R 2, R 3, and R 4 are in parallel, R T = R 1 + (R 2 //R 3 //R 4 ) + R 5. CC Tsai


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1 Chapter 07 SeriesParallel Circuits The SeriesParallel Network Complex circuits May be separated both series and/or parallel elements Combinations which are neither series nor parallel To analyze a circuit Identify elements in series and elements in parallel For example: R, R 3, and R 4 are in parallel, Series with R 1 and R 5 CC Source: Tsai Circuit Analysis: Theory and Practice Delmar Cengage Learning R T = R 1 + (R //R 3 //R 4 ) + R 5 The SeriesParallel Network Analysis of SeriesParallel Circuits In this circuit: R 3 and R 4 are in parallel Combination is in series with R Entire combination is in parallel with R 1 Another example: 3 Rules for analyzing series and parallel circuits apply: Same current occurs through all series elements Same voltage occurs across all parallel elements KVL and KCL apply for all circuits Steps to simplify a circuit: Redraw complicated circuits showing the source at the lefthand side and then label all nodes Simplify recognizable combinations of components Determine equivalent resistance R T and solve for the total current Label polarities of voltage drops on all components Calculate how currents and voltages split between elements in a circuit Verify your answer by taking a different approach 4 1
2 Example: Analysis of SeriesParallel Circuits Example: Analysis of SeriesParallel Circuits Combining R and R 3 in parallel Circuit reduces to a series circuit Use Voltage Divider Rule to determine V ab and V bc. Note that V bc = V is the voltage across R and R 3 Calculate all currents from Ohm s Law. Find the voltage V ab Redraw circuit in simple form Determined by combination of voltages across R 1 and R, or R 3 and R 4 (use voltage divider rule) 5 6 Example: Analysis of SeriesParallel Circuits Find currents in the circuit First redraw the circuit and move source branch all the way to left and reduce circuit to a series circuit Voltages: Use Ohm s Law or Voltage Divider Rule Currents: Use Ohm s Law or Current Divider Rule Example: Analysis of SeriesParallel Circuits Find V ab 7 8
3 Example: Analysis of SeriesParallel Circuits Find V ab Example: Bridge Circuit Determine V ab and I if R x is a short circuit (0 ) V ab = V a  V b = 8V 0V = 8V I = 10 / [(50+00) // 5k] = 10 / 38 = 4.mA 9 10 Example: Bridge Circuit Bridge Circuit Determine V ab and I if circuit has R x = 15 k V ab = V a  V b = 8V 7.5V = 0.5V I = 10 / [(50+00) // (5k+15k)]=10/47=40.5mA Determine V ab and I if R x is open V ab = V a  V b = 8V 10V = V I = 10 / (50+00)= 10 / 50 = 40mA
4 *Transistor Circuit Potentiometers Transistor is a device that amplifies a signal Operating point of a transistor circuit is determined by a dc voltage source Determine some dc voltages and currents Apply KVL: V BB = R B I B + V BE + R E I E Using I E = 100I B, we find I B = 14.3 A. Example of variable resistor used as potentiometer Moveable terminal is at uppermost position then V bc = 60 V At the lowermost position then V bc = 0 V Potentiometers Load Effects of Instruments V bc changes If load is added to circuit at upper position then V bc = 40 V At the lower position then V bc = 0 V Actual value V R1 = 7V * 5M/(5M+10M) = 9V Reading value V R1 = 7V * 3.3M/(3.3M+10M) = 6.75V Loading effect = (96.75) / 9 = 5%
5 Example: Load Effects of Instruments Example: Load Effects of Instruments Actual value V R = 7V * 10M/(5M+10M) = 18V Reading value V R = 7V * 5M/(5M+5M) = 13.5V I 1 = 4mA I = 0mA I T = 4mA Loading effect = ( ) / 18 = 5% Circuit Analysis Using Multisim Get R T Using Multisim Use Multisim to find the following quantities for the circuit shown Construct the circuit for determining the total resistance R T a) Total resistance, R T b) Voltages V and V 4 c) Currents I T, I 1, and I
6 Get Voltages and currents Using Multisim Kernel abilities 1. Can recognize which parts are in series or parallel for a seriesparallel circuit.. Can compute the total resistance R t of resistors R 1 ~R n in seriesparallel. 3. Can recognize KVL and KCL for applying a seriesparallel circuit. 4. Can recognize the voltage divider and current divider for applying a seriesparallel circuit. 5. Can recognize the loading effect for measuring voltage and current. 1 Problem 10: Find R ab and R bc Problem 35: Find E 3 4 6
7 Problem 37: Find the reading of ammeter 5 7
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