3.4 Isomorphisms. 3.4 J.A.Beachy 1. from A Study Guide for Beginner s by J.A.Beachy, a supplement to Abstract Algebra by Beachy / Blair

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1 3.4 J.A.Beachy Isomorphisms from A Study Guide for Beginner s by J.A.Beachy, a supplement to Abstract Algebra by Beachy / Blair 29. Show that Z 17 is isomorphic to Z 16. Comment: The introduction to Section 3.2 in the Study Guide shows that the element [3 17 is a generator for Z 17. This provides the clue as to how to define the isomorphism we need, since Z 16 is also a cyclic group (with generator [1 16 ), and Proposition (a) implies that any isomorphism between cyclic groups must map a generator to a generator. Solution: Define φ : Z 16 Z 17 by setting φ([1 16) = [3 17, φ([2 16 ) = [3 2 17, etc. The general formula is φ([n 16 ) = [3 n 17, for all [n 16 Z 16. Since φ is defined by using a representative n of the equivalence class [n 16, we have to show that the formula for φ does not depend on the particular representative that is chosen. If k m (mod 16), then it follows from Proposition (c) that [3 k 17 = [3m 17 since [3 17 has order 16 in Z 17. Therefore φ([k 16) = φ([m 16 ), and so φ is a well-defined function. Proposition (c) shows that φ([k 16 ) = φ([m 16 ) only if k m (mod 16), and so φ is a one-to-one function. Then because both Z 16 and Z 17 have 16 elements, it follows from Proposition that φ is also an onto function. For any elements [n 16 and [m 16 in Z 16, we first compute what happens if we combine [n 16 and [m 16 using the operation in Z 16, and then substitute the result into the function φ: φ([n 16 +[m 16 ) = φ([n+m 16 ) = [3 n+m 17. Next, we first apply the function φ to the two elements, [n 16 and [m 16, and then combine the results using the operation in Z 17 : φ([n 16 ) φ([m 16 ) = [3 n 17 [3m 17 = [3n+m 17. Thus φ([n 16 +[m 16 ) = φ([n 16 ) φ([m 16 ), and this completes the proof that φ is a group isomorphism. 30. Is Z 16 isomorphic to Z 4 Z 2? Comment: The positive integers less than 16 and relatively prime to 16 are 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, so we can write Z 16 = {±1,±3,±5,±7}. Since Z 4 Z 2 also has 8 elements, we can t eliminate the possibility of an isomorphism just by using a counting argument. We might next check to see if the two groups have the same number of elements having the same orders. In the multiplicative group Z 16, easy calculations show that 1, 7, and 7 have order 2, while ±3 and ±5 all have order 4. In the additive group Z 4 Z 2, the elements (2,0), (2,1), and (0,1) have order 2, while (1,0), (1,1), (3,0), and (3, 1) have order 4. Again, we can t eliminate the possibility of an isomorphism. But now we do have some idea of what a correspondence might look like.

2 3.4 J.A.Beachy 2 Let s focus on the elements (1,0) and (0,1) in Z 4 Z 2. We need an element of order 4 in Z 16 to correspond to (1,0), so we might choose 3 as a possibility. The powers of 3 are 1,3,9,11, or 3 = {1,3, 7, 5}. Since the elements of Z 4 Z 2 are formed by adding (0,1) to the multiples of (1,0), we need to look for an element that can be multiplied by the elements of 3 to give Z 16. An easy choice is 1. Now we are ready to use an exponential function to actually provide the isomorphism. In the solution we will be more formal, and keep track of the moduli in the domain and codomain of the isomorphism. Solution: Define φ : Z 4 Z 2 Z 16 by setting φ(([n 4,[m 2 )) = [3 n 16 [ 1m 16. You can quickly check that the function is well-defined since [3 16 has order 4 and [ 1 16 has order 2. Taking n = 0,1,2,3 and m = 0 and then n = 0,1,2,3 and m = 1 gives us the elements [1 16, [3 16, [ 7 16, [ 5 16, [ 1 16, [ 3 16, [7 16, [5 16, respectively, and shows that φ is one-to-one and onto. Finally, φ is an isomorphism because φ(([n 1 4,[m 1 2 )+([n 2 4,[m 2 2 )) = φ(([n 1 +n 2 4,[m 1 +m 2 2 )) = [3 n 1+n 2 16 [ 1 m 1+m 2 16 φ(([n 1 4,[m 1 2 ))φ(([n 2 4,[m 2 2 )) = [3 n 1 16 [ 1m 1 16 [3n 2 16 [ 1m 2 16 = [3n 1+n 2 16 [ 1 m 1+m Prove that Z 24 is not isomorphic to Z 16. Solution: First note that Z 24 = Z 16 = 8, so we cannot rule out the existence of an isomorphism on the grounds of size alone. Exercise in the text shows that Z 24 is isomorphic to Z 8 Z 3. (This can be proved using the function defined in Proposition ) We have seen that every nontrivial element of Z 8 has order 2, as does every nontrivial element of Z 3. It follows from Proposition (b) that every nontrivial element of Z 24 has order 2. Problem 30 shows that Z 16 has elements of order 4, and so the two groups cannot be isomorphic by Proposition (a). 32. Let φ : R R be defined by φ(x) = x 3, for all x R. Show that φ is a group isomorphism. Solution: The function φ preserves multiplication in R since for all a,b R we have φ(ab) = (ab) 3 = a 3 b 3 = φ(a)φ(b). The function is one-to-one and onto since for each y R the equation φ(x) = y has the unique solution x = 3 y. 33. Let G 1,G 2,H 1,H 2 be groups, and suppose that θ 1 : G 1 H 1 and θ 2 : G 2 H 2 are group isomorphisms. Define φ : G 1 G 2 H 1 H 2 by φ(x 1, x 2 ) = (θ 1 (x 1 ), θ 2 (x 2 )), for all (x 1, x 2 ) G 1 G 2. Prove that φ is a group isomorphism. Solution: If (y 1,y 2 ) H 1 H 2, then since θ 1 is an isomorphism there is a unique element x 1 G 1 with y 1 = θ 1 (x 1 ). Similarly, since θ 2 is an isomorphism there is a unique element x 2 G 2 with y 2 = θ 2 (x 2 ). Thus there is a unique element (x 1,x 2 ) G 1 G 2 such that (y 1,y 2 ) = φ(x 1,x 2 ), and so φ is one-to-one and onto.

3 3.4 J.A.Beachy 3 Given (a 1,a 2 ) and (b 1,b 2 ) in G 1 G 2, we have φ((a 1,a 2 ) (b 1,b 2 )) = φ((a 1 b 1,a 2 b 2 )) = (θ 1 (a 1 b 1 ),θ 2 (a 2 b 2 )) = (θ 1 (a 1 )θ 1 (b 1 ),θ 2 (a 2 )θ 2 (b 2 )) φ((a 1,a 2 )) φ((b 1,b 2 )) = (θ 1 (a 1 ),θ 2 (a 2 )) (θ 1 (b 1 ),θ 2 (b 2 )) = (θ 1 (a 1 )θ 1 (b 1 ),θ 2 (a 2 )θ 2 (b 2 )) and so φ : G 1 G 2 H 1 H 2 is a group isomorphism. 34. Prove that the group Z 7 Z 11 is isomorphic to the group Z 6 Z 10. Solution: You can check that Z 7 is cyclic of order 6, generated by [3 7, and that Z 11 is cyclic of order 10, generated by [2 11. Just as in Problem 29, you can show that θ 1 : Z 6 Z 7 defined by θ 1([n 6 ) = [3 n 7 and θ 2 : Z 10 Z 11 defined by θ 2([m 10 ) = [2 m 11 aregroupisomorphisms. Itthenfollows fromproblem33thatφ : Z 6 Z 10 Z 7 Z 11 defined by φ(([n 6,[m 10 )) = ([3 n 7,[2m 11 ), for all [n 6 Z 6 and all [m 10 Z 10, is a group isomorphism. 35. Define φ : Z 30 Z 2 Z 10 Z 6 by φ([n 30, [m 2 ) = ([n 10, [4n + 3m 6 ), First prove that φ is a well-defined function, and then prove that φ is a group isomorphism. Solution: If([n 30, [m 2 )and([k 30, [j 2 )areequal elements ofz 30 Z 2, then30 n k and2 m j. Itfollows that 10 n k, andso[n 10 = [k 10. Furthermore, 30 4(n k), so6 4(n k), andthen6 3(m j), whichtogether implythat6 (4n+3m) (4k+3j), showing that [4n+3m 6 = [4k +3j 6. Thus ([n 10, [4n+3m 6 ) = ([k 10, [4k +3j 6 ), which shows that the formula for φ does yield a well-defined function. For any elements ([a 30,[c 2 ) and ([b 30,[d 2 ) we have φ(([a 30,[c 2 )+([b 30,[d 2 )) = φ(([a+b 30,[c+d 2 )) = ([a+b 10,[4(a+b)+3(c+d) 2 ) = ([a+b 10,[4a+4b+3c+3d 2 ) φ(([a 30,[c 2 ))+φ(([b 30,[d 2 )) = ([a 10,[4a+3c 2 )+([b 10,[4b+3d 2 ) and so φ respects the operations in the two groups. = ([a+b 10,[4a+3c+4b+3d 2 ) = ([a+b 10,[4a+4b+3c+3d 2 ) To show that φ is one-to-one, suppose that φ([n 30, [m 2 ) = φ([r 30, [s 2 ). Then ([n 10, [4n+3m 6 ) = ([r 10, [4r +3s 6 ), so 10 (n r) and 6 (4(n r)+3(m s). Then 2 4(n r), so we must have 2 3(m s), which implies that 2 (m s) and therefore [m 2 = [s 2. Furthermore, 3 3(m s) implies that 3 4(n r), and therefore 3 (n r). Since gcd(10,3) = 1, we obtain 30 (n r), and so [n 30 = [r 30. We conclude that φ is a one-to-one function.

4 3.4 J.A.Beachy 4 Sincethegroupsbothhave60elements, itfollows thatφmustalsobeanontofunction. We have therefore checked all of the necessary conditions, so we can conclude that φ is a group isomorphism. Comment: We can use Proposition to give a different proof that φ is one-toone. If φ([n 30, [m 2 ) = ([0 10, [0 6 ), then ([n 10, [4n+3m 6 ) = ([0 10, [0 6 ), so 10 n, say n = 10q, for some q Z, and 6 (4n + 3m), or 6 (40q + 3m). It follows that 2 (40q + 3m) and 3 (40q + 3m), and therefore 2 3m since 2 40q, and 3 40q since 3 3m. Then since 2 and 3 are prime numbers, it follows that 2 m, so [m 2 = [0 2, and 3 q, so [n 30 = [10q 30 = [0 30. We have now shown that if φ([n 30, [m 2 ) = ([0 10, [0 6 ), then ([n 30, [m 2 ) = ([0 30, [0 2 ), and so the condition in Proposition is satisfied. 36. Let G be a group, and let H be a subgroup of G. Prove that if a is any element of G, then the subset aha 1 = {g G g = aha 1 for some h H} is a subgroup of G that is isomorphic to H. Solution: By Exercise in the text, the function φ : G G defined by φ(x) = axa 1, for all x G, is a group isomorphism. By Exercise the image under φ of any subgroup of G is again a subgroup of G, so aha 1 = φ(h) is a subgroup of G. It is then clear that the function θ : H aha 1 defined by θ(x) = axa 1 is an isomorphism. Comment: The solution to Problem shows directly that aha 1 is a subgroup, but the above proof is much more conceptual in nature. 37. Let G,G 1,G 2 be groups. Prove that if G 1 G 2 is isomorphic to G, then there are subgroups H and K in G such that H K = {e}, HK = G, and hk = kh for all h H and k K. Solution: Supposethatφ : G 1 G 2 Gisanisomorphism. Exercise3.3.11inthetext shows that in G 1 G 2 the subgroups H = {(x 1,x 2 ) x 2 = e} and K = {(x 1,x 2 ) x 1 = e} have theproperties we are looking for. Let H = φ(h ) and K = φ(k ) bethe images in G of H and K, respectively. Exercise shows that any isomorphism will map a subgroupof the domain to a subgroup of the codomain. Thus H and K are subgroups of G, so we only need to show that H K = {e}, HK = G, and hk = kh for all h H and k K. Let y G, with y = φ(x), for x G 1 G 2. If y H K, then y H, and so x H. Since y K as well, we must also have x K, so x H K, and therefore x = (e 1,e 2 ), where e 1 and e 2 are the respective identity elements in G 1 and G 2. Thus y = φ((e 1,e 2 )) = e, showing that H K = {e}. Since y is any element of G, and we can write x = h k for some h H and some k K, it follows that y = φ(h k ) = φ(h )φ(k ), and thus G = HK. It is clear that φ preserves the fact that elements of H and K commute. We conclude that H and K satisfy the desired conditions.

5 3.4 J.A.Beachy Let G be an abelian group with subgroups H and K. Prove that if HK = G and H K = {e}, then G = H K. Solution: Weclaimthatφ : H K Gdefinedbyφ(h,k) = hk, forall(h,k) H K, is a group isomorphism. First, for all (h 1,k 1 ),(h 2,k 2 ) H K we have On the other hand, φ((h 1,k 1 )(h 2,k 2 )) = φ((h 1 h 2,k 1 k 2 )) = h 1 h 2 k 1 k 2. since by assumption k 1 h 2 = h 2 k 1. φ((h 1,k 1 ))φ((h 2,k 2 )) = h 1 k 1 h 2 k 2 = h 1 h 2 k 1 k 2 Since HK = G, it is clear that φ is onto. Finally, if φ((h,k)) = e for (h,k) H K, then hk = e implies h = k 1 H K, and so h = e and k = e, which shows, using Proposition 3.4.4, that φ is one-to-one. 39. Show that for any prime number p, the subgroup of diagonal matrices in GL 2 (Z p ) is isomorphic to Z p Z p. Solution: Since each matrix in GL 2 (Z p ) has nonzero determinant, [ it is clear that the mapping φ : Z p Z p GL x1 0 2(Z p ) defined by φ(x 1,x 2 ) =, for each 0 x 2 (x 1,x 2 ) Z p Z p, is one-to-one and maps Z p Z p onto the subgroup of diagonal matrices. This mapping respects the operations in the two groups, since for (a 1,a 2 ),(b 1,b 2 ) Z p Z p we have φ((a 1,a 2 )(b 1,b 2 )) = φ((a 1 b 1,a 2 b 2 )) [ [ a1 b = 1 0 a1 0 = 0 a 2 b 2 0 b 1 = φ((a 1,a 2 ))φ((b 1,b 2 )). Thus φ is the desired isomorphism. [ a2 0 0 b (a) In the group G = GL 2 (R) of invertible 2 2 matrices with real entries, show that {[ } a11 a H = 12 GL a 21 a 2 (R) 22 a 11 = 1, a 21 = 0, a 22 = 1 is a subgroup of G. Solution: Closure: [ 1 a [ 1 b = [ 1 a+b Identity: The identity matrix has the correct form. [ 1 [ 1 a 1 a Existence of inverses: = H. (b) Show that H is isomorphic to the group R of all real numbers, under addition..

6 3.4 J.A.Beachy 6 [ 1 x Solution: Define φ : R H by φ(x) =, for all x R. You can easily check that φ is an isomorphism. (The computation necessary to show that φ preserves the respective operations is the same computation we used to show that H is closed.) 41. Let G be the subgroup of GL 2 (R) defined by {[ m b G = m 0}. Show that G is not isomorphic to the direct product R R. Solution: Our approach is to try to find an algebraic property that would be preserved by any isomorphism but which is satisfied by only one of the two groups in question. By Proposition (b), if one of the groups is abelian but the other is not, then the groups cannot be isomorphic. The direct product R R is an abelian[ group, since [ each factor[ is abelian. On the other hand, G is not abelian, since = but [ [ [ =. Thus the two groups cannot be isomorphic. 42. Let H be the following subgroup of group G = GL 2 (Z 3 ). {[ } m b H = GL 2 (Z 3 ) m,b Z 3, m 0 Show that H is isomorphic to the symmetric group S 3. Solution: This group is small enough that we can just compare its multiplication table to that of S 3, as given in Table Remember that constructing an isomorphism is the same as constructing a one-to-one correspondence between the elements of the group, such that all entries in the respective group tables also have the same one-to-one correspondence. In this case we can explain how[ this can be done, [ without actually writing out the multiplication table. Let A = and B =. Then just as in Problem , we can show that BA = A 1 B, and that each element of H can be written uniquely in the form A i B j, where 0 i < 3 and 0 j < 2. This information should make it plausible that the function φ : S 3 H defined by φ(a i b j ) = A i B j, for all 0 i < 3 and 0 j < 2, gives a one-to-one correspondence between the elements of the groups which also produces multiplication tables that have exactly the same pattern. ANSWERS AND HINTS 43. Let a,b be elements of a group G, with o(b) = 2 and ba = a 2 b. Find o(a). Answer: Either a = e, and o(a) = 1, or o(a) = 3.

7 3.4 J.A.Beachy How many different isomorphisms are there from Z 6 onto Z 2 Z 3? Answer: There are two, since Z 2 Z 3 has two generators. 45. How many different isomorphisms are there from Z 12 onto Z 4 Z 3? Answer: There are exactly four different isomorphisms from Z 12 onto Z 4 Z Is Z 24 isomorphic to Z 30? Give a complete explanation for your answer. Answer: The two groups are not isomorphic, since in one (but not the other) every nontrivial element has order On R, define a new operation by x y = x+y 1. Show that the group G = (R, ) is isomorphic to (R,+). Note: The group G is defined in Problem (a). Hint: Define φ : G R by φ(x) = x 1, for all x G. 55. Show that the group Q is not isomorphic to the group Q +. Hint: Suppose φ : Q Q + is an isomorphism with φ(a) = 2. Show that this would imply that 2 Q Let G be a finite abelian group, and let n be a positive integer. Define a function φ : G G by φ(g) = g n, for all g G. Find necessary and sufficient conditions to guarantee that φ is a group isomorphism. Answer: The function φ is one-to-one if and only if G has no nontrivial element whose order is a divisor of n.

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