim(y, X) = dim(p n k) = n From our notes on projective space (TPC,Proposition 22) we know that dimy = dim(s/i(y )) 1. It follows that ht.i(y ) = codim(y, X) and coht.i(y ) = dimy +1. We know that P n k is a noetherian integral separated scheme (TPC,Corollary 5). Regularity in codimension one follows from the fact that P n k is covered by affine opens Speck[y 1,..., y n ]. Hence P n k satisfies the condition ( ) and we can talk about Weil divisors on P n k. The bijection between closed irreducible subsets of P n k and homogenous primes of S other than S + identifies the prime divisors of P n k with the homogenous primes of height 1 (since ht.s + = ht.(x 0,..., x n ) = n + 1 > 1). By (I, 1.12A) every prime ideal of height 1 in S is principal, and if p is generated by an element f, then f is necessarily an irreducible homogenous polynomial (see our Chapter 1, Section 2 notes). Conversely every irreducible homogenous polynomial generates a homogenous prime of height 1 by (I, 1.11A). So the map f V (f) sets up a bijection between associate classes of irreducible homogenous polynomials f k[x 0,..., x n ] with the prime divisors of P n k. This means that the following definition makes sense: Definition 6. For a field k and n 1 let Y P n k be a prime divisor. The degree of Y, denoted degy, is the degree of the associated irreducible homogenous polynomial (so degy 1). For any divisor D = i n iy i the degree of D is degd = i n i degy i. Similarly we define the degree of a prime divisor Y A n k to be the degree of the associated irreducible polynomial, and the degree of a divisor on A n k as above. It is clear that for divisors D, D on affine or projective space deg(d + D ) = degd + degd. Let X = P n k for a field k and n 1, and let Y X be a prime divisor. So Y = V (p) for a homogenous prime of height 1. There is a commutative diagram of rings: O X,p O X,0 S (p) S ((0)) The vertical isomorphisms are defined in Proposition 2.5, and S = k[x 0,..., x n ]. Thus S ((0)) is the quotient field of S (p) and the question is: what is the valuation v Y on S ((0)) corresponding to the prime divisor Y? With the notation of Definition 5 the result is the one we expect: Proposition 11. Let S = k[x 0,..., x n ] for a field k and n 1. Let f be an irreducible homogenous polynomial and p = (f). The discrete valuation on the field S ((0)) with valuation ring S (p) is defined for nonzero homogenous g, h S of the same degree by v (p) (g/h) = v f (g) v f (h). Proof. Let T be the multiplicatively closed subset of S consisting of all homogenous elements not in p. Then the maximal ideal of S (p) is m = pt 1 S S (p). Of course in a discrete valuation ring the maximal ideal is principal, and p = (f), so we can find homogenous b, s S with s / p and m = (bf/s) (we can assume b / p also). Given nonzero homogenous c, t S of the same degree with t / p, v (p) (c/t) is the largest k 0 with c/t m k = (b k f k /s k ). By assumption t / (f), so to show v (p) (c/t) = v f (c) v f (t) it suffices to show that for k 1 c/t m k iff. f k divides c. It is not hard to see that if c/t m k then f k divides c. For the converse, suppose c = hf k. Then h is homogenous and hs k /b k t S (p). Clearly (b k f k /s k )(hs k /b k t) = c/t, so c/t m k as required. 7

8 This takes care of elements of S (p). For general nonzero homogenous g, h S of the same degree we write g = g f v f (g) and h = h f v f (h). Since v (p) (h/g) = v (p) (g/h) we can assume that v f (g) v f (h) (of course, one or both may be zero). Then g/h = (g f v f (g) v f (h) )/h S (p) so v (p) (g/h) = v f (g) v f (h) as required. Let X = P n k be projective n-space over a field k for n 1. Given nonzero homogenous g, h S of the same degree the corresponding principal divisor is (g/h) = v (p) (g/h) V (p) = (v f (g) v f (h)) V (f) f p homogenous ht.p=1 where the second sum is over the set of equivalence classes of irreducible homogenous polynomials under the associate relation, and we pick a single f from each class. Proposition 12. Let X be the projective space P n k x 0 = 0. Then: over a field k (n 1). Let H be the hyperplane (a) If D is any divisor of degree d, then D dh; (b) For any f K, deg(f) = 0; (c) The degree function gives an isomorphism of abelian groups deg : ClX Z. Proof. Let S = k[x 0,..., x n ] and K the function field O X,0 of X. If f K then f corresponds to a quotient g/h of two nonzero homogenous polynomials g, h S of the same degree. If we factor g, h as g = up n1 1 pnr r and h = vp m1 1 p mr r for u, v k and irreducible polynomials p i, then the p i must be homogenous (we allow some zero indices to get the occurring p i the same in both cases) and by Proposition 11 the principal divisor (f) is defined by Hence deg(f) = (f) = r (n i m i ) Y i, Y i = V (p i ) i=1 r (n i m i )deg(p i ) = i=1 r n i deg(p i ) i=1 r m i deg(p i ) = deg(g) deg(h) = 0 Which proves (b). To prove (a), let D = r i=1 n i D(p i ) be any nonzero effective divisor of degree d with n i > 0 and the p i homogenous irreducibles. Then p n1 1 pnr r /x d 0 S ((0)) and the corresponding principal divisor is D dh, where H = V (x 0 ), which shows that D dh (of course there is nothing special about x 0, we could have used any x i ). It follows immediately that any divisor of degree zero is principal. Taking degrees defines a morphism of abelian groups DivX Z, and we have just shown the kernel of this map consists of the principal divisors. Since deg(dh) = d for any d Z we obtain the required isomorphism ClX Z. Proposition 13. Let X satisfy ( ) and let U be a nonempty open subset of X, and let Z = X \U. Then: (a) There is a surjective morphism of groups ClX ClU defined by i n i Y i i n i (Y i U) where we ignore those Y i U which are empty; (b) If codim(z, X) 2 then ClX ClU is an isomorphism; (c) If Z is an irreducible subset of codimension 1, then there is an exact sequence of abelian groups Z ClX ClU 0 where the first map is defined by 1 1 Z. i=1 8

9 Proof. (a) We have already noted that if X satisfies ( ) so does U, so the group ClU is defined. We have also noted that Y Y U gives a bijection between the prime divisors of X meeting U and the prime divisors of U. Since Z is a proper closed subset of the noetherian space X, we can write it as a union Z 1 Z n of irreducible components, so there is only a finite number of prime divisors of X not meeting U. Let ϕ : DivX DivU be the morphism of abelian groups induced by sending those Y with Y U to Y U and all other Y to zero (if DivX = 0 we just take the zero map). We claim that ϕ sends principal divisors to principal divisors. It clearly sends any divisor whose support does not include prime divisors meeting U to zero, so suppose ξ is the generic point of X, K = O X,ξ and f K with v Y (f) 0 for some prime divisor Y with Y U. For such Y with generic point η there is a commutative diagram Q K O U,η O X,η If g is the image of f in Q then v Y U (g) = v Y (f) so it is clear that the image under ϕ of the principal divisor (f) is the principal divisor (g), as required (in fact ϕ maps the principal divisors of X onto the principal divisors of U). So we induce the desired surjective morphism of abelian groups ClX ClU. (b) Let Z = Z 1... Z n be the irreducible components of Z. If a prime divisor of X does not meet U then it must be one of the Z i. Since codim(z, X) = min i {codim(z i, X)} by assuming codim(z, X) 2 we are excluding this possibility. Thus every prime divisor of X must meet U, so there is a bijection between the prime divisors of U and X and so it is easy to see that ClX ClU is an isomorphism. (c) If there are no prime divisors in U then Z is the only prime divisor of X, so Im(Z ClX) = ClX = Ker(ClX ClU) so the sequence is exact. Otherwise it is easy to see that the kernel of ClX ClU consists of divisors whose support is contained in {Z}, so the sequence is exact. Example 3. For a field k the prime divisors of P 2 k are the irreducible curves. Given an irreducible curve Y of degree d, Cl(P 2 k \Y ) = Z/dZ. This follows immediately from (12), (13). If d = 1 then Y is a line and Cl(P 2 k \ Y ) = 0. Otherwise Y V (x 0) and we can describe the surjective morphism Z ClU with kernel (d) by n n (V (x 0 ) U) where U = P 2 k \ Y. 2 Divisors on Curves We will illustrate the notion of the divisor class group further by paying special attention to the case of divisors on curves. We will define the degree of a divisor on a curve, and we will show that on a complete nonsingular curve, the degree is stable under linear equivalence. Further study of divisors on curves will be found in Chapter IV. In this section k denotes an algebraically closed field. To begin with, we need some preliminary information about curves and morphisms of curves. Recall our conventions about terminology from the end of Section 4: Definition 7. A scheme X is nonsingular if all the local rings of X are regular local rings. A variety over k is an integral separated scheme X of finite type over k. A curve is a variety of dimension one. If X is proper over k, we say that X is complete. If Y is a nonsingular curve in the sense of Chapter 1, then t(y ) is a nonsingular curve in the present sense. Lemma 14. Let X be a variety over k. Then a point x X is closed if and only if its residue field is k, and any morphism f : X Y of varieties over k maps closed points to closed points. Proof. The first claim is (VS,Corollary 11), while the second claim follows from (VS,Proposition 19). 9

10 Lemma 15. Let X be a curve over k. Then (i) x X is closed if and only if dimo X,x = 1 and the only nonclosed point is the generic point. (ii) X has the finite complement topology. (iii) K(X) is a finitely generated field extension of k of transcendence degree 1. Proof. (i) If x is closed then by Ex 3.20, dimo X,x = dimx = 1. Conversely if dimo X,x = 1, let Y = {x}. This is an irreducible closed subset of X, so again by Ex 3.20 we have dimy + codim(y, X) = 1. But codim(y, X) = dimo X,x by Ex 3.6 so dimy = 0. Since an irreducible closed subset of a scheme has a unique generic point, it follows that Y = {x}, as required. If y X is any point, it follows from Ex 3.20 that dimo X,y = dimx dim{y} dimx so if y is not closed, dimo X,y = 0. But then dim{y} = dimx and by Ex I, 1.10 this is only possible if {y} = X. Hence y = ξ is the only nonclosed point. (ii) X is an irreducible space of dimension 1, so if Y is a proper closed irreducible subset then dimy = 0. Since ξ / Y it follows from (i) that Y must be a point. Since X is noetherian any closed subset is either X or a finite union of points. (iii) Follows immediately from Ex In particular, if Y is a curve in the sense of Chapter 1, then when we form the scheme t(y ) we only add one point: the generic point, which corresponds to the irreducible subset of Y consisting of the whole space. This is obvious anyway, since any curve has the finite complement topology, so the only closed irreducible subsets are points and the whole space. Let X be a nonsingular curve over k. Then if x X is a closed point, O X,x is a discrete valuation ring with quotient field K(X), so there is a discrete valuation v x on K(X) with valuation ring O X,x. If f K(X) then we can represent f by a section on the domain of definition U f of f, and it is not difficult to see that v x (f) 0 if and only if x U f. Proposition 16. Let X be a nonsingular curve over k with function field K. Then the following conditions are equivalent: (a) X is projective; (b) X is complete; (c) X = t(c K ) as schemes over k, where C K is the abstract nonsingular curve of (I.6) and t is the functor from varieties to schemes of (2.6). Proof. In our Varieties as Schemes notes we show that t(c K ) is a nonsingular curve. (a) (b) Follows from (4.9). (b) (c) If x X is a closed point then dimo X,x = dimx = 1 by Ex 3.20, so O X,x is a discrete valuation ring. Considered as a subring of K, O X,x determines a discrete valuation v x of K/k. If v is a discrete valuation of K/k, then by Ex 4.5, v has a unique center x X. That is, the valuation ring R of v dominates O X,x. Since R K, it follows from Lemma 15 that x must be a closed point. Therefore O X,x is a discrete valuation ring, which is maximal under domination, so R = O X,x. Since the center of v is unique, this gives a bijection between the closed points of X and the discrete valuations of K/k, which are the points of C K. The points of t(c K ) are the points of C K plus a generic point, so by matching generic points we get a bijection X = t(c K ). Since both spaces have the finite complement topology, this is trivially a homeomorphism. By Ex 3.6 there is an injective ring morphism O X (U) K for any nonempty open U X. Clearly O X (U) x U O X,x, and it is not hard to see this is an equality. So X = t(c K ) is actually an isomorphism of schemes. This result shows that just as in (H, I.6), up to isomorphism there is only one projective nonsingular curve with a given function field. Lemma 17. If f : X Y is a finite morphism of curves over k, then f maps the generic point of X to the generic point of Y. The degree of the field extension K(X)/K(Y ) is finite. 10

11 Proof. Let ξ X, η Y be the generic points and suppose that f(ξ) = z η. Then z is a closed point, so f 1 (z) is closed, and therefore f 1 (z) = X. But f is finite, and a finite morphism is quasi-finite by Ex 3.5, so this is a contradiction. Using the canonical injective morphism of k- algebras K(Y ) K(X) we consider K(Y ) as a subfield of K(X). Since K(X), K(Y ) both have transcendence degree 1 over k, it follows that K(X) is algebraic over K(Y ). Since K(X) is finitely generated over k, it is finitely generated over K(Y ), so K(X)/K(Y ) is a finite extension. Definition 8. Let f : X Y be a finite morphism of curves over k. The degree of f is the degree of the field extension [K(X) : K(Y )]. Lemma 18. Let A be a normal domain, K its quotient field, F a finite algebraic extension of K, and A the integral closure of A in F. Then F is the quotient field of A. Proof. We used this several times in Section 6 of Chapter 1. The proof is part of Theorem 7, Section 4, Chapter V of Zariski & Samuel. See p.30 of our EFT notes (marked with a star). Lemma 19. Let A be a Dedekind domain with quotient field K. Then the valuation rings of K containing A are precisely the subrings A p with p a prime ideal of A. Proof. It is not hard to see that the subrings A p of A are all distinct, and since A is Dedekind they are all valuation rings of K (if p 0 then A p is a discrete valuation ring of K). If (V, m) is a valuation ring of K containing A then m A = p is a prime ideal of A. If p = 0 then V = K. Otherwise V must dominate the valuation ring A p, and hence V = A p. Example 4. Take A = k[x] for a field k. Then the nonzero primes of A are all of the form p = (f) for an irreducible polynomial f. The valuation on K = k(x) corresponding to A p takes a quotient g/h and spits out the power of f dividing g minus the power of f dividing h. Lemma 19 shows that these are the only valuations of K/A. This example shows intuitively why A p is a valuation ring of K, since any quotient g/h can be reduced until f divides at most one of g, h. So it is clear that one of g/h, h/g must belong to A p. If A is not Dedekind then the local rings may not be valuation rings of K. Take for example A = k[x, y] and p = (x, y). Then a = x/y is an element of the quotient field with a / A p, a 1 / A p. Proposition 20. Let X be a complete nonsingular curve over k, let Y be any nonsingular curve over k and let f : X Y be a morphism of schemes over k. Then either (1) f(x) = a point, or (2) f(x) = Y. In case (2), K(X) is a finite extension field of K(Y ), Y is complete and f is a finite morphism. Proof. It follows from Exercise 4.4 that f is proper, and hence f(x) is closed. Since X is irreducible, so is f(x). So it is clear that one of (1), (2) must hold. Suppose that (2) holds and let Z Y be the image of f. The underlying topological space of Z is f(x), so Z Y is a surjective closed immersion. Since Y is reduced, this means that Z Y is an isomorphism (see notes following our proof of (5.9)). By Exercise 4.4 the composite Z Y S is proper, so Y is complete. Since Y is infinite and f is surjective, f must map the generic point of X to the generic point of Y, which gives an injection of k-algebras K(Y ) K(X). Using the argument of Lemma 17 we see that K(X)/K(Y ) is a finite field extension. For x X taking the intersection O X,x K(Y ) gives a valuation ring of K(Y ), which dominates O Y,f(x) since the morphism O Y,f(x) O X,x is local. Therefore O X,x K(Y ) = O Y,f(x), since valuation rings are maximal with respect to domination. Note that since K(X)/K(Y ) is algebraic, if x is not the generic point O X,x K(X) and therefore O Y,f(x) K(Y ). That is, the fiber of f over the generic point of Y consists precisely of the generic point of X. Now suppose that Y is nonsingular. Let V = SpecB be an affine open subset of Y, with B a finitely generated k-domain. Using Ex 3.20e and the fact that Y is nonsingular, we see that B is a Dedekind domain. We can identify B with a subring of K(Y ) (which is then the quotient field of B) and hence with a subring of K(X). Let A be the integral closure of B in K(X). Then using (I, 6.3A) and (I, 3.9A) we see that A is a Dedekind finitely generated k-domain, which is also a finitely generated B-module. By Lemma 18, K(X) is the quotient field of A. 11

12 Therefore we can find a nonsingular curve Z A n for some n 1 (in the sense of Chapter 1) with coordinate ring A(Z) = A as k-algebras, and function field K(Z) k-isomorphic to K(X). By (I, 6.7) there is an isomorphism of abstract nonsingular curves Z = U, where U is an open subset of the abstract nonsingular curve C K(Z). Hence t(z) = t(u) t(c K(Z) ) = t(c K(X) ) as schemes over k. By (VS,Proposition 2) there is an isomorphism of schemes t(z) = SpecA over k, so finally SpecA is isomorphic to an open subset of t(c K(X) ) = X. This isomorphism sends a nonzero prime p SpecA to the discrete valuation ring A p of K(X) and then to the corresponding point of X. Since X, Y are both complete, for both curves there is a bijection between discrete valuation rings over k and closed points. The closed points y V correspond to subrings O Y,y K(Y ), which by Lemma 19 are precisely the discrete valuation rings of K(Y ) containing B. Therefore, if x X we have f(x) V if and only if O X,x B, and since A is the integral closure of B, this is if and only if O X,x A. Since A is the intersection of all the valuation rings of K(X) containing A (see Corollary 5.22 A & M), we have A = O X,x = O X (f 1 V ) x f 1 V We have constructed an isomorphism schemes over k of SpecA with the open subset f 1 V of X. By construction A is a finitely generated B-module, and we can cover Y with affine open sets of the form V, so this shows that f is finite. Now we come to the study of divisors on curves. If X is a nonsingular curve, then X satisfies the condition ( ) used above, so we can talk about Weil divisors on X. A prime divisor is just a closed point, so an arbitrary divisor can be written D = n i P where the P i are closed points, and n i Z. We define the degree of D to be n i. Clearly this defines a morphism of abelian groups deg : DivX Z. Definition 9. If f : X Y is a finite morphism of nonsingular curves over k, we define a morphism of abelian groups f : DivY DivX as follows. For any closed point Q Y, let t O Y,Q be a local parameter at Q, which is an element of K(Y ) with v Q (t) = 1, where v Q is the valuation corresponding to the discrete valuation ring O Y,Q. We define f Q = f(p )=Q v P (t) P Since f is a finite morphism this is a finite sum (see Ex 3.5), so we get a divisor on X. Note that f Q is independent of the choice of the local parameter t. If t is another local parameter, then t = ut where u is a unit in O Y,Q. For any point P X with f(p ) = Q, u will map to a unit in O X,P, so v P (t) = v P (t ). We extend the definition by linearity to all divisors on Y. Let P X, Q Y be closed points with f(p ) = Q, and let t be a local parameter at Q. If 0 g O Y,Q then v Q (g) is the largest integer k 0 for which g m k Q. So it is clear that v P (g) v Q (g). We claim that v P (g) = v P (t)v Q (g). This is trivial if v Q (g) = 0 since then v P (g) = 0. If v Q (g) = k 1, then g = ut k where u is a unit in O Y,Q. Therefore u is also a unit in O P,X, so v P (g) = v P (t k ) = v P (t)k, as required. It follows that the image under f of the principal divisor (g) is the principal divisor (g) obtained from g K(X). Hence f induces a morphism of abelian groups f : ClY ClX. Corollary 21. A principal divisor on a complete nonsingular curve X over k has degree zero. Consequently the degree function induces an epimorphism deg : ClX Z. Lemma 22. Let X be a complete nonsingular curve over k. Then X is rational if and only if there are two distinct closed points P, Q X with P Q. rationality of a variety over k is defined in Section 2.8 notes. 12

13 3 Cartier Divisors Now we want to extend the notion of divisor to an arbitrary scheme. It turns out that using the irreducible subvarieties of codimension one doesn t work very well. So instead, we take as our point of departure the idea that a divisor should be something which locally looks like the divisor of a rational function. This is not exactly a generalisation of the Weil divisors (as we will see), but it gives a good notion to use on arbitrary schemes. Definition 10. Let X be a scheme. For each open set U let S(U) denote the set of elements of O X (U) which are regular in O X,x for every x U. For nonempty U this is a multiplicatively closed subset, and we define Q(U) = S(U) 1 O X (U). If U V then restriction maps S(V ) to S(U), so there is a morphism of rings Q(V ) Q(U) defined by a/s a V /s V. Thus defined Q is a presheaf of commutative rings, whose associated sheaf of commutative rings K X we call the sheaf of total quotient rings of X. On an arbitrary scheme, the sheaf K X replaces the concept of function field of an integral scheme. We simply write K for K X if there is no chance of confusion. Lemma 23. Let (X, O X ) be a ringed space and let M(U) be the set of invertible elements of the ring O X (U). Then M is a sheaf of (multiplicative) abelian groups. We denote by K the sheaf of (multiplicative abelian groups) of invertible elements in the sheaf of rings K. Similarly O is the sheaf of invertible elements in O X. There are canonical morphisms of presheaves of rings O X Q and Q K. The composite O X K makes K into a sheaf of O X -algebras, and gives rise to a morphism of sheaves of abelian groups O K. Lemma 24. The morphism O X K is a monomorphism of sheaves of commutative rings, and O K is a monomorphism of sheaves of abelian groups. Proof. The second claim follows immediately from the first. For x X we need to show that the composite O X,x Q x K x is injective. The second morphism is an isomorphism, so we reduce to showing that O X (U) Q(U) is injective for all U X. But if a O X (U) and 0 = a/1 Q(U) then sa = 0 for some s S(U). By definition germ x s is regular in O X,x for all x U and consequently germ x a = 0 for all x U, which implies that a = 0, as required. Recall that the cokernel K /O of the subobject O K is the sheafification of the presheaf U K (U)/O (U) of abelian groups. Proposition 25. Let X be a scheme and φ : O X B a morphism of sheaves of commutative rings on X with the property that for every open U X the morphism φ U : O X (U) B(U) sends S(U) to units. Then there is a unique morphism ψ : K B of sheaves of rings making the following diagram commute K ψ B φ O X Proof. For nonempty open U X we obtain in the usual way a morphism of commutative rings ψ U : Q(U) B(U) defined by a/s φ U (a)φ U (s) 1 unique making the following diagram commute Q(U) ψ U φ U O X (U) B(U) This defines a morphism of presheaves of rings ψ : Q B, which induces the required morphism ψ : K B. Lemma 26. Let X be a scheme and V X an open subset. Then there is a canonical isomorphism K V K X V of sheaves of algebras on V. 13

14 Proof. Let Q X be the presheaf of rings on X sheafifiying to give K X and Q V the presheaf of rings on V sheafifying to give K V. It is clear that Q X V = Q V and therefore that we have a canonical isomorphism of sheaves of rings K V K X V (see p.7 of our Section 2.1 notes). It is not difficult to check this is a morphism of O X V -algebras. Lemma 27. Let f : X Y be an isomorphism of schemes. There is a canonical isomorphism K Y f K X of sheaves of algebras on Y. Proof. There is an obvious isomorphism of presheaves of O Y -algebras Q Y = f Q X which leads to an isomorphism of sheaves of algebras K Y = a(f Q X ) = f (aq X ) = f K X. Lemma 28. Let A be an integral domain and set X = SpecA. Let S be the multiplicatively closed subset of all regular elements of A, and let Q = S 1 A. We claim there is a canonical isomorphism θ : Q K X of sheaves of algebras on X. Proof. For the moment let A be any nonzero commutative ring. By Proposition 25 it suffices to show that Q has the same universal property as K X. Let φ : O X B be a morphism of sheaves of commutative rings on X which sends S(U) to units for every open U X. By (SOA,Proposition 5) the functor : AAlg Alg(X) is left adjoint to the global sections functor Γ( ) : Alg(X) AAlg. So corresponding to φ there is a morphism of A-algebras Φ : A Γ(B) which sends elements of S to units (it is not hard to see that the ring isomorphism A = Γ(O X ) identifies S with S(X), since if A is a nonzero ring then a A is regular in A iff. a/1 is regular in A p for every prime ideal p of A). Therefore there is a unique morphism of rings Ψ : Q Γ(B) with A Q Γ(B) = Φ. Using the properties of the adjunction, it is not difficult to check that the corresponding morphism of sheaves of rings ψ : Q B is unique making the following diagram commute ψ Q B φ O X Next we show that the morphism of sheaves of rings O X Q sends elements of S(U) to units for every open U X. It suffices to show that O X (D(f)) Q (D(f)) sends S(D(f)) to units for every nonzero f A. But by the same argument as above, the ring isomorphism O X (D(f)) = A f identifies S(D(f)) with the set of regular elements of the ring A f, so we have only to show that A f Q f sends regular elements to units (SOA,Proposition 4). Now assume that A is an integral domain. If a/f n is regular in A f it follows that a is nonzero and therefore regular in A, so clearly a/f n is a unit in Q f, as required. Using the universal property we obtain a unique isomorphism θ : Q K X of sheaves of algebras on X. Proposition 29. If X is an integral scheme then K X is a quasi-coherent sheaf of O X -algebras. Proof. Combining Lemma 26 and Lemma 27 we reduce to the case X = SpecA for an integral domain A, which is handled in Lemma 28. Definition 11. A Cartier divisor on a scheme X is a global section of the sheaf K /O. A Cartier divisor is principal if it is in the image of the natural map K (X) K /O (X). Two Cartier divisors are linearly equivalent if their difference is principal. Although the group operation on K /O is multiplication, we will use the language of additive groups when speaking of Cartier divisors, so as to preserve the analogy with Weil divisors. If X is the zero scheme, then the group of Cartier divisors is the zero group. Otherwise, giving a Cartier divisor on X is equivalent to giving a cover {U i } i I of X by nonempty open sets, and for each i I an element f i K (U i ) such that for all i, j I, f i Ui U j /f j Ui U j belongs to the image of O (U i U j ) in K (U i U j ). We represent this situation by saying that the divisor is represented by the pairs {(U i, f i )} i I. This clashes slightly with our notation for germs, but it should be clear from context what we mean. 14

15 Lemma 30. If X is an integral scheme then K is isomorphic as a sheaf of O X -algebras to the constant sheaf associated to the function field K of X. Proof. We begin by proving that for x X there is an isomorphism of rings Q x = K. First notice that for a nonempty open subset U the set S(U) consists precisely of those s O X (U) with s ξ 0 (where ξ is the generic point of X). So the ring morphism O X (U) O X,ξ = K sends the elements of S(U) to units and induces a morphism of rings Q(U) K, and therefore a morphism of rings ρ x : Q x K for any x K, defined by (U, a/s) a ξ (s ξ ) 1. To show ρ x injective for all x, it suffices to show that Q(U) K is injective for nonempty open U. But if a, b O X (U) and s, t S(U) are such that a ξ (s ξ ) 1 = b ξ (t ξ ) 1 then (at bs) ξ = 0 and thus at bs = 0 in O X (U), showing that a/s = b/t Q(U). The map ρ x is surjective since K is the quotient field of O X,x for any x X. Hence ρ x is an isomorphism of rings. For nonempty open U define K (U) K by a ρ ξ (a(ξ)). Elements of K (U) map points x U to germs a(x) Q x, and since X is integral ρ x (a(x)) will be constant for all x U. So we may as well use ξ. It is not difficult to see that this gives an isomorphism of sheaves of rings of K with the constant sheaf on X corresponding to the field K. Clearly the sheaf of abelian groups K is isomorphic to the constant sheaf on X corresponding to the multiplicative abelian group K. Notice that the isomorphism of abelian groups K (U) = K for nonempty U fits into the following commutative diagram: O (U) K (U) K Lemma 31. Set X = P n k for a field k and fix a nonzero homogenous polynomial f S 1. Identify the function field K with S ((0)). For x X let i be an arbitrary integer with x D + (x i ) and define C f (x) = (X, f/x i + O (X)) Then C f is a Cartier divisor. Equivalently C f is defined by the family of sections {(D + (x i ), f/x i + Γ(D + (x i ), O ))} 0 i n. Given 0 l n we write C l for the Cartier divisor C xl. Proof. First we have to check the definition makes sense. Suppose we have x D + (x i ) D + (x j ). To show the germs (X, f/x i + O (X)), (X, f/x j + O (X)) agree, it suffices to show that (f/x i )/(f/x j ) S ((0)) corresponds to an element O (U) K (U) for some open neighborhood U of x. But if we take U = D + (x i ) D + (x j ) then x j /x i O (U), as required. Next we have to check that C l Γ(X, K /O ). But for every y D + (x i ) we have C l (y) = (D + (x i ), x l /x i + Γ(D + (x i ), O )), so this is obvious. Lemma 32. Let X be a normal scheme satisfying ( ) and let U be a nonempty open subset. If f, g K are such that v Y (f) = v Y (g) for all prime divisors Y with Y U, then f/g O (U). Proof. Considering O X (U) as a subring of K, it suffices to show that f/g, g/f O X (U). By symmetry it suffices to show f/g O X (U), and for this it suffices to produce an open cover {U i } of U with f/g O X (U i ) for all i. Given x U let V = SpecA be an affine open neighborhood of x. Since X is normal, A is a normal noetherian domain. If p is a prime ideal of height 1 in A then V (p) corresponds to a prime divisor of U, which is the restriction of a prime divisor Y of X (with generic point η U corresponding to p). Let Q be the quotient field of A, and let h Q be the image of f/g under the isomorphism K = Q. Then h A p since v Y (f/g) = 0 implies f/g O X,η. By Proposition 5 it follows that h A K and hence f/g O X (V ), which gives the required open cover of U and completes the proof. As a particular case this shows that if X is a normal scheme satisfying ( ) and U is a nonempty open subset, if f K and v Y (f) = 0 for all prime divisors Y with Y U then f O (U). 15

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