Exercises MAT2200 spring 2014 Ark 4 Homomorphisms and factor groups

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1 Exercises MAT2200 spring 2014 Ark 4 Homomorphisms and factor groups This Ark concerns the weeks No. (Mar ) and No. (Mar ). It is not very logical to have lectures on Fridays and problem solving in plenum on Mondays. It has the effect that we do the most difficult exercises on the board on Mondays, befor you do the easier one by your self on Wednesday. I think it is much better for you the other way around. So we swap: Staring on Friday Mar we do problems the first hour on fridays, and we do two hours of theory on Mondays. Mantadory assignment: The problems for the mantadory assignment will be on web on Thursday Feb before noon (I hope!). The assigment should be handed in before on Thursday Mar. Details will be on the problem sheet. Status for this week: We are a little ahead of the schedule. On Monday Feb IstartedonPartIVand basically did section 18 (Rings and fields). On Friday Feb I ll do Section 19 (Integral domains)andsection20(fermat s and Euler s Theorems)andmaybestartonSection 21 (The Field of Quotients of an Integral Domain). The plans for the coming two weeks are as follows: Monday, Mar : We llfinishsection21the Field of Quotients of an Integral Domain and do Section 22 (Rings of Polynomials) andsection23(factorization of Polynomials over a Field). The two sections Section 24 (Noncommutative examples) and Section 25 (Ordered Rings and Fields) arenotpartofthecurriculum. Friday, Mar : Exercises + Section 26 (Homomorphisms and Factor rings). Monday, Mar : WedoSection27(Prime and Maximal Ideals) andsection29(introduction to Extension Fields.) Section21(Gröbner Bases for Ideals) isnotpartof the curriculum. Friday, Mar : Exercises + buffer The exercises on this sheet cover Section 13, Section 14, Section 15, Section 16 and Section 18 in the book. They are ment for the groups on Friday Mar and Mar and Wednesday Mar and with the following distribution: Friday, Mar 7: No.: 5, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 14, 15 Friday, Mar 14: No.: 19, 22, 23, 28, 29, 30, 31, 34 Wednesday, Mar 5: No.: 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 13, 16, 17, 18 Wednesday, Mar 12: No.: 20, 21, 24, 25, 26, 27, 32, 33, 35 Key words: Homomorphisms,normalsubgroupsandconjugation,factorgroups,the center and the commutator subgroup, rings, the characteristic of a ring. 1

2 Homomorphisms Problem 1. ( Section 13, No.: 3 and 4 on page 133 in the book). Which of the following two maps are group homomorphism? : R! R, (x) = x : R! R, (x) =2 x. In case they are, describe the kernel and the image. Problem 2. (Basically Section 13, No.: 19 and 21 on page 134 in the book). Let the following two homomorphisms and both from Z to S 8 be given by: (1) = (1, 4, 2, 6)(2, 5, 7) (1) = (2, 5)(1, 4, 6, 7) Determine Ker and Ker. Compute (20) and (14). Problem 3. ( Section 13, No.: 24 on page 134 in the book). Let : Z Z! S 10 be given by (1, 0) = (3, 5)(2, 4) and (0, 1) = (1, 7)(6, 10, 8, 9). Determinethekernel Ker and compute (3, 10). Problem 4. Let G, H and K be three groups and let two homomorphisms. a) Show that the composition is a homomorphism. b) Show that is surjective if both and are. c) Show that is injective if both and are. : G! H and : H! K be d) What can you say about the the composition if one of and is surjective and the other one injective? Give examples. e) Show that if both and are isomorphisms, then is an isomorphism. Problem 5. Let G be a group and let Aut(G) be the set of isomorphisms : G! G. The elements of Aut(G) are called automorphisms of G. a) Show that Aut(G) with composition as binary operation is a group. Hint: Aut(G) is contained in Sym(G). Showthatitisasubgroup. b) Show that a homomorphism : Z n! Z n is uniquely determined by (1). Showthat is an automorphism if and only if (1) is the residue class of a number relatively prime to n. Hint: If k is relatively prime to n, onemayfindak 0 with kk 0 1 mod n. c) Show that there are isomorphisms Aut(Z 2 ) '{e} Aut(Z 4 ) ' Z 2 Aut(Z 3 ) ' Z 2. 2

3 Problem 6. Let : G! H be a homomorphism. Show that if x 2 G is of finite order, then (x) is of finite order and ord( (x)) divides ord(x). Showbygivingexamplesthat if ord(x) is infinite, then (x) can be of any order. Problem 7. Show that for any integer n 2, thereareneithernontrivialhomomor- phisms from Z n to Z n+1 nor from Z n to Z n 1. Problem 8. Show that there is just one nontrivial homomorphism from Z 2 Z 3 to Z 2,andonefromZ 2 to Z 2 Z 3. Normal subgroups and conjugation Problem 9. Show that the subgroup h r i of D 8 is normal where r denotes the rotation by 90. Ifs is one of the reflections, is the subgroup h s i normal? Problem 10. Let A 4 be the set of the elements of order two. We have earlier shown that has three elements, namely the elements (1, 2)(3, 4), (1, 3)(2, 4) and (1, 4)(2, 3). a) Show that together with the unity forms a subgroup H of S 4 isomorphic to Z 2 Z 2. Hint: It suffices to see that the product of two of the elements of equals the third. Why? b) Let 2 S 4.Showthatc ( )= 1 2 whenever 2. c) Show that H is a normal subgroup of S 4. d) Show that 7! c defines a homomorphism c: S 4! Sym() ' S 3 e) Show that c is surjective and that the kernel equals H. Problem 11. a) Show that the center Z(G) of a group G is a normal subgroup. b) Let 2 Aut(G) be any automorphism of the group G. Showthat (Z(G)) = Z(G). c) Give an example of two groups G and H and a group homomorphism : G! H such that (Z(G)) is not contained in Z(G). Problem 12. Let n and k be a natural numbers with 2 apple k apple n. a) Assume that 2 S n is a permutation such that (i) =a i for i 2{1,...,k}. Show that the following equality holds true: (1, 2,...,k) 1 =(a 1,a 2,...,a k ). Hint: Feed the left side with a i and check that it returns a i+1. 3

4 b) If two subgroups both are generated by a k-cycle, show that they are conjugate. c) Is the subgroup of S n generated by the cycle (1, 2,...,k) normal? Problem 13. If H G and K G are normal subgroups, show that HK is a normal subgroup. Problem 14. Show that if H G and K G are two normal subgroups such that H \ K = {e}, thenelementsfromh and K commute. Hint: If x 2 H and y 2 K, take a look at the commutator c = xyx 1 y 1. Problem 15. ( Section 14, No.: 35 on page 143 in the book). Show that if H and N are subgroups of G and N is normal in G, thenn \ H is normal in H. Showby giving an example, that N \ H is not necessarily normal in G. Factor groups Problem 16. ( Section 14, No.: 1, 5 and 6 on page 142 in the book). Find the order of the following factor groups Z 6 /3Z 6 Z 2 Z 4 /h (1, 1) i Z 12 Z 18 /h (4, 3) i Problem 17. ( Section 14, No.: 9, 10, 11 and 14 on page 142 in the book). Find the order of the indicated elements: 5 in Z 12 /4Z in Z 60 /12Z 60 (2, 1) in /Z 3 Z 6 /h (1, 1) i (3, 3) in Z 4 Z 8 /h (1, 2) i. Problem 18. ( Section 15, No.: 3 and 5 on page 151 in the book). Describe the following abelian groups as products of indecomposable abelian groups: Z 2 Z 4 /h (1, 2) i Z 4 Z 4 Z 8 /h (1, 2, 4) i. Problem 19. By numbering the corners of a square from 1 to 4 we may consider the dihedral group D 8 as a subgroup of the symmetric group S 4,thatisD 8 S 4. a) Show that D 8 is not a normal subgroup. Hint: Renumber the corners of the square. b) How many conjugates does D 8 have in S 4? c) Determine the intersection D 8 \ A 4. 4

5 The center and the commutator subgroup Problem 20. ( Section 15, No.: 13 on page 152 in the book). Find both the center and the commutator subgroup of the dihedral group D 8. (The group D 4 in the book is what we call D 8,thesymmetrygroupofthesquare). Problem 21. Assume that G and H are two groups. Show that Z(G H) =Z(G) Z(H). DeterminethecenterofZ 5 D 8.Isthisacyclicgroup? Problem 22. (Basically Section 15, No.: 37 on page 153 in the book). Let G be a group with center Z = Z(G). AssumethatG/Z is a cyclic group, and let a 2 G be an element such that the coset az is a generator for G/Z. a) Show that any element x in G can be written as x = a i z where z 2 Z and i is some integer. b) Show that G is abelian. Problem 23. ( Section 15, No.: 38 on page 153 in the book). Let p and q be two different primes and assume that G is a non-abelian group of order pq. Showthatthe center of G is trivial. Hint: Exercise 22 might help. Rings, homomorphisms and isomorphisms Problem 24. ( Section 18, No.: 1, 2, 3, 5 on page 174 in the book). Compute the products indicated below: in Z 24, 16 3 in Z 12, 11 ( 4) in Z 15, (2, 3) (3, 5) in Z 5 Z 9 Problem 25. ( Section 18, No.: 23, 24, 25 on page 175 in the book). Describe all ring homomorphisms a) from Z to Z, b) from Z to Z Z, c) from Z Z to Z. Problem 26. Show that the fields R and C are not isomorphic. Problem 27. Let n 2 Z and let Z[ p n]={ a + bi a, b 2 Z }. ShowthatZ[ p n] is a subring of the complex numbers. Show that Q[ p n]={ a + bi a, b 2 Q } is a subfield of C. Hint: One has z z = z 2. 5

6 Problem 28. Show that Z[ p 5] = { a + b p n a, b 2 Z } is a subring of the real numbers R. ShowthatthemapZ[ p 5]! Z[ p 5] given by a + b p 5 to a b p 5 is a ring isomorphism. Problem 29. Recall that Z[] denotes the ring of polynomials in the variable with integral coefficients. Let : Z[]! R be the evaluation map sending a polynomial P () to its value P ( p 5) at = p 5.Showthattheimageof is the subring Z[ p 5]. Problem 30. (The binomial theorem). Let R be a commutative ring. Convince yourself that your favorite proof of the binomial theorem works for R, i.e., prove that if a, b 2 R, then n n (a + b) n = a n i b i. i i=0 This is a 100% commutative statement: Indeed, show that if a and b are elements in a not necessarily commutative ring, then (a + b) 2 = a 2 +2ab + b 2 if and only if a and b commute. Problem 31. (Chinese residue theorem). Assume that n and m are two relatively prime natural numbers. Define the map : Z nm! Z n Z m by ([a] nm )=([n] n, [a] m ), where we let [b] k stand for the residue class of the integer b mod the natural number k. Showthat is a ring isomorphism. Hint: Show that is injective and use that the two rings have the same number of elements. Take a look at the corresponding statement for cyclic groups, which we proved some time ago. Problem 32. Let R M 2 (R) be the subset consisting of matrices of the form x y y x where x and y are real numbers. a) Show that R is a subring of M 2 (R) b) Show that R is a field. c) Show that R is isomorphic to the field of complex numbers C. The characteristic of a ring Problem 33. (Basically Section 19, No.: 6, 8, 10 on page 182 in the book). Determine the characteristic of the following rings Z 3 Z 3, Z 6 Z 15, Z Z, Q 6

7 Problem 34. Show that if p is a prime number, then the binomial coefficients i satisfy p 0 mod p. HenceinacommutativeringR of characteristic p, itholdstrue i that (a + b) p = a p + b p for any elements a and b from R. Problem 35. Show that the characteristic of an integral domain is either zero or a prime number. p Versjon: Monday, February 24, :59:51 PM 7

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