# Experiment 19: The Current Balance

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1 Experiment 19: The Current Balance Figure 19.1: Current Balance Arrangement for Varying Current or Length From Left to Right: Power Supply, Current Balance Assembly, Ammeter (20A DCA scale, 20A jack). North pole of magnet is red; south pole of magnet is white (standard). The magnetic field is from north to south (red to white). Equipment Pasco Current Balance Apparatus Digital Balance Large Power Supply Current Limiting Resistor (If new power supply, no resistor) Ammeter (20A jack, 20A DCA) (6) Wire Leads Rod Clamp Figure 19.2: Schematic for Current Balance (The current limiting resistor may be internal to the power supply, as shown in Fig. 19.1) 103

2 104 Experiment 19: The Current Balance Advance Reading Text: Magnetic force, magnetic field. Objective The objective of this experiment is to measure the effects of a magnetic field on a current carrying conductor. Theory A magnetic field exerts a force, ~ FB, on a moving charge. The magnitude of ~ F B is: F B = qvb sin (19.1) where q is the charge, v is the magnitude of the velocity (speed) of the charge, B is the magnitude of the magnetic field strength, and is the angle between the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of the charge velocity. Current is a collection of charges in motion; thus, a magnetic field also exerts a force on a current carrying conductor. The magnitude and direction of this force is dependent on four parameters: 1. Magnitude of the current, I 2. Length of the wire, L 3. Strength of the magnetic field, B 4. Angle between the field and the current, The magnitude of the magnetic force in this case is given by: F B = ILB sin (19.2) In this experiment, a current-carrying wire will be placed between the two poles of a magnet. When current is flowed perpendicular to the magnetic field, the wire and the magnet will either push or pull on each other in the vertical direction. We quantify the force on the wire using Eq. 19.2; by Newton s Third Law, the force exerted on the magnet will be equal and opposite. The force on the magnet can be determined by measuring di erences in the magnet s apparent weight on a scale as the current-carrying wire pushes it up or down. While the scale gives readings of mass, the associated weight or force, F B, can be calculated: F B = mg (19.3) Current, wire length, and angle will be varied one at a time, and magnetic force will be measured in order to determine the magnetic field strength, B, of each magnet. Current and length will be varied for one magnet (B 1 ), then will be varied for a second magnet (B 2 ). Consider Eq At what angle is F B at a maximum value? At what angle is F B at a minimum value? When we investigate the force due to either a change in current or a change in the length of wire, we will want the maximum force. This allows us to compare 2 values for the magnetic field strength, B. Wemust, therefore, be certain that the current carrying wire and the magnetic field of the magnet are perpendicular to each other (90 ). Refer to Fig When we investigate the force due to a change in angle, we must find a way to be sure of our initial angle, 0. What will F B equal if the wire and the magnetic field are parallel? With this arrangement, a non-zero current will result in a force of 0.0 N. If the balance has a non-zero mass reading, we know that the wires and the field are not parallel.

3 Prelab 19: The Current Balance 105 Name: 1. What physical phenomenon does the relationship F = qvb sin describe? (15 pts) 2. What physical phenomenon does the relationship F = ILB sin describe? (15 pts) 3. Magnetic force is dependent upon what four factors for this experiment? (15 pts) 4. In this experiment you will plot four sets of data (refer to Part 4 of the procedure). Sketch a sample plot for each data set on the back of this sheet. You will not need numerical values. Label the axes. State the slope in algebraic terms. (35 pts) 5. Consider the apparatus below. It represents a magnet sitting on the mass pan of a balance. Refer to Fig and Fig (Step 3 of the experiment). Given the following setup, does the balance read heavier or lighter? Explain using the right-hand rule and Newton s Third Law. (20 pts)

4 106 Experiment 19: The Current Balance PROCEDURE PART 1: Force vs. Current ( I) 1. Build the circuit as shown in Fig using the current loop numbered SF Locate the magnet for the wire loops, B 1 (Fig. 19.3), and center the magnet on the balance pan. On the digital balance, there is a Zero button. Push this button once to tare the balance (zero it). 3. Lower the balance arm so the wire loop passes through the pole region of the magnet (i.e., the horizontal section of the wire is just below the top edge of the magnet, Fig. 19.3). Note that this will result in the wire loop and the slot of the magnet being parallel. attracted (pulled upwards; negative mass reading), reverse the wires connected to the power supply, turn o the balance, and start again from Step Measure m and I. 7. Repeat this procedure as you increase the current in 0.5 A increments through 5.0 A. 8. When data collection is complete, turn o the power supply and DMM. 9. Unplug the power supply. 10. Calculate F B for each current value (Eq. 19.3). PART 2: Force vs. Length of Wire ( L) Note: For this part of the experiment, you will need to know the e ective length of the wire loops, which is listed in Table 19.1, below: SF 40 SF 37 SF 39 SF 38 SF 41 SF cm 2.2 cm 3.2 cm 4.2 cm 6.4 cm 8.4 cm Table 19.1: Wire Lengths Figure 19.3: Wire Loop Arrangement Once you begin this experiment, do not move the equipment on the table, although you will raise and lower the balance arm to change attachments. You will need to verify, before each reading, that the wire loop is in the appropriate position. 4. Refer to Fig and Fig to verify that you have the circuit built correctly. Get instructor approval of your circuit. Be sure the power supply is turned o before you plug it in. 5. Plug in the power supply. Adjust the power until the current is approximately 0.5 A. When the current is on, the magnet should be repelled (deflected downward; positive mass reading). If it is 11. Insert the shortest wire segment (i.e., SF 40) into the balance arm. Always verify that the wire loop is in the appropriate position before recording measurements. 12. Set the current to 2.5 A. Measure m. 13. Repeat for each of the wire loops. 14. Turn o the power supply and the DMM. 15. Unplug the power supply. 16. Calculate F B. 17. Return the wire loops and magnet to their box. The balance arm is used for Part 3 with the Current Balance Accessory (CBA, Fig. 19.4).

5 Experiment 19: The Current Balance 107 PART 3: Force vs. Angle ( ) 18. Center the variable-angle magnet, B 2 (Fig. 19.6), on the balance pan and tare the balance. 19. Plug the CBA into the balance arm. Adjust the height of the CBA as needed and lower it into the magnet. 20. The horizontal section of the wire loops must be just inside of, but not touching, the top edge of the magnet (Fig. 19.6). 21. Turn the CBA to 0 (Fig. 19.5). 22. Initially, the horizontal section of the wire loops of the CBA must be parallel to the magnetic field of the permanent magnet. If they are parallel and current is flowing, F B =0.0 N, and the mass measurement will not change. If the mass changes when the current is turned on, adjust the alignment by carefully rotating the balance. Figure 19.5: Top view of CBA 23. When you have the correct arrangement, turn the CBA from 0 through 180, checking to see that it will not hit the magnet at any point. 24. Return the CBA to 0. Figure 19.6: Close-up of CBA: Wire Loops Inside Magnet; Assume L = 11.5 cm for CBA 25. Set the current to 2.5 A. 26. Measure m as you increase in 10 increments through Turn o the power supply and DMM. Figure 19.4: Current Balance Accessory (CBA) Arrangement for varying 28. Unplug the power supply. 29. Calculate F B for each.

6 108 Experiment 19: The Current Balance PART 4: Analysis 30. Plot separate graphs of the following data; one data table with 4 data sets. Determine if (0,0) is a valid data point for each data set. When analyzing your graphs, for B 2 assume that L = cm. F B vs. I F B vs. L F B vs. (File ) Settings: Change radians to degrees). Apply a curve fit under Analyze ) Curve Fit (consider Eq when selecting an appropriate fit) F B vs. sin QUESTIONS 1. Show that Eq and Eq have equivalent units. 2. Is the relationship between current and magnetic force linear? 3. What is the relationship between the length of a wire and magnetic force? 4. What is the shape of the curve for F B vs.? How does it relate to Eq. 19.2? 5. Calculate and compare B 1 and B 2 from their respective graphs.

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