Common Drain Stage (Source Follower) Claudio Talarico, Gonzaga University


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1 Common Drain Stage (Source Follower) Claudio Talarico, Gonzaga University
2 Common Drain Stage v gs v i  v o V DD v bs  v o R S Vv IN i v i G C gd C+C gd gb B&D v s vv OUT o + V S I B R L C L v gs  C gs S r o v gs b v o v o V B R L C sb +C L EE 303 Common Drain Stage 2
3 CD Bias Point V DD Assume V B V OUT, so I D I B R S V IN V OUT V IN V GS V S V OUT I B R L V GS V T + I D 0.5C OX W / L ( ) V T V T 0 +γ PHI +V OUT PHI V B V DS V DD V OUT V DD V IN +V GS For M to be in saturation V DS > V OV V GS +V T! V DD V IN +V GS > V GS +V T! V IN < V DD +V T This is almost always the case in practical realizations EE 303 Common Drain Stage 3
4 I/O DC characteristic () Example: V IN 2.5V; I 400µA; V DD 5V; W/L00µm/µm DC Transfer Function um Technology Vout V DD V th 3.43 V Vth M triode 6 Source: Razavi M operation V out [V] VdsVdd Vout VovVin Vout Vth V in [V] 3 2 M sat. A V V IN 2.5V) 0.82 Math artifact due to ideal current source (a current source can take any voltage value across it!!) V in [V] M triode V out (min) 0 V out (max) V DD V th EE 303 Common Drain Stage 4
5 I/O DC characteristic (2) I Example: V IN 2.5V; I 400µA; V DD 5V; V B 0.9V; W/L00µm/µm; DC Transfer Function um Technology element 0:m 0:m2 model 0:simple_n 0:simple_n region Saturati Saturati id u u ibs f 0. ibd f f vgs m vds vbs vth m m vdsat m m vod m m beta m 5.656m gam eff m m gm m m gds u u gmb u u cdtot f f cgtot f f cstot f f cbtot 66.38f f cgs f f cgd 5.337f f * measurement av m V out [V] M 2 off M sat M 2 triode M sat V in [V] M 2 sat M sat Reduced output (and input) swing  V out (max) V DD V OV  V out (min) V OV2 VoutVds2 Vov2 Vds Vov M 2 sat M triode EE 303 Common Drain Stage 5
6 CD Voltage Transfer v o ' % sc & Ltot $ + sc " gs + viscgs gm i o RLtot # ( v v ) 0 v i C gd +C gb + v gs  C gs v gs v o v v o i g m + sc g gs m + sc + sc gs Ltot + R Ltot LHP zero C Ltot C L + C sb C Ltot R Ltot R Ltot R L g mb r o v o v i + R Ltot s a v0 z + sc gs ( ) + s C + C gs Ltot + R Ltot often R Ltot /b s p EE 303 Common Drain Stage 6
7 Low Frequency Gain V DD a v0 g m Ltot L o gm + gmb RLtot R Interesting cases Ideal current source; PMOS with source tied to body; no load resistor; R L, r o, b 0 V o R r V i Y in C L a v0 V i V DD I B V o R L Ideal current source; NMOS; no load resistor; R L, r o, b 0 C L a v0 g m gm + g mb (typically 0.8) Ideal current source, PMOS with source tied to body; load resistor r o, b 0, R L finite gm av0 g + m EE 303 Common Drain Stage R 7 L
8 Low frequency input and output resistances R in R out v in v s R S / /b v out v in r o R L a v0 / (g m +/r o +/R L ) R in R out r o (/g m ) EE 303 Common Drain Stage 8
9 High Frequency Gain a v0 g' m +/ r o +/ R L a v ( s) v v o i a v0 s z s p z g C m gs p g C m gs + R + C Ltot Ltot Three scenarios: z < p z > p z p a v (s) a v (s) a v (s) The presence of a LHP zero leads to the possibility that the pole and zero will provide some degree of cancellation, leading to a broadband response a v0 a v0 a v0 f f (infinite bandwidth?!?) f EE 303 Common Drain Stage 9
10 CD Input Impedance Hint: ic gs (v i v o ) By inspection: Y in sc gd + sc gs Consistent with insight from Miller Theorem ( a v (s)) v i Y in Gain term a v (s) is real and close to unity C gs v gs up to fairly high frequencies C gd +C gb + v gs  C Ltot R Ltot v o Hence, up to moderate frequencies, we see a capacitor looking into the input A fairly small one, C gd, plus a fraction of C gs EE 303 Common Drain Stage 0
11 CD input impedance for PMOS stage (with Bodysource tie) V DD I B b generator inactive Low frequency gain very close to unity r o >> C gs v OUT V out C L a v0 + r o vv IN in C C gd Cin C gd C gd C bsub Very small input capacitance Y in sc gd + sc gs ( a v (s)) Y in sc gd for a v (V out V in ) no current flows through C gs (perfect bootstrap) The wellbody capacitance C bsub can be large and may significantly affect the 3db bandwidth EE 303 Common Drain Stage
12 CD Output Impedance () Let's first look at an analytically simple case Input driven by ideal voltage source C gd +C gb + v gs  C gs v gs v o Z out g m + g mb s ( C + C ) gs sb AC shorted C sb /b Z out Z L Y L sc L +/R L Low output impedance Resistive up to very high frequencies EE 303 Common Drain Stage 2
13 CD Output Impedance (2) Now include finite source resistance v g R i C gs (v g v o ) Z x Z out C gd +C gb v o Neglect C gd i x C sb /b Z L i x ( v o v g )( + sc gs ) v o v g $ Z x v o i x + sr ic gs + sc gs " + sc gs v o # " $ $ + sr i C gs $ $ # % ' + sc gs & % ' ' ' ' & ( ) Neglecting C gd v g v o R i sc gs + R i EE 303 Common Drain Stage 3
14 CD Output Impedance (3) Two interesting cases Z x ( + sr i C gs ) " + sc % gs $ ' # & NOTE: Typically /gm is small, so this can happen!! R i < / R i > / Z x (s) Z x (s) / / f f Inductive behavior! EE 303 Common Drain Stage 4
15 Equivalent Circuit for R i > / Z x ( + sr i C gs ) " + sc % gs $ ' # & for s 0 Z x / for s Z x R i for s 0 Z x R R 2 for s Z x R 2 R L R 2 Z x C sb /b Z out R R 2 L R g 2 R i R m 2 i C R i g gs m Z x (R + sl)r 2 R + R 2 + sl R + L R 2 R R + R 2 L + R + R 2 This circuit is prone to ringing! L forms an LC tank with any capacitance at the output If the circuit drives a large capacitance the response to steplike signals will result in ringing EE 303 Common Drain Stage 5
16 Inclusion of Parasitic Input Capacitance* What happens to the output impedance if we don t neglect C i C gd? * Hint: replace R i with R i Z i R i + sc i R i ( ( )) Z x + sr i C gs + C i! + sc $ gs # & + sr i C i " % ( ) R i ( C gs + C i ) < < C gs R i C i R i ( C gs + C i ) < < R i C i C gs Z x (s) Z x (s) / / f f EE4 EE 303 Common Drain Stage 6
17 Applications of the Common Drain Stage Level Shifter Voltage Buffer Load Device EE 303 Common Drain Stage 7
18 Application : Level Shifter V i V GS +V o V o V i V GS V i (V t +V OV ) V DD V i V GS V t +V ov const. V o I B Output quiescent point is roughly V t +V ov lower than input quiescent point Adjusting the W/L ratio allows to tune Vov ( the desired shifting level) EE 303 Common Drain Stage 8
19 Why is lowering the DC level useful? When building cascades of CS and CG amplifiers, as we move along the DC level moves up A CD stage is a way to buffer the signal, and moving down the DC level EE 303 Common Drain Stage 9
20 Application 2: Buffer V DD V BB I B R D (large) M v x R out vv out Vv in M X M 2 I B2 R L (small) V B2 Low frequency voltage gain of the above circuit is ~ R big Would be ~ (R small R big ) ~ R small without CD buffer stage Disadvantage Reduced swing V out (max) V DD V OV V out (min) V OV 2 EE 303 Common Drain Stage 20
21 Buffer Design Considerations I B V DD V B B R D (large) M v x V x Vv in M X VB M2 I B2 R out vv out out R L (small) Without the buffer the minimum allowable value of V x for M x to remain in saturation is: V X > V GSX V thx With the buffer for M 2 to remain in sat. it must be: V X > V GS +V GS2 V th2 V B2 Assuming the overdrive of M x and M 2 are comparable this means that the allowable swing at X is reduced by V GS which is a significant amount (V GS V OV +V th ) EE 303 Common Drain Stage 2
22 Application 3: Load Device Looks familiar? CS stage with diode connected load V i V DD M2 M /(2 +b2 ) V o Advantages compared to resistor load "Ratiometric" Gain depends on ratio of similar parameters Reduced process and temperature variations First order cancellation of nonlinearities Disadvantage Reduced swing V out (max) V DD V th2 a v0 g m2 gm + g mb2 V out (min) V IN V th V OV EE 303 Common Drain Stage 22
23 CD stage Issues Several sources of nonlinearity V t is a function of V o (NMOS, without S to B connection) I D and thus V ov changes with V o Gets worse with small R L ( ) V t V t 0 +γ PHI +V o PHI I D 2 µc OX W ( L V V GS t ) 2 If we worry about distortion we need to keep ΔV in /2V OV small (à we need large V OV, and this affect adversely signal swing). If R L is small, things are even worse because to obtain the desired ΔV out we need more ΔV in (and so even more V OV ) ΔV out ΔV in g' m +/ R L Small R L means less gain Reduced input and output voltage swing Consider e.g. V DD V, V t 0.3V, V OV 0.2V (V GS V t +V ov 0.5V) CD buffer stage consumes 50% of supply headroom! In low V DD applications that require large output swing, using a CD buffer is often not possible CD buffers are more frequently used when the required swing is small E.g. preamplifiers or LNAs that turn µv into mv at the output EE 303 Common Drain Stage 23
24 Summary Elementary Transistor Stages Common source VCCS, makes a good voltage amplifier when terminated with a high impedance Common gate Typically low input impedance, high output impedance Can be used to improve the intrinsic voltage gain of a common source stage "Cascode" stage Common drain Typically high input impedance, low output impedance Great for shifting the DC operating point of signals Useful as a voltage buffer when swing and nonlinearity are not an issue EE 303 Common Drain Stage 24
25 CD Voltage Transfer Revisited () The driving circuit has a finite resistance R s Z in CD Core example: if R S is the output resistance of a CS stage it can be relatively large Z out R S v in v out v s Cgd C gs /g m C sb R L C L v in r o /g m R tot C tot This model resembles the model of the CS stage  The main difference is in the polarity of the controlled source  This difference has profound impact on the Miller amplification of the capacitance coupling input and output EE 303 Common Drain Stage 25
26 CD Voltage Transfer Revisited (2) v out v s a v0 + s C gs + b s + b 2 s 2 a v0 R tot b R s C gs ( a v0 )+ R S C gd + R tot C gs + R tot C tot b 2 R S R tot (C gs C gd + C gs C tot + C gd C tot ) The zero in the transfer function is on the LHP and it occurs at approximately ω T Unfortunately the high frequency analysis can become quite involved. A dominant real pole does not always exist, in fact poles can be complex. In the case the poles are complex a designer should be careful that the circuit does not exhibit too much overshoot and ringing. EE 303 Common Drain Stage 26
27 CD Voltage Transfer Revisited (3) v out v s a v0 + s C gs + s C gs + b s + b 2 s a g 2 v0 m + s ω 0 Q + s2 2 ω 0 Interesting cases:  A dominant pole condition exist  Poles are complex ω 3dB b τ j b ( ) A dominant pole condition exist for: Q 2 << /4 b 2 b 2 <</ 4 EE 303 Common Drain Stage 27
28 Poles Location Roots of the denominator of the transfer function: + s ω 0 Q + s2 ω Complex Conjugate poles (overshooting in step response) for Q > 0.5 s,2 ω 0 2Q ( ± j 4Q2 )  For Q (φ45 ), the 3dB frequency is ω 0 (Maximally Flat Magnitude or Butterworth Response) Poles location with Q> 0.5 jω φ σ  For Q > the frequency response has peaking Real poles (no overshoot in the step response) for Q 0.5 s,2 ω 0 ± 4Q2 2Q ( ) Source: Carusone EE 303 Common Drain Stage 28
29 Frequency Response 0 H(s) 5 H(s) + s ω 0 Q + s2 ω 0 2 Magnitude [db] Q0.5 Q/sqrt(2) Q Q / 0 EE 303 Common Drain Stage 29
30 Step Response Underdamped Q > 0.5 Source: Carusone Q0.5 Overdamped Q > 0.5 time Ringing for Q > 0.5 The case Q0.5 is called maximally damped response (fastest settling without any overshoot) EE 303 Common Drain Stage 30
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