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1 1. This question is about momentum, energy and power. (a) In his Principia Mathematica Newton expressed his third law of motion as to every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. State what Newton meant by this law (1) (b) A book is released from rest and falls towards the surface of Earth. Discuss how the conservation of momentum applies to the Earth-book system (3) (c) A large swinging ball is used to drive a horizontal iron spike into a vertical wall. The centre of the ball falls through a vertical height of 1.6 m before striking the spike in the position shown. IB Questionbank Physics 1

2 The mass of the ball is 3.5 kg and the mass of the spike is 0.80 kg. Immediately after striking the spike, the ball and spike move together. Show that the (i) speed of the ball on striking the spike is 5.6 m s 1. (1) (ii) energy dissipated as a result of the collision is about 10 J. (4) (d) As a result of the ball striking the spike, the spike is driven a distance m into the wall. Calculate, assuming it to be constant, the friction force F between the spike and wall (3) IB Questionbank Physics 2

3 (e) The machine that is used to raise the ball has a useful power output of 18 W. Calculate how long it takes for the machine to raise the ball through a height of 1.6 m (3) (Total 15 marks) 2. This question is about momentum, energy and power. (a) In his Principia Mathematica Newton expressed his third law of motion as to every action there is always opposed an equal reaction. State what Newton meant by this law (1) (b) A book is released from rest and falls towards the surface of Earth. Discuss how the conservation of momentum applies to the Earth-book system (3) IB Questionbank Physics 3

4 (c) A large swinging ball is used to drive a horizontal iron spike into a vertical wall. The centre of the ball falls through a vertical height of 1.6 m before striking the spike in the position shown. The mass of the ball is 3.5 kg and the mass of the spike is 0.80 kg. Immediately after striking the spike, the ball and spike move together. Show that the (i) speed of the ball on striking the spike is 5.6 m s 1. (1) (ii) energy dissipated as a result of the collision is about 10 J. (4) IB Questionbank Physics 4

5 (d) As a result of the ball striking the spike, the spike is driven a distance m into the wall. Calculate, assuming it to be constant, the friction force F between the spike and wall (3) (e) The machine that is used to raise the ball has a useful power output of 18 W. Calculate how long it takes for the machine to raise the ball through a height of 1.6 m (3) (Total 15 marks) 3. This question is about circular motion and global warming. (a) A car is travelling at constant speed of 18 m s 1 around a horizontal bend in the road. The mass of the car is kg and the bend forms part of a circle of radius m. (i) State why the car is accelerating. (1) IB Questionbank Physics 5

6 (ii) Determine the frictional force between the tyres of the car and the surface of the road that produces the acceleration. (b) It is suggested that the use of fossil fuels to power cars has led to an enhancement of the greenhouse effect. (i) State the reason for this suggestion. (1) (ii) Outline one mechanism by which the enhanced greenhouse effect may lead to an increase in global warming. (3) (Total 7 marks) IB Questionbank Physics 6

7 4. This question is about power and efficiency. A bus is travelling at a constant speed of 6.2 m s 1 along a section of road that is inclined at an angle of 6.0 to the horizontal. (a) (i) The bus is represented by the black dot shown below. Draw a labelled sketch to represent the forces acting on the bus. (4) (ii) State the value of the rate of change of momentum of the bus. (1) (b) The total output power of the engine of the bus is 70 kw and the efficiency of the engine is 35 %. Calculate the input power to the engine IB Questionbank Physics 7

8 (c) The mass of the bus is kg. Determine the rate of increase of gravitational potential energy of the bus (3) (d) Using your answer to (c) and the data in (b), estimate the magnitude of the resistive forces acting on the bus (3) (Total 13 marks) 5. This question is about forces. An athlete trains by dragging a heavy load across a rough horizontal surface. The athlete exerts a force of magnitude F on the load at an angle of 25 to the horizontal. IB Questionbank Physics 8

9 (a) Once the load is moving at a steady speed, the average horizontal frictional force acting on the load is 470 N. Calculate the average value of F that will enable the load to move at constant speed (b) The load is moved a horizontal distance of 2.5 km in 1.2 hours. Calculate (i) the work done on the load by the force F. (ii) the minimum average power required to move the load. IB Questionbank Physics 9

10 (c) The athlete pulls the load uphill at the same speed as in part (a). Explain, in terms of energy changes, why the minimum average power required is greater than in (b)(ii) (Total 8 marks) 6. This question is about kinematics. Lucy stands on the edge of a vertical cliff and throws a stone vertically upwards. The stone leaves her hand with a speed of 15 m s 1 at the instant her hand is 80 m above the surface of the sea. Air resistance is negligible and the acceleration of free fall is 10 m s 2. (a) Calculate the maximum height reached by the stone as measured from the point where it is thrown IB Questionbank Physics 10

11 (b) Determine the time for the stone to reach the surface of the sea after leaving Lucy s hand (3) (Total 5 marks) 7. This question is about power and efficiency. A bus is travelling at a constant speed of 6.2 m s 1 along a section of road that is inclined at an angle of 6.0 to the horizontal. (a) (i) The bus is represented by the black dot shown below. Draw a labelled sketch to represent the forces acting on the bus. (4) IB Questionbank Physics 11

12 (ii) State the value of the rate of change of momentum of the bus. (1) (b) The total output power of the engine of the bus is 70 kw and the efficiency of the engine is 35 %. Calculate the input power to the engine (c) The mass of the bus is kg. Determine the rate of increase of gravitational potential energy of the bus (3) (d) Using your answer to (c) and the data in (b), estimate the magnitude of the resistive forces acting on the bus (3) IB Questionbank Physics 12

13 (e) The engine of the bus suddenly stops working. (i) Determine the magnitude of the net force opposing the motion of the bus at the instant at which the engine stops. (ii) Discuss, with reference to the air resistance, the change in the net force as the bus slows down. (Total 17 marks) 8. This question is about kicking a football. A ball is suspended from a ceiling by a string of length 7.5 m. The ball is kicked horizontally and rises to a maximum height of 6.0 m. IB Questionbank Physics 13

14 (a) Assuming that the air resistance is negligible, show that the initial speed of the ball is 11 m s (b) The mass of the ball is 0.55 kg and the impact time of the kicker s foot with the ball is 150 ms. Estimate the average force exerted on the ball by the kick (c) (i) Explain why the tension in the string increases immediately after the ball is kicked. (3) IB Questionbank Physics 14

15 (ii) Calculate the tension in the string immediately after the ball is kicked. Assume that the string is vertical. (3) (Total 10 marks) 9. This question is about dynamics and energy. A bullet of mass 32 g is fired from a gun. The graph shows the variation of the force F on the bullet with time t as it travels along the barrel of the gun. The bullet is fired at time t = 0 and the length of the barrel is 0.70 m. IB Questionbank Physics 15

16 (a) State and explain why it is inappropriate to use the equation s = ut at 2 to calculate the acceleration of the bullet (b) Use the graph to (i) determine the average acceleration of the bullet during the final 2.0 ms of the graph. (ii) show that the change in momentum of the bullet, as the bullet travels along the length of the barrel, is approximately 9 N s. (3) IB Questionbank Physics 16

17 (c) Use the answer in (b)(ii) to calculate the (i) speed of the bullet as it leaves the barrel. (ii) average power delivered to the bullet. (3) (d) Use Newton s third law to explain why a gun will recoil when a bullet is fired (3) (Total 15 marks) IB Questionbank Physics 17

18 10. This question is about motion in a magnetic field. An electron, that has been accelerated from rest by a potential difference of 250 V, enters a region of magnetic field of strength 0.12 T that is directed into the plane of the page. (a) The electron s path while in the region of magnetic field is a quarter circle. Show that the (i) speed of the electron after acceleration is m s 1. (ii) radius of the path is m. IB Questionbank Physics 18

19 (b) The diagram below shows the momentum of the electron as it enters and leaves the region of magnetic field. The magnitude of the initial momentum and of the final momentum is N s. (i) On the diagram above, draw an arrow to indicate the vector representing the change in the momentum of the electron. (1) (ii) Show that the magnitude of the change in the momentum of the electron is Ns. (1) (iii) The time the electron spends in the region of magnetic field is s. Estimate the magnitude of the average force on the electron. (1) (Total 7 marks) IB Questionbank Physics 19

20 11. Mechanical power (a) A car drives up a straight incline that is 4.8 km long. The total height of the incline is 0.30 km. The car moves up the incline at a steady speed of 16 m s 1. During the climb, the average friction force acting on the car is N. The total weight of the car and the driver is N. (i) Determine the time it takes the car to travel from the bottom to the top of the incline (ii) Determine the work done against the gravitational force in travelling from the bottom to the top of the incline.... (1) IB Questionbank Physics 20

21 (iii) Using your answers to (a)(i) and (a)(ii), calculate a value for the minimum power output of the car engine needed to move the car from the bottom to the top of the incline (4) IB Questionbank Physics 21

22 (b) From the top of the incline, the road continues downwards in a straight line. At the point where the road starts to go downwards, the driver of the car in (a), stops the car to look at the view. In continuing his journey, the driver decides to save fuel. He switches off the engine and allows the car to move freely down the hill. The car descends a height of 0.30 km in a distance of 6.4 km before levelling out. The average resistive force acting on the car is N. Estimate (i) the acceleration of the car down the incline (5) (ii) the speed of the car at the bottom of the incline (c) In fact, for the last few hundred metres of its journey down the hill, the car travels at constant speed. State the value of the frictional force acting on the car whilst it is moving at constant speed.... (1) (Total 15 marks) IB Questionbank Physics 22

23 12. This question is about a simple pendulum. (a) A pendulum consists of a bob suspended by a light inextensible string from a rigid support. The pendulum bob is moved to one side and then released. The sketch graph shows how the displacement of the pendulum bob undergoing simple harmonic motion varies with time over one time period. On the sketch graph above, (i) label with the letter A a point at which the acceleration of the pendulum bob is a maximum. (1) (ii) label with the letter V a point at which the speed of the pendulum bob is a maximum. (1) (b) Explain why the magnitude of the tension in the string at the midpoint of the oscillation is greater than the weight of the pendulum bob (3) IB Questionbank Physics 23

24 (c) The pendulum bob is moved to one side until its centre is 25 mm above its rest position and then released. (i) Show that the speed of the pendulum bob at the midpoint of the oscillation is 0.70 m s 1. (ii) The mass of the pendulum bob is kg. The centre of the pendulum bob is 0.80 m below the support. Calculate the magnitude of the tension in the string when the pendulum bob is vertically below the point of suspension. (3) IB Questionbank Physics 24

25 (d) The point of suspension of the pendulum bob is moved from side to side with a small amplitude and at a variable driving frequency f. For each value of the driving frequency a steady constant amplitude A is reached. The oscillations of the pendulum bob are lightly damped. (i) On the axes below, sketch a graph to show the variation of A with f. (ii) Explain, with reference to the graph in (d)(i), what is meant by resonance. IB Questionbank Physics 25

26 (e) The pendulum bob is now immersed in water and the variable frequency driving force in (d) is again applied. Suggest the effect this immersion of the pendulum bob will have on the shape of your graph in (d)(i) (Total 16 marks) 13. This question is about dynamics and energy. A bullet of mass 32 g is fired from a gun. The graph shows the variation of the force F on the bullet with time t as it travels along the barrel of the gun. The bullet is fired at time t = 0 and the length of the barrel is 0.70 m. (a) State and explain why it is inappropriate to use the equation s = ut + the acceleration of the bullet. 1 2 at to calculate 2 IB Questionbank Physics 26

27 (b) Use the graph to (i) determine the average acceleration of the bullet during the final 2.0 ms of the graph. (ii) show that the change in momentum of the bullet, as the bullet travels along the length of the barrel, is approximately 9 N s. (3) IB Questionbank Physics 27

28 (c) Use the answer in (b)(ii) to calculate the (i) speed of the bullet as it leaves the barrel. (ii) average power delivered to the bullet. (3) (d) Use Newton s third law to explain why a gun will recoil when a bullet is fired (3) (Total 15 marks) IB Questionbank Physics 28

29 14. This question is about impulse. (a) A net force of magnitude F acts on a body. Define the impulse I of the force (1) (b) A ball of mass kg is travelling horizontally with a speed of 2.20 m s 1. It strikes a vertical wall and rebounds horizontally. Due to the collision with the wall, 20 % of the ball s initial kinetic energy is dissipated. (i) Show that the ball rebounds from the wall with a speed of 1.97 m s 1. (ii) Show that the impulse given to the ball by the wall is N s. IB Questionbank Physics 29

30 (c) The ball strikes the wall at time t = 0 and leaves the wall at time t = T. The sketch graph shows how the force F that the wall exerts on the ball is assumed to vary with time t. The time T is measured electronically to equal s. Use the impulse given in (b)(ii) to estimate the average value of F (4) (Total 9 marks) 15. This question is about impulse. (a) A net force of magnitude F acts on a body. Define the impulse I of the force (1) IB Questionbank Physics 30

31 (b) A ball of mass kg is travelling horizontally with a speed of 2.20 m s 1. It strikes a vertical wall and rebounds horizontally. Due to the collision with the wall, 20 % of the ball s initial kinetic energy is dissipated. (i) Show that the ball rebounds from the wall with a speed of 1.97 m s 1. (ii) Show that the impulse given to the ball by the wall is N s. IB Questionbank Physics 31

32 (c) The ball strikes the wall at time t = 0 and leaves the wall at time t = T. The sketch graph shows how the force F that the wall exerts on the ball is assumed to vary with time t. The time T is measured electronically to equal s. Use the impulse given in (b)(ii) to estimate the average value of F (4) (Total 9 marks) 16. This question is about motion of a ball falling in oil. (a) Distinguish between average speed and instantaneous speed IB Questionbank Physics 32

33 (b) A small steel ball of mass M is dropped from rest into a long vertical tube that contains oil. The sketch graph shows how the speed v of the ball varies with time t. Explain how you would use the graph to find the average speed of the ball between t = 0 and t = t (3) (c) The gradient of the graph at t = t 1 is k. Deduce an expression in terms of k, M and g, the acceleration of free fall, for the magnitude of the frictional force F acting on the ball at t = t (3) IB Questionbank Physics 33

34 (d) State and explain the magnitude of the frictional force acting on the ball at t = t (3) (Total 11 marks) 17. This question is about collisions. (a) State the principle of conservation of momentum IB Questionbank Physics 34

35 (b) In an experiment, an air-rifle pellet is fired into a block of modelling clay that rests on a table. (not to scale) The air-rifle pellet remains inside the clay block after the impact. As a result of the collision, the clay block slides along the table in a straight line and comes to rest. Further data relating to the experiment are given below. Mass of air-rifle pellet = 2.0 g Mass of clay block = 56 g Velocity of impact of air-rifle pellet = 140 m s 1 Stopping distance of clay block = 2.8 m (i) Show that the initial speed of the clay block after the air-rifle pellet strikes it is 4.8 m s 1. IB Questionbank Physics 35

36 (ii) Calculate the average frictional force that the surface of the table exerts on the clay block whilst the clay block is moving. (4) (c) Discuss the energy transformations that occur in the clay block and the air-rifle pellet from the moment the air-rifle pellet strikes the block until the clay block comes to rest (3) (d) The clay block is dropped from rest from the edge of the table and falls vertically to the ground. The table is 0.85 m above the ground. Calculate the speed with which the clay block strikes the ground (Total 13 marks) IB Questionbank Physics 36

37 18. This question is about collisions. (a) State the principle of conservation of momentum (b) In an experiment, an air-rifle pellet is fired into a block of modelling clay that rests on a table. (not to scale) The air-rifle pellet remains inside the clay block after the impact. As a result of the collision, the clay block slides along the table in a straight line and comes to rest. Further data relating to the experiment are given below. Mass of air-rifle pellet = 2.0 g Mass of clay block = 56 g Velocity of impact of air-rifle pellet = 140 m s 1 Stopping distance of clay block = 2.8 m (i) Show that the initial speed of the clay block after the air-rifle pellet strikes it is 4.8 m s 1. IB Questionbank Physics 37

38 (ii) Calculate the average frictional force that the surface of the table exerts on the clay block whilst the clay block is moving. (4) (c) The experiment is repeated with the clay block placed at the edge of the table so that it is fired away from the table. The initial speed of the clay block is 4.3 m s 1 horizontally. The table surface is 0.85 m above the ground. (not to scale) IB Questionbank Physics 38

39 (i) Ignoring air resistance, calculate the horizontal distance travelled by the clay block before it strikes the ground. (4) (ii) The diagram in (c) shows the path of the clay block neglecting air resistance. On the diagram, draw the approximate shape of the path that the clay block will take assuming that air resistance acts on the clay block. (3) (Total 15 marks) 19. This question is about the simple pendulum. (a) A pendulum consists of a bob suspended by a light inextensible string from a rigid support. The pendulum bob is moved to one side and then released. The sketch graph shows how the displacement of the pendulum bob undergoing simple harmonic motion varies with time over one time period. IB Questionbank Physics 39

40 On the sketch graph above, (i) label with the letter A a point at which the acceleration of the pendulum bob is a maximum. (1) (ii) label with the letter V a point at which the speed of the pendulum bob is a maximum. (1) (b) Explain why the magnitude of the tension in the string at the midpoint of the oscillation is greater than the weight of the pendulum bob (3) (c) The pendulum bob is moved to one side until its centre is 25 mm above its rest position and then released. IB Questionbank Physics 40

41 (i) Show that the speed of the pendulum bob at the midpoint of the oscillation is 0.70 m s 1. (ii) The mass of the pendulum bob is kg. The centre of the pendulum bob is 0.80 m below the support. Calculate the magnitude of the tension in the string when the pendulum bob is vertically below the point of suspension. (3) IB Questionbank Physics 41

42 (d) The point of suspension of the pendulum bob is moved from side to side with a small amplitude and at a variable driving frequency f. For each value of the driving frequency a steady constant amplitude A is reached. The oscillations of the pendulum bob are lightly damped. IB Questionbank Physics 42

43 (i) On the axes below, sketch a graph to show the variation of A with f. IB Questionbank Physics 43

44 (ii) Explain, with reference to the graph in (d)(i), what is meant by resonance. IB Questionbank Physics 44

45 (e) The pendulum bob is now immersed in water and the variable frequency driving force in (d) is again applied. Suggest the effect this immersion of the pendulum bob will have on the shape of your graph in (d)(i) (Total 16 marks) IB Questionbank Physics 45

46 20. This question is about circular motion. A ball of mass 0.25 kg is attached to a string and is made to rotate with constant speed v along a horizontal circle of radius r = 0.33 m. The string is attached to the ceiling and makes an angle of 30 with the vertical. IB Questionbank Physics 46

47 (a) (i) On the diagram above, draw and label arrows to represent the forces on the ball in the position shown. IB Questionbank Physics 47

48 (ii) State and explain whether the ball is in equilibrium. IB Questionbank Physics 48

49 (b) Determine the speed of rotation of the ball (3) (Total 7 marks) IB Questionbank Physics 49

50 21. Mechanical power (a) Define power (1) IB Questionbank Physics 50

51 (b) A car is travelling with constant speed v along a horizontal straight road. There is a total resistive force F acting on the car. Deduce that the power P to overcome the force F is P = Fv IB Questionbank Physics 51

52 (c) A car drives up a straight incline that is 4.8 km long. The total height of the incline is 0.30 km. The car moves up the incline at a steady speed of 16 m s 1. During the climb, the average friction force acting on the car is N. The total weight of the car and the driver is N. IB Questionbank Physics 52

53 (i) Determine the time it takes the car to travel from the bottom to the top of the incline IB Questionbank Physics 53

54 (ii) Determine the work done against the gravitational force in travelling from the bottom to the top of the incline.... (1) IB Questionbank Physics 54

55 (iii) Using your answers to (c)(i) and (c)(ii), calculate a value for the minimum power output of the car engine needed to move the car from the bottom to the top of the incline (4) IB Questionbank Physics 55

56 (d) From the top of the incline, the road continues downwards in a straight line. At the point where the road starts to go downwards, the driver of the car in (c), stops the car to look at the view. In continuing his journey, the driver decides to save fuel. He switches off the engine and allows the car to move freely down the hill. The car descends a height of 0.30 km in a distance of 6.4 km before levelling out. The average resistive force acting on the car is N. IB Questionbank Physics 56

57 Estimate (i) the acceleration of the car down the incline (5) IB Questionbank Physics 57

58 (ii) the speed of the car at the bottom of the incline IB Questionbank Physics 58

59 (e) In fact, for the last few hundred metres of its journey down the hill, the car travels at constant speed. State the value of the frictional force acting on the car whilst it is moving at constant speed.... (1) (Total 18 marks) IB Questionbank Physics 59

60 22. This question is about kinematics. Lucy stands on the edge of a vertical cliff and throws a stone vertically upwards. The stone leaves her hand with a speed of 15 m s 1 at the instant her hand is 80 m above the surface of the sea. Air resistance is negligible and the acceleration of free fall is 10 m s 2. IB Questionbank Physics 60

61 (a) Calculate the maximum height reached by the stone as measured from the point where it is thrown IB Questionbank Physics 61

62 (b) Determine the time for the stone to reach the surface of the sea after leaving Lucy s hand (3) (Total 5 marks) IB Questionbank Physics 62

63 23. This question is about forces. An athlete trains by dragging a heavy load across a rough horizontal surface. The athlete exerts a force of magnitude F on the load at an angle of 25 to the horizontal. IB Questionbank Physics 63

64 (a) Once the load is moving at a steady speed, the average horizontal frictional force acting on the load is 470 N. Calculate the average value of F that will enable the load to move at constant speed IB Questionbank Physics 64

65 (b) The load is moved a horizontal distance of 2.5 km in 1.2 hours. Calculate (i) the work done on the load by the force F. IB Questionbank Physics 65

66 (ii) the minimum average power required to move the load. IB Questionbank Physics 66

67 (c) The athlete pulls the load uphill at the same speed as in part (a). Explain, in terms of energy changes, why the minimum average power required is greater than in (b)(ii) (Total 8 marks) IB Questionbank Physics 67

68 24. This question is about mechanics and thermal physics. The graph shows the variation with time t of the speed v of a ball of mass 0.50 kg, that has been released from rest above the Earth s surface. The force of air resistance is not negligible. Assume that the acceleration of free fall is g = 9.81 m s 2. IB Questionbank Physics 68

69 (a) State, without any calculations, how the graph could be used to determine the distance fallen (1) IB Questionbank Physics 69

70 (b) (i) In the space below, draw and label arrows to represent the forces on the ball at 2.0 s. (1) IB Questionbank Physics 70

71 (ii) Use the graph opposite to show that the acceleration of the ball at 2.0 s is approximately 4 m s 2. IB Questionbank Physics 71

72 (iii) Calculate the magnitude of the force of air resistance on the ball at 2.0 s. IB Questionbank Physics 72

73 (iv) State and explain whether the air resistance on the ball at t = 5.0 s is smaller than, equal to or greater than the air resistance at t = 2.0 s. IB Questionbank Physics 73

74 (c) After 10 s the ball has fallen 190 m. (i) Show that the sum of the potential and kinetic energies of the ball has decreased by 780 J. (3) IB Questionbank Physics 74

75 (ii) The specific heat capacity of the ball is 480 J kg 1 K 1. Estimate the increase in the temperature of the ball. IB Questionbank Physics 75

76 (iii) State an assumption made in the estimate in (c)(ii). (1) (Total 14 marks) IB Questionbank Physics 76

77 25. This question is about circular motion. A ball of mass 0.25 kg is attached to a string and is made to rotate with constant speed v along a horizontal circle of radius r = 0.33 m. The string is attached to the ceiling and makes an angle of 30 with the vertical. IB Questionbank Physics 77

78 (a) (i) On the diagram above, draw and label arrows to represent the forces on the ball in the position shown. IB Questionbank Physics 78

79 (ii) State and explain whether the ball is in equilibrium. IB Questionbank Physics 79

80 (b) Determine the speed of rotation of the ball (3) (Total 7 marks) IB Questionbank Physics 80

81 26. This question is about mechanics and thermal physics. The graph shows the variation with time t of the speed v of a ball of mass 0.50 kg, that has been released from rest above the Earth s surface. The force of air resistance is not negligible. Assume that the acceleration of free fall is g = 9.81 m s 2. IB Questionbank Physics 81

82 (a) State, without any calculations, how the graph could be used to determine the distance fallen (1) IB Questionbank Physics 82

83 (b) (i) In the space below, draw and label arrows to represent the forces on the ball at 2.0 s. (1) IB Questionbank Physics 83

84 (ii) Use the graph opposite to show that the acceleration of the ball at 2.0 s is approximately 4 m s 2. IB Questionbank Physics 84

85 (iii) Calculate the magnitude of the force of air resistance on the ball at 2.0 s. IB Questionbank Physics 85

86 (iv) State and explain whether the air resistance on the ball at t = 5.0 s is smaller than, equal to or greater than the air resistance at t = 2.0 s. IB Questionbank Physics 86

87 (c) After 10 s the ball has fallen 190 m. (i) Show that the sum of the potential and kinetic energies of the ball has decreased by 780 J. (3) IB Questionbank Physics 87

88 (ii) The specific heat capacity of the ball is 480 J kg 1 K 1. Estimate the increase in the temperature of the ball. IB Questionbank Physics 88

89 (iii) State an assumption made in the estimate in (c)(ii). (1) (Total 14 marks) IB Questionbank Physics 89

90 27. This question is about forces. A solid iron ball of mass 770 kg is used on a building site. The ball is suspended by a rope from a crane. The distance from the point of suspension to the centre of mass of the ball is 12 m. (a) Calculate the tension in the rope when the ball hangs vertical and stationary (1) IB Questionbank Physics 90

91 (b) The ball is pulled back from the vertical and then released. It falls through a vertical height of 1.6 m and strikes a wall. IB Questionbank Physics 91

92 (i) Calculate the speed of the ball just before impact. IB Questionbank Physics 92

93 (ii) Calculate the tension in the rope just before impact. (3) IB Questionbank Physics 93

94 (c) The ball is brought to rest in 0.15 s. The sketch graph below shows how the force the ball exerts on the wall varies with time. IB Questionbank Physics 94

95 (i) State what quantity is represented by the area under the graph. (1) IB Questionbank Physics 95

96 (ii) Determine the maximum force F max exerted by the ball on the wall. (3) (Total 10 marks) IB Questionbank Physics 96

IB Questionbank Physics NAME. IB Physics 2 HL Summer Packet

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