# REVISING MECHANICS (LIVE) 30 JUNE 2015 Exam Questions

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1 REVISING MECHANICS (LIVE) 30 JUNE 2015 Exam Questions Question 1 (Adapted from DBE November 2014, Question 2) Two blocks of masses 20 kg and 5 kg respectively are connected by a light inextensible string, P. A second light inextensible string Q, attached to the 5 kg block, runs over a light frictionless pulley. A constant horizontal force of 250 N pulls the second string as shown in the diagram below. The magnitudes of the tensions in P and Q are T 1 and T 2 respectively. Ignore the effects of air friction State Newton s Second Law of Motion in words (2) 1.2. Draw a labeled free-body diagram indicating ALL the forces acting on the 5 kg block. (3) 1.3. Calculate the magnitude of the tension T 1 in string P. (6) 1.4. When the 250 N force is replaced by a sharp pull on the string, one of the two strings break. Which ONE of the two strings, P or Q, will break? (1) Question 2 (Adapted from DBE Feb March 2015, Question 2) A block of mass 1 kg is connected to another block of mass 4 kg by a light inextensible string. The system is pulled up a rough plane inclined at 30 o to the horizontal, by means of a constant 40 N force parallel to the plane as shown in the diagram below. [12] The magnitude of the kinetic frictional force between the surface and the 4 kg block is 10 N. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the 1 kg block and the surface is 0, State Newton s third law in words. (2) 2.2. Draw a labelled free-body diagram showing ALL the forces acting on the 1 kg block as it moves up the incline. (5) 2.3. Calculate the magnitude of the: kinetic frictional force between the 1 kg block and the surface (3) tension in the string connecting the two blocks (6) [16] Page1

2 Question 3 (Adapted from DBE Feb March 2015, Question 3) An object is released from rest from a point X, above the ground as shown in the diagram below. It travels the last 30 m (BC) in 1,5 s before hitting the ground. Ignore the effects of air friction Name the type of motion described above. (1) 3.2. Calculate the: Magnitude of the velocity of the object at point B. (4) Height of point X above the ground. (5) After hitting the ground, the object bounces once and then comes to rest on the ground Sketch an acceleration-time graph for the entire motion of the object. (3) Question 4 (Adapted from DBE Feb March 2015, Question 4) The diagram below shows a bullet of mass 20 g that is travelling horizontally. The bullet strikes a stationary 7 kg block and becomes embedded on it. The bullet and block together travel on a rough horizontal surface a distance of 2 m before coming to a stop. [13] 4.1. Use the work-energy theorem to calculate the magnitude of the velocity of the bullet-block system immediately after the bullet strikes the block, given that the frictional force between the block and the surface is 10 N. (5) 4.2. State the principle of conservation of linear momentum in words. (2) 4.3. Calculate the magnitude of the velocity with which the bullet hits the block. (4) [11] Page2

3 Question 5 (Adapted from DBE Feb March 2015, Question 5) A 5 kg block is released from rest from a height of 5 m and slides down a frictionless incline to point P as shown in the diagram below. It then moves along a frictionless horizontal portion PQ and finally moves up a second rough inclined plane. It comes to a stop at point R which is 3 m above the horizontal. The frictional force, which is a non-conservative force, between the surface and the block is 18 N Using ENERGY PRINCIPLES only, calculate the speed of the block at point P. (4) 5.2. Explain why the kinetic energy is point P is the same as that at point Q. (2) 5.3. Explain the term non-conservative force (2) 5.4. Calculate the angle ( ) of the slope QR. (7) Question 6 (Adapted from DBE November 2014, Question 5) A motor pulls a crate of mass 300 kg with a constant force by means of a light inextensible rope running over a light frictionless pulley as shown below. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the crate and the surface of the inclined plane is 0,19. [15] 6.1. Calculate the magnitude of the frictional force acting between the crate and the surface of the inclined plane. (3) The crate moves up the incline at a constant speed of 0,5 m.s Calculate the average power delivered by the motor while pulling the crate up the incline. (6) [9] Page3

4 Solutions to Exam Questions Question 1 (Adapted from DBE November 2014, Question 2) 1.1. When a resultant (net) force acts on an object, the object will accelerate in the direction of the force. This acceleration is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object (2) 1.2. (3) 1.3. For 5 kg block F net = ma T 2 - F g - T 1 = ma 250 (5)(9,8) T 1 = 5 a 201 T 1 = 5 a (1) For 20 kg block F net = ma T 1 - F g = ma T 1 (20)(9,8) = 20 a T = 20 a (2) (1) + (2) 201 T 1 = 5a T = 20 a 5 = 25 a a = 0,2 m.s -2 upwards (6) into (2) T = 20 a T = (20)(0,2) T 1 = 200 N 1.4. Q (1) [12] Question 2 (Adapted from DBE Feb March 2015, Question 2) 2.1. When one body A exerts a force on body B, body B will exert a force of equal magnitude but opposite in direction on body A. (2) 2.2. (5) Page4

5 For the 1 kg block f k = μ k N = μ k mg cos = (0,29)(1)(9,8)(cos 30 o ) = 2,46 N (3) For the 1 kg block F net = ma F A [(T+f k ) + mg sin ] = ma 40 T 2,46 (1)(9,8)(sin 30 o ) = 1 a 32,64 T = a (1) For the 4 kg block F net = ma T (mg sin + f k ) = ma T (4)(9,8)(sin 30 o ) 10 = 4a T 29,6 = 4a (2) (1) + (2) 32,64 T = a T 29,6 = 4a 3,04 = 5a a = 0,61 m.s -2 (6) into (2) T 29,6 = 4a T 29,6 = 4(0,61) T = 32,04 N [16] Question 3 (Adapted from DBE Feb March 2015, Question 3) 3.1. Free fall (1) Downward motion as positive (4) y = v 1 t a t2-30 = v i (1,5) + ½ (9,8)(1,5) 2 v i = 12,65 m.s v f 2 = v i 2 + 2a y (5) (12,65) 2 = 0 + 2(9,8)( y) y = 8,16 m Height XC = XB + BC = ,16 = 38,16 m Page5

6 3.3. for each line correctly drawn as shown both axes correctly labelled (3) [13] Question 4 (Adapted from DBE Feb March 2015, Question 4) Wnet = Ek (5) W f = Ff x cos = 1 2 M + m v f M + m v i cos 180 = ,02 v i 2 v i = 2.39 m. s The total linear momentum in an (isolated) closed system remains constant. (2) 4.3. p i = p i (4) m 1 v 1i + m 2 v 2i = m 1 + m 2 v f (0,02)v i + 0 = (7,02)(2,39) v i = 838,89 m.s -1 [11] Question 5 (Adapted from DBE Feb March 2015, Question 5) 5.1. E p + E k = 0 (5)(9,8)(5) (0 ½ (5)v f 2 ) = 0 v f = 9,90 m.s -1 (4) 5.2. No friction / zero resultant force so there is no loss in energy. (2) 5.3. A force for which the work done is path dependent (2) Page6

7 5.4. W nc = E p + E k (7) F x cos = E p + E k (18)( x)(cos 180 o ) = (5)(9,8)(3 0) + ½ (5)(0 9,90 2 ) x = 5,4458 m sin θ = 3 5,4458 = 33,43 o [15] Question 6 (Adapted from DBE November 2014, Question 5) 6.1. f k = μ kn = μ k mg cos = (0,19)(300)(9,8) cos 25 o = 506,26 N 6.2. F net = 0 F app F g - f = 0 F app F g sin - f = 0 F app (300)(9,8)(sin 25 o ) 506,26 = 0 F app = 1 748,76 N (3) (6) Multiple Choice Questions Question 1 P ave = Fv ave = (1 748,76)(0,5) = 874,38 W Which ONE of the following physical quantities is a measure of the inertia of body? A. Mass B. Energy C. Velocity D. Acceleration Question 2 Which ONE of the following forces always acts perpendicular to the surface on which a body is placed? A. Normal force B. Frictional force C. Gravitational force D. Tension force Page7

8 Question 3 Two isolated bodies, A and B, having masses m and 2m respectively, are placed a distance r apart. Consider the following statements regarding the gravitational force exerted by the bodies on each other. i) The force exerted by B on body A is half that exerted by A on body B ii) The force exerted on the bodies is independent of the masses of the bodies iii) The force exerted on body A by B is equal but opposite to that exerted on body B by A iv) The forces will always be attractive Which of the statements above is / are TRUE? A. (i), (ii) and (iv) only B. (ii), (iii) and (iv) only C. (iii) and (iv) only D. (iv) only Question 4 The magnitude of the gravitational force exerted by one body on another body is F. When the distance between the centres of the two bodies is doubled, the magnitude of the gravitational force, in terms of F, will now be A. ¼ F B. ½ F C. 2F D. 4F Question 5 An object is thrown vertically upwards. Which ONE of the following regarding the object s velocity and acceleration at the highest point of its motion is CORECT? Ignore the effects of friction. VELOCITY ACCELERATION A Zero Zero B Zero Upwards C Maximum Zero D Zero Downwards Page8

9 Question 6 A ball is released from a height above the floor. The ball falls vertically and bounces off the floor a number of times. Ignore the effects of friction and assume that the collision of the ball with the floor is elastic. Take the point of release of the ball as the reference point and downward direction as positive. Which ONE of the following is a CORRECT representation of the position-time graph for the motion of the ball? Question 7 Two bodies undergo an INELASTIC collision in the absence of friction. Which ONE of the following combinations of momentum and kinetic energy of the system is CORRECT? MOMENTUM KINETIC ENERGY Question 8 A Not conserved Conserved B Conserved Not conserved C Not conserved Not conserved D Conserved Conserved An object of mass m moving at velocity v collides head-on with an object of mass 2m moving in the opposite direction at velocity v. Immediately after the collision the smaller mass moves at velocity v in the opposite direction and the larger mass is brought to rest. Refer to the diagram below. Ignore the effects of friction Page9

10 Which ONE of the following is CORRECT? MOMENTUM MECHANICAL ENERGY Question 9 A Conserved Conserved B Not conserved Conserved C Conserved Not conserved D Not conserved Not conserved When an airbag inflates in a car during a collision, the changes of serious injury to a passenger is reduced because the A. passenger is brought to rest in a shorter period of time B. net force acting on the passenger is reduced C. passenger s change in momentum is reduced D. passenger s change in momentum is increased Question 10 Two balls, P and Q, are dropped simultaneously from the same height. Ball P has TWICE the mass of ball Q. Ignore the effects of air friction. Just before the balls hit the ground, the kinetic energy of ball P is x. The kinetic energy of ball Q, in terms of x, will be A. ¼ x B. ½ x C. x D. 2x Solutions to Multiple Choice Questions 1. A 2. A 3. C 4. A 5. D 6. D 7. B 8. C 9. B 10. D Page10

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