1 Man Struck By Lightning: Faces Battery Charge Electricity
4 Properties of Electric Charge (Elektrisk ladning) Electric charges (q) repel or attract each other Like charges repel Opposite charges attract Positive charges (+q) and negative charges (-q)
6 Charges are related to Atoms An electron carries a charge of -1, written as e- A proton carries a charge of +1, written as p+ Illustration: Charge gives water its properties
7 Electric Charges are Quantitized e is the smallest whole charge found in nature* and is called the fundamental unit of charge (q). e has an approximate value of x C (where C is coulombs) e is quantitized as an integer multiple in a charged object. For example, ±1e (Li +, F - ), ±2e, ±3e
8 Charges are Conserved In a closed system, the sum of the electric charges is constant over time 1 st Law of Conservation: of Energy: The total energy within a system remains constant over time
9 What is Charge? Electric charge causes an electrically charged object to experience a force when near another electrically charged matter. Electric charge comes in two types, called positive and negative Opposite charges attract, like charges repulse (ladning) An electron carries a negative charge, a proton carries a positive charge. Charges are be carried by other subatomic particles such as quarks and leptons The SI unit of electric charge is the coulomb (C), although in electrical engineering it is also common to use the amperehour (Ah) The coulomb is a derived unit based on current (flow) of charges. It is defined as the is the quantity of charges carried in 1 second by a current of 1 ampere. An ampere is one of seven base SI unit defined as the amount of current that would deposit grams of silver per second from a silver nitrate solution
10 Elementary Charge The charge of an electron or proton is e = 1.60 x Coulombs e stands for the fundamental unit of charge. All charges occur as integers of e. They are quantitized.
11 What is a Coulomb? A Coulomb C is the SI unit for charge (q) -1.0 C = 6.3 x 1018 electrons (one ampere)flowing past a point in one second. e =1.6 x C
12 Coulombs and Force
13 Electric Field Equations F electric = k C q 1 q 2 r 2 E = k C q r 2
14 Transfer of Charge Charge may be transferred through conductors Charges do not move freely through insulators Classify each of the following as a conductor or insulator Copper Wood Glass Water Salt Humans Gold Air Paper
15 Charge by Contact Charging insulators: some of the charges are transferred from one object to another through friction. In general, this is a localized (polarized) charge. Conductors can be charged by contact if the conductor is not grounded
16 Charge by Induction
18 Induction and Force Fields Field forces are forces that are exerted between objects when there is no physical contact between the objects Field forces include the force of gravity, electric forces, strong forces and weak forces
19 Electric Fields Electric Field strength (E) is measured in Newtons per Coulomb (N/C)
20 Electricity The Basics: Voltage (Spenning) Current (Strøm) Resistance (Resistansen)
21 Voltage Voltage (designated as V or U) is electric potential The voltage between two ends of a path is the total energy required to move a small electric charge along that path, divided by the magnitude of the charge.
22 Voltage The voltage between two points of a circuit is equal to the work per charge that is performed when the charges move from the first point to the second. Voltage is a measurement of the potential to do work 1 volt = 1 J/C 1 C = 1 Ampere S
23 Basic Electronics (Outline) The Elements of Electricity Volt-Ohm-Meter Basics (Measuring Electricity) Circuit Diagrams Basics (Electronic Roadmaps) The Resistor Ohm s Law The Capacitor The Inductor
24 The Elements of Electricity Voltage Current Resistance Types of Current: AC and DC Circuits Closed Open Short
25 Voltage, Current, and Resistance Water flowing through a hose is a good way to imagine electricity Water is like Electrons in a wire (flowing electrons are called Current) Pressure is the force pushing water through a hose Voltage is the force pushing electrons through a wire Friction against the holes walls slows the flow of water Resistance is an impediment that slows the flow of electrons
26 Forms of Current There are 2 types of current The form is determined by the directions the current flows through a conductor Direct Current (DC) Flows in only one direction from negative toward positive pole of source Alternating Current (AC) Flows back and forth because the poles of the source alternate between positive and negative
27 AC Current Vocabulary Time Period of One Cycle
28 Circuits A circuit is a path for current to flow Three basic kinds of circuits Open the path is broken and interrupts current flow Closed the path is complete and current flows were it is intended Short an unintended low resistance path that diverts current
30 THE MULTIMETER Measuring Electricity
31 Volt-Ohm-Meter Basics Common Functions Voltage AC/DC Ranges Current AC/DC Ranges Resistance (DC only) Ranges Continuity Semi-conductor Performance Transistors Diodes Capacitance
32 Volt-Ohm-Meter Basics Meter Reading Digits DC Voltage Scales AC Voltage Scales Function Selection Jacks
33 DC Current (low) DC Current (high) Volt-Ohm-Meter Basics Resistance Transistor Checker Diode Checker
34 Volt-Ohm-Meter Basics (Measuring Electricity) Measuring voltage Voltage type Scaling Safety Physical (personal) Equipment Measuring current Current type Scaling Safety Physical (personal) Equipment Measuring resistance Scaling
35 Measuring Voltage - Safety When measuring voltage, the voltage being measured is exposed to the operator and flowing through the probes. Be cautious, be attentive, watch what you touch! The probes have sharp points so that you can make precise contacts. Use the protective shields when probes not in use. Observe the meter maximum limits for voltage and current. Fuses are a last resort protection feature. If you blow a fuse, you made a mistake!
36 Measuring voltage Voltage type DC and AC When measuring voltage, the meter probes are placed across the voltage source. The VOM uses two separate functions and ranges to measure DC and AC. Because AC is a constantly changing wave form, measuring AC voltages is not a simple matter. This VOM measures pseudo-root Mean Square (RMS) voltages
37 Measuring voltage Meter Set-up Scale set to highest Probes into right jacks Note voltage polarity +
38 Measuring Voltage Select 9-volt battery Set-up VOM on 600V DC Scale Touch red probe to (+) Touch black probe to ( ) Read voltage to nearest 1 volt
39 Measuring Voltage Now touch the red probe to (-) Touch the black probe to (+) Read voltage to nearest 1 volt, note the minus sign that signifies a negative voltage
40 Measuring Voltage Set-up VOM on 200V DC Scale Touch red probe to (+) Touch black probe to ( ) Read voltage to nearest.1 volt
41 Measuring Voltage Set-up VOM on 20V DC Scale Touch red probe to (+) Touch black probe to ( ) Read voltage to nearest.01 volt
42 Measuring Voltage Select 1.5-volt battery Set-up VOM on 20V DC Scale Touch red probe to (+) Touch black probe to ( ) Read voltage to nearest.01 volt
43 Measuring Voltage Set-up VOM on 2000mV DC Scale This scale is reading 2000 millivolts (or 2 volts) Touch red probe to (+) Touch black probe to ( ) Using a 1.5 volt battery - read voltage to nearest.001 volt
44 Measuring Voltage Set-up VOM on 2000m V DC Scale Touch red probe to (+) Touch black probe to ( ) Using a 9 volt battery This is clearly an over-voltage situation, note the reading.
45 Measuring Current Negative Source Positive Source
46 Measuring Current There is a greater potential for meter damage when measuring current than with any other function. Just as in voltage, there are two kinds of current associated with the voltage, AC and DC. This meter will only measure DC current, more expensive meters will measure both currents. To measure current, the VOM must be inserted into the circuit so that the current flows through the meter.
47 Measuring Current There are two current ranges, high up to 10 amps, and low 200 milliamps (.2 amps) and below. Internal fuses provide some meter protection for over current situations. Because there is such a wide range between the current scales, there are two physical probe jacks for the two ranges This allows for better protection, a hardy fuse to handle up to 10 amps of current and a more fragile fuse to protect the sensitive circuits needed to measure small currents. Don t count on the fuses to protect the meter!
48 Measuring Current CAUTION!!!!!!! There must be some resistance in the circuit or the current flow through the circuit will be the maximum the source will produce, AND THIS CURRENT LEVEL COULD DAMAGE THE VOM! In other words, DO NOT CONNECT THE VOM PROBES DIRECTLY ACROSS THE BATTERY POLES IN THE CURRENT MEASUREMENT FUNCTION!
49 Measuring Current We will be demonstrating some concepts during the current measurement exercises that will be covered in more detail later, so be patient, it will all come together in the end. In the following exercises you will use various resistors to limit the current flow in a simple circuit.
50 The Proto Board
51 Measuring Current - Battery + VOM Resistor
52 First Current Measurement Set up the circuit using a 100 ohm resistor (brown, black, brown). Connect a wire to the + power source, connect another wire to the top end of the resistor (the non grounded end). Set VOM current scale to 200 m. (m here is short for ma) Without connecting the battery, practice touching the VOM probes to the exposed wire ends.
53 First Current Measurement Connect the battery. With the VOM set to the 200 m current scale, touch the black lead to the wire hooked to the top side of the resistor. Touch the red lead to the lead coming from the + side of the battery. Note the VOM reading.
54 First Current Measurement Now reverse the VOM leads and note the reading.
55 First Current Measurement Return the VOM leads so that the red is connected to the battery. Change the VOM current ranges down and note the display readings What is the best range for measuring the current from a 9 volt source through a 100 ohm resistor? 200 m Range 20 m Range
56 Measuring Current Wire the circuit with a 1k ohm resistor (brown, black, red). Measure current using the 200 m range.
57 Measuring Current What is the best range to measure the current through a 1 k-ohm resistor? 200 m 20 m 2000 u
58 Measuring Current Wire the circuit with a 10 k- ohm resistor (brown, black, orange). Measure current with the 2000 u range.
59 Measuring Current What is the best range to use to measure the current through a 10 k-ohm resistor at 9 volts? 2000 u 200 u
60 Measuring Resistance When the VOM is used to measure resistance, what actually is measured is a small current applied to the component. There are 5 ranges. An out of resistance reading will be indicated by a single 1 digit. Remember k means multiply the reading by Operating voltages should be removed from the component under test or you could damage the VOM at worst, or the reading could be in error at best.
61 BASIC SCHEMATICS Blueprints of Electric Circuits
68 Diode General Purpose Zener Light Emitting (LED)
69 Transistor NPN PNP FET
70 Integrated circuit
71 Special Battery Speaker Voltmeter Fuse Antenna Ammeter
72 RESISTORS An Introduction Click for MAKE s RESISTOR PAGE
73 The Resistor Resistance defined Resistance values Ohms color code interpretation Power dissipation Resistors in circuits Series Parallel Combination Fixed Variable
74 Resistance Defined Resistance is the impediment to the flow of electrons through a conductor (friction to moving electrons) Where there s friction, there is heat generated All materials exhibit some resistance, even the best of conductors Unit measured in Ohm(s) From 1/10 of Ohms to millions of Ohms
75 Resistor Types Fixed Value Variable value Composite resistive material Wire-wound Two parameters associated with resistors Resistance value in Ohms Power handling capabilities in watts
76 All 1000 Ohm Resistors 1/8 ¼ ½
77 Resistor Types
78 Resistor Types
79 Inside a Resistor
80 Reading Resistor Color Codes 1. Turn resistor so gold, silver band, or space is at right 2. Note the color of the two left hand color bands 3. The left most band is the left hand value digit 4. The next band to the right is the second value digit 5. Note the color of the third band from the left, this is the multiplier 6. Multiply the 2 value digits by the multiplier
83 Power dissipation Resistance generates heat and the component must be able to dissipate this heat to prevent damage. Physical size (the surface area available to dissipate heat) is a good indicator of how much heat (power) a resistor can handle Measured in watts Common values ¼, ½, 1, 5, 10 etc.
84 Resistors in Circuits Series Looking at the current path, if there is only one path, the components are in series.
85 Resistors in Circuits Series
86 Resistors in Circuits Series R 1 R 2 Calculated R E Measured R E K 10K 4.7K 4.7K K
87 Resistors in Circuits Parallel If there is more than one way for the current to complete its path, the circuit is a parallel circuit.
88 Resistors in Circuits Parallel
89 Resistors in Circuits Parallel R 1 R 2 Calculated R E Measured R E K 10K 4.7K 10K K
90 Resistors in Circuits Parallel Challenge Make a circuit with 3 resistors in parallel, calculate the equivalent resistance then measure it. R 1 = 330 ohm R 2 = 10 k-ohm R 3 = 4.7 k-ohm
91 Resistors in Circuits Mixed If the path for the current in a portion of the circuit is a single path, and in another portion of the circuit has multiple routes, the circuit is a mix of series and parallel.
92 Resistors in Circuits Mixed R Take the parallel segment of the circuit and calculate the equivalent resistance: R 2 4.7K R 3 2.2K
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