# 6. The Homomorphism Theorems In this section, we investigate maps between groups which preserve the groupoperations.

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1 6. The Homomorphism Theorems In this section, we investigate maps between groups which preserve the groupoperations. Definition. Let G and H be groups and let ϕ : G H be a mapping from G to H. Then ϕ is called a homomorphism if for all x, y G we have: ϕxy = ϕx ϕy. A homomorphism which is also bijective is called an isomorphism. A homomorphism from G to itself is called an endomorphism. An isomorphism from G to itself is called an automorphism, and the set of all automorphisms of a group G is denoted by AutG. Before we show that AutG is a group under compositions of maps, let us prove that a homomorphism preserves the group structure. Proposition 6.1. If ϕ : G H is a homomorphism, then ϕe G = e H and for all x G, ϕx 1 = ϕx 1. Proof. Since ϕ is a homomorphism, for all x, y G we have ϕxy = ϕx ϕy. In particular, ϕy = ϕe G y = ϕe G ϕy, which implies ϕe G = e H. Further, ϕe G = ϕxx 1 = ϕx ϕx 1 = e H, which implies ϕx 1 = ϕx 1. Corollary 6.2. If ϕ : G H is a homomorphism, then the image of ϕ is a subgroup of H. Proof. Let a and b be in the image of ϕ. We have to show that also ab 1 is in the image of ϕ. If a and b are in the image of ϕ, then there are x, y G such that ϕx = a and ϕy = b. Now, by Proposition 6.1 we get ab 1 = ϕx ϕy 1 = ϕx ϕy 1 = ϕxy 1. Proposition 6.3. For any group G, the set AutG is a group under compositions of maps. Proof. Let ϕ, ψ AutG. First we have to show that ϕ ψ AutG: Since ϕ and ψ are both bijections, ϕ ψ is a bijection too, and since ϕ and ψ are both homomorphisms, we have ϕ ψxy = ϕ ψxy = ϕ ψx ψy = ϕ ψx ϕ ψy = ϕ ψx ϕ ψy. Hence, ϕ ψ AutG. Now, let us show that AutG, is a group: A0 Let ϕ 1, ϕ 2, ϕ 3 AutG. Then for all x G we have ϕ1 ϕ 2 ϕ 3 x = ϕ 1 ϕ2 ϕ 3 x = ϕ 1 ϕ2 ϕ3 x = ϕ1 ϕ 2 ϕ3 x = ϕ 1 ϕ 2 ϕ 3 x, which implies that ϕ 1 ϕ 2 ϕ 3 = ϕ 1 ϕ 2 ϕ 3, thus, is associative. A1 The identity mapping ι on G is of course a bijective homomorphism from G to itself, and in fact, ι is the neutral element of AutG,. 22

2 A2 Let ϕ AutG, and let ϕ 1 be such that for every x G, ϕ ϕ 1 x = x. It is obvious that ϕ ϕ 1 = ι and it remains to show that ϕ 1 is a homomorphism: Since ϕ is a homomorphism, for all x, y G we have ϕ 1 xy = ϕ 1 ϕϕ 1 x ϕϕ 1 y }{{}}{{} =x =y which shows that ϕ 1 AutG. = ϕ 1 ϕ ϕ 1 x ϕ 1 y = ϕ 1 x ϕ 1 y, Definition. If ϕ : G H is a homomorphism, then { x G : ϕx = e H } is called the kernel of ϕ and is denoted by kerϕ. Theorem 6.4. Let ϕ : G H be a homomorphism, then kerϕ E G. Proof. First we have to show that kerϕ 6 G: If a, b kerϕ, then ϕab 1 = ϕa ϕb 1 = ϕa ϕb 1 = e H e 1 H = e H, thus, ab 1 kerϕ, which implies kerϕ 6 G. Now we show that kerg E G: Let x G and a kerϕ, then ϕxax 1 = ϕx ϕa ϕx 1 = ϕx e H ϕx 1 = ϕx ϕx 1 = e H, thus, xax 1 kerϕ, which implies kerϕ E G. Let us give some examples of homomorphisms: 23 1 The mapping ϕ : R, + R +, x e x is an isomorphism, and ϕ 1 = ln. 2 Let n be a positive integer. Then ϕ : On, {1, 1}, A deta is a surjective homomorphism and kerϕ = SOn. Further, for n = 1, ϕ is even an isomorphism. 3 The mapping ϕ : R 3 R 2 x, y, z x, z is a surjective homomorphism and kerϕ = { 0, y, 0 : y R}. 4 Let n 3 be an integer, let C n = {a 0,..., a n 1 }, and let ρ D n be the rotation through 2π/n. Then ϕ : C n D n, defined by ϕa k := ρ k is an injective homomorphism from C n into D n. Thus, C n is isomorphic to a subgroup of D n.

3 24 5 Let n 3 be an integer. For any x D n, let { 1 if x is a rotation, sgx = 1 if x is a reflection, then ϕ : D n {1, 1}, x sgx is a surjective homomorphism. 6 The mapping ϕ : Z 12, + Z 12, + x 4x is an endomorphism of Z 12, +, where kerϕ = {0, 3, 6, 9} and the image of ϕ is {0, 4, 8}. 7 For every r Q, the mapping ϕ : Q, + Q, + q rq is an automorphism of Q, +. 8 Let C 2 C 2 = {e, a, b, c}, then every permutation of {a, b, c} is a bijective homomorphism from C 2 C 2 to itself. Hence, AutC 2 C 2 is isomorphic to S 3 or to D 3. In order to define an operation on the set G/N, where N E G, we need the following: Fact 6.5. If N E G, then for all x, y G, xn yn = xyn. Proof. Since N is a normal subgroup of G, we have This leads to the following: xn yn = xyny }{{ 1 yn = xynn = xyn. } =N Proposition 6.6. If N E G, then the set G/N = {xn : x G} is a group under the operation xn yn := xyn.

4 > Proof. First we have to show that the operation xn yn is well-defined: If xn = xn and yn = ỹn, then, by Lemma 3.6 d, x 1 x, y 1 ỹ N. Now, since N is a normal subgroup of G, xy 1 xỹ = y 1 x } 1 x {{} ỹ y 1 Nỹ = y 1 Ny y 1 ỹ = Ny 1 ỹ = N, }{{} N =N which implies xn yn = xyn = xỹn = xn ỹn. Now, let us show that G/N is a group: A0 xn yn zn = xyz N = xyz N = xn yn zn. A1 For all x G we have en xn = exn = xn, therefore, en = N is the neutral element of G/N. A2 For all x G we have xn x 1 N = xx 1 N = en = N = x 1 xn = x 1 N xn, therefore, xn 1 = x 1 N. For example, let C be the cube-group and let N be the normal subgroup of C which is isomorphic to C 2 C 2. Then, by Proposition 6.6, C/N is a group, and in fact, C/N is isomorphic to S 3 see Hw9.Q41. Lemma 6.7. If N E G, then π : G G/N x xn is a surjective homomorphism, called the natural homomorphism from G onto G/N, and kerπ = N. Proof. For all x, y G we have πxy = xyn = xn yn = πx πy, thus, π is a homomorphism. Further, let xn G/N, then πx = xn, which shows that π is surjective. Finally, by Lemma 3.6 c, kerπ = {x G : xn = N} = N. By Theorem 6.4 we know that if ϕ : G H is a homomorphism, then kerϕ E G. On the other hand, by Lemma 6.7, we get the following: Corollary 6.8. If N E G, then there exists a group H and a homomorphism ϕ : G H such that N = kerϕ. Proof. Let H = G/N and let ϕ be the natural homomorphism from G onto H. Theorem 6.9 First Isomorphism Theorem. Let ψ : G H be a surjective homomorphism, let N = kerψ E G and let π : G G/N be the natural homomorphism from G onto G/N. Then there is a unique isomorphism ϕ : G/N H such that ψ = ϕ π. In other words, the following diagram commutes : G ψ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ π ϕ ~ G/N / H 25

5 26 Proof. Define ϕ : G/N H by stipulating ϕxn := ψx for every x G. Then ψ = ϕ π and it remains to be shown that ϕ is well-defined, a bijective homomorphism and unique. ϕ is well-defined: If xn = yn, then x 1 y N by Lemma 3.6 d. Thus, since N = kerψ, ψx 1 y = e H and since ψ is a homomorphism we have e H = ψx 1 y = ψx 1 ψy, which implies ψx = ψy. Therefore, ϕxn = ψx = ψy = ϕyn. ϕ is a homomorphism: Let xn, yn G/N, then ϕ is injective: ϕ xnyn = ϕ xyn = ψxy = ψx ψy = ϕxn ϕyn. ϕxn = ϕyn ψx = ψy e H = ψx 1 ψy = ψx 1 ψy = ψx 1 y x 1 y N xn = yn. ϕ is surjective: Since ψ is surjective, for all z H there is an x G such that ψx = z, thus, ϕxn = z. ϕ is unique: Assume towards a contradiction that there exists an isomorphism ϕ : G/N H different from ϕ such that ϕ π = ψ. Then there is a coset xn G/N such that ϕxn ϕxn, which implies ψx = ϕ πx = ϕ πx = ϕxn ϕxn = ϕ πx = ϕ πx = ψx, a contradiction. For example, let m be a positive integer and let C m = {a 0,..., a m 1 } be the cyclic group of order m. Further, let ψ : Z C m, where ψk := a k. Then ψ is a surjective homomorphism from Z to C m and kerψ = mz. Thus, by Theorem 6.9, Z/mZ and C m are isomorphic and the isomorphism ϕ : Z/mZ C m is defined by ϕk + mz := a k. Let us consider some other applications of Theorem 6.9: 1 Let n be a positive integer. Then ψ : On, {1, 1}, A deta is a surjective homomorphism with kerψ = SOn, and thus, On/ SOn and {1, 1} are isomorphic where {1, 1} = C 2. 2 Let n be a positive integer and let GLn + = {A GLn : deta > 0}. Then ψ : GLn +, R +, A deta is a surjective homomorphism with kerψ = SLn, and thus, GLn + / SLn and R + are isomorphic.

6 3 The mapping ψ : C, R +, z z is a surjective homomorphism with kerψ = U = {z C : z }, and thus, C /U and R + are isomorphic. 4 The mapping ψ : R 3 R 2 x, y, z x, z is a surjective homomorphism with kerψ = { 0, y, 0 : y R} = R, and thus, R 3 /R and R 2 are isomorphic. 5 The mapping ψ : Z 12, + Z 3, + x x mod 3 is a surjective homomorphism with kerψ = {0, 3, 6, 9} = 3Z 12, and thus, Z 12 /3Z 12 and Z 3 are isomorphic. Theorem 6.10 Second Isomorphism Theorem. Let N E G and K 6 G. Then 1 KN = NK 6 G. 2 N E KN. 3 N K E K. 4 The mapping ϕ : K/N K KN/N is an isomorphism. Proof. 1 This is Theorem 5.8. xn K xn 2 Since KN 6 G and N KN, N 6 KN. Hence, since N E G, N E KN. 3 Let x K and a N K. Then xax 1 belongs to K, since x, a K, but also to N, since N E G, thus, xax 1 N K. 4 Let ψ : K KN/N be defined by stipulating ψk := kn. Then ψ is a surjective homomorphism and kerψ = {k K : k N} = N K. Consider the following diagram: K π K/N K ψ vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv: ϕ v / KN/N Since ψ is a surjective homomorphism, by Theorem 6.9, ϕ is an isomorphism. 27

7 28 For example, let m and n be two positive integers. Then mz and nz are normal subgroups of Z, and by Theorem 6.10, mz/mz nz and mz+nz/nz are isomorphic. In particular, for m = 6 and n = 9 we have mz nz = 18Z and mz + nz = 3Z. Thus, 6Z/18Z and 3Z/9Z are isomorphic, in fact, both groups are isomorphic to C 3. Theorem 6.11 Third Isomorphism Theorem. Let K E G, N E G, and N E K. Then K/N E G/N and is an isomorphism. ϕ : G/K G/N / K/N xk xnk/n Proof. First we show that K/N E G/N. So, for any x G and k K, we must have xnknxn 1 K/N: Let xnknxn 1 = xnknx 1 N = xnkx 1 } xnx {{ 1 } N = =N = xnkx 1 N = xnx }{{ 1 } xkx }{{ 1 } N = Nk N = k NN = k N K/N. =N =:k K ψ : G G/N / K/N x xnk/n Then ψ is a surjective homomorphism and kerψ = {x G : xn K/N} = K. Consider the following diagram: π G G/K ψ xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx< ϕ x / G/N / K/N Since ψ is a surjective homomorphism, by Theorem 6.9, ϕ is an isomorphism. For example, let m and n be two positive integers such that m n. Then mz and nz are normal subgroups of Z, nz E mz, and by Theorem 6.11, Z/mZ / = Z/nZ mz/nz. In particular, for m = 6 and n = 18, Z 6 = Z 18 /6Z/18Z, and in fact, both groups are isomorphic to C 6.

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