# INTERSECTION THEORY CLASS 2

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1 INTERSECTION THEORY CLASS 2 RAVI VAKIL CONTENTS 1. Last day 1 2. Zeros and poles 2 3. The Chow group 4 4. Proper pushforwards 4 The webpage vakil/245/ is up, and has last day s notes. The new times starting next week will be Mondays 9 10:50 and Wednesdays 10 10:50. So there will be a class on Friday. To do: read the summaries of Chapters 1 and 2. Looking over today s notes, I realize that what will be newest and most disconcerting for those who haven t seen schemes is the fact that we can localize at the generic point of a subvariety X of a scheme Y. What this means is that we are considering the ring of rational functions defined in a neighborhood of the generic point of X in Y; in other words, they are defined on a dense open subset of X. This is indeed a ring (you can add and multiply). The dimension of this ring is the difference of the dimensions of X and Y (or more precisely dimensions of X and Y near X ). Recall that the points of Y correspond to irreducible subvarieties of Y; the old-fashioned ( before schemes ) points are the closed points in the Zariski topology. So what are the points of Spec O X,Y, or equivalently, what are the prime ideals of the ring O X,Y? They are the irreducible subvarieties of Y containing X. The maximal ideal of this local ring corresponds to X itself. 1. LAST DAY 1.1. Examples. I showed you some examples. For example: Parabola x = y 2 projected to t-line. Q[t] Q[x, y]/(x y 2 ) via t x. (I m letting my field be Q for the moment.) Intersecting parabola with a vertical line x = α. We get the scheme Date: Wednesday, September 29, Spec Q[x, y]/(x y 2, x α) = Spec Q[y]/(y 2 α) 1

2 which is length 2 over the base field Q. If α = 1, we get 2 points: Q[y]/(y 2 α) = (K[y]/(y + 1)) (K[y]/(y 1)) If α = 0, we get 1 point, with multiplicity 2: Q[y]/(y 2 ) has only one maximal ideal. If α = 2, we get 1 point with multiplicity 1, but this point has degree 2 over Q ; the residue field is a degree 2 extension of Q Strategy. We re going to define Chow groups of a variety X as cycles modulo homotopy (called rational equivalence). Dimension k cycles are easy: they are dimension k subvarieties of X. More subtle is rational equivalence. (1) Two points on P 1 are defined to be rationaly equivalent. (2) If X Y is flat then there is a pullback. π : X Y, dim X = dim Y + d, then π : H n (Y) H n+d (X). (3) If X Y is proper (new definition!) then we have a pushforward: X Y, π : H n (X) H n (Y). Just to be clear before we start: throughout this course we ll work over a field, to be denoted K. We ll consider schemes X that are sometimes called algebraic schemes over K. They are schemes of finite type over K. This means that you get them by gluing together a finite number of affine schemes of the form Spec K[x 1,..., x n ]/I. Mild generalization of algebraic variety. All morphisms between algebraic schemes are separated and of finite type. In this language, a variety is a reduced irreducible algebraic scheme. We ll end up localizing schemes: this leads to the notation of essentially of finite type = localizations of schemes/rings of finite type. 2. ZEROS AND POLES Given a rational function on an irreducible variety X, I ll define its order of pole or zero along a codimension 1 variety. (A rational function is a(n algebraic) function on some dense (Zariski-)open set. ) An irreducible codimension 1 variety is called a Weil divisor. Example: (x 1) 2 (x 2 2)/(x 3) over C. Over Q. Weil divisors. If X is generically nonsingular=smooth along Weil divisor, then the same thing will work. More precicsely, in this case the local ring along the subvariety is dimension 1, with m/m 2 = 1, i.e. it is a discrete valuation ring, which I ll assume you ve seen. Discrete valuation rings are certain local rings (A, m). Here are some characterizations: an integral domain in which every ideal is principal over K a regular local ring of dimension 1 a dimension 1 local ring that is integrally closed in its fraction field 2

3 etc. If generator of m is π, then the ideals are all of the form (π n ) or 0. The corresponding scheme as 2 points; it is the germ of a smooth curve. Examples: K[x, y], localized along divisor x = 0. We get rational functions of the form f(x, y)/g(x, y) where x is not a factor of g. This is a local ring, and it is a DVR! Given any rational function, you can tell me the order of poles or zeros. (Ask: (x 2 3y)/(x 2 + x 4 y)?) Then this also works if x is replaced by some other irreducible polynomial, e.g. x 2 3y. This is nice and multiplicative. So what if X is singular along that divisor (dim m/m 2 > 1)? Example: y 2 = x 3 x 2, the rational function y/x. Exercise. Consider y/x on y 2 = x 3. What is the order of this pole/zero? (This will be homework, due date TBA.) Patch 1: If V is a Weil divisor, and r is a rational function that gives an element of the local ring O V,X, then define ord V (r) = dim K O V,X /(r). (What it means to be in the local ring, intuitively: at a general point of V it is defined. More precisely: there is an open set meeting V not necessarily containing it where the rational function is an actual function. For example, x/y on Spec K[x, y] is defined near the generic point of x = 0. Language of generic points.) Then given a general rational function, f, we can always write it as f = r 1 /r 2, where r 1 and r 2 lie in the local ring. (But we need to check that if we write f as a fraction in two different ways, then the answer is the same. That s true. More on that in a minute.) Technical problem: If you have a dimension 1 local ring (A, m) with quotient field K, then A isn t necessarily a K-vector space. Z (p), pz (p). (Exercise: Find an example in characteristic 0.) Better: ord V (r) = l OV,X (O V,X /(r)). Recall length is the one more than the length of the longest series of nested modules you can fit in a row. So the length of a vector space over K is its dimension. Fact: ord is well-defined (Appendix A.3): If ab = cd then l(a/(a)) + l(a/(b)) = l(a/(c)) + l(a/(d)). Hence this thing is well-defined. Facts about facts. (I will pull facts out of Fulton s appendix as black boxes. But if you take a look at the appendix, you ll see that these results are very easy. The vast majority of proofs in A.1 A.5 are no longer than a few lines. With the exception of the section on determinantal identities which we likely won t use in this course I think almost no proof is longer than half a page. He even has a crash course in algebraic geometry in Appendix B.) 3

4 Fact: finiteness of zeros and poles (Appendix B.4.3). For a given r, there are only a finite number of Weil divisors V where ord V (r) THE CHOW GROUP Let X be an algebraic scheme (again: finite type over field K). Recall: A k-cycle is a finite formal sum n i [V i ], n i Z. A cycle is positive if all n i 0, some n i > 0. (I forgot to mention this.) Call this Z k [X], the group of k-cycles. { } Z k [X] = ni [V i ], n i Z. For any (k + 1)-dimensional subvariety W of X, and any nonzero rational function r R(W), define a K-cycle on X by [div(r)] = ord V (r)[v]. This generates a subgroup Rat k X, the subgroup of cycles rationally equivalent to 0. (You can probably see where I m going to go with this.) Define (Say visually.) A k (X) = Z k [X]/ Rat k [X] Note: this definition doesn t care about any nonreduced structure on X: A k [X] A k [X red ]. 4. PROPER PUSHFORWARDS Next day we ll see that rational equivalence pushes forward under proper maps. First: 4.1. Crash course in proper morphisms:. A morphism f : X Y is said to be proper if it is separated (true in our case of algebraic schemes), of finite type (true in our case), and universally closed. (Closed: takes closed sets to closed sets. Universally closed: for any Y Y, X Y Y Y is closed.) Key examples: projective morphisms are proper. A morphism f : X Y is projective if Y can be covered by opens such that on each open U, f 1 (X) Y U U factors f 1 (X) Y U P k U U where the left morphism is a closed immersion. Finite morphisms are projective, hence proper. A morphism is finite if for each affine open U = Spec S, f 1 (U) is affine = Spec R, and the corresponding map of rings S R is a finite ring extension, i.e. R is a finitely generated S-module (which is stronger than a finitely generated S-algebra!). Example: parabola double-covering line. (How to recognize: finite implies each point of target has finite number of preimages. Reverse implication isn t true. finite = proper plus this property.) Another example: closed immersion. 4

5 Finite, projective, and proper morphisms are preserved by base change: if f is one of them, then f is too in the following fiber diagram: W f X Y f Z (They are also preserved by composition: f, g proper etc. implies g f is too.) address: 5

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