# A Little Beyond: Linear Algebra

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1 A Little Beyond: Linear Algebra Akshay Tiwary March 6, 2016 Any suggestions, questions and remarks are welcome! 1 A little extra Linear Algebra 1. Show that any set of non-zero polynomials in [x], no two of which have same degree, is linearly independent over. 2. Suppose that V is a vector space with dimension 2. Show that V has more than one basis. 3. Suppose that K, L, M article subspaces of a vector spaces V. Show that K (L + (K M) = (K L) + (K M). 4. Suppose M and N are subspaces of a vector space V. Show that (M + N)/N = M/(M N). 5. Let V be a vector space over an infinite field. Show that V cannot be the union of finitely many proper subspaces of V. 6. Suppose that V is a finite dimensional vector space over. Suppose TS = ST for every endomorphism S on V. Show that T = x I V for some scalar x. 7. Suppose that T is a linear functional on V. Show that (Im T ) = ker T and that ker T = Im T. Hence show that if V and W are finite dimensional vector spaces over, and T : V W is a linear transformation, then rank T = rank T. 8. Suppose that V is a vector space and that S = {f 1,..., f n } V, Show S = n i=1 ker f i. 9. Suppose that is a finite field. Let V be a vector space over of dimension n. Show that for every m < n, the number of subspaces of V of dimension m is exactly the same as the number of subspaces of V of dimension n m. 10. Suppose that v 1,..., v n are distinct non-zero vectors in a vector space V. Show that there is T V such that T(v i ) 0 for any i. 11. Suppose V = M N, where M and N are subspaces of the vector space V. Show that V = N M. 12. (Oddtown) There are n inhabitants of Oddtown numbered 1,..., n. They are allowed to form clubs according to the following rules: (a) Each club has an odd number of members. (b) Each pair of clubs share an even number of members. Show that the number of clubs formed cannot exceed n. Hint: Associate each club with a vector in n 2. 1

2 2 GROUPS 13. (From A Walk Through Combinatorics - Bona) The set A consists of n + 1 positive integers, none of which has a prime divisor that is larger than the nth smallest prime number. Prove that there exists a non-empty subset B A so that the product of the elements of B is a perfect square. Definition (Eigenvector). A non-zero vector v V is said to be an eigenvector for T : V V if span v is T invariant. Definition (Eigenvalue). If T(v) = λv, we say λ is the eigenvalue for T corresponding to v. Definition (Eigenspace). For a given map T : V V and a scalar λ, we define the eigenspace V λ to be V λ = {v V : T v = λv}. That is, V λ is the set of eigenvectors for T corresponding to λ. Exercise 1.1. Show that V λ is a subspace of V. Definition (Geometric Multiplicity). For a given λ and V λ as above, dim V λ is called the geometric multiplicity of λ. Exercise 1.2. Think of rotation by 90 as linear map on 2. What are the eigenvectors? Exercise 1.3. Suppose v is an eigenvector for T with eigenvalue λ and suppose f is an automorphism on V. Can you find an eigenvector for f T f 1? Exercise 1.4. Suppose B = {v 1,..., v n } is a basis for V and that each v i is an eigenvector for a linear transformation T : V V such that v i corresponds to the eigenvalue λ i. What will the matrix representation of T with respect to B look like? Exercise 1.5. Show that 0 is an eigenvalue for a linear transformation T on V iff T is not injective. Exercise 1.6. Suppose φ, ψ are linear transformations on V. Show that φ ψ and ψ φ have exactly the same eigenvalues. Exercise 1.7. Suppose v 1,..., v n are different non-zero vectors for some linear transformation T on V corresponding to distinct eigenvalues λ 1,..., λ n. Show that the v 1,..., v n are linearly independent. 2 Groups Definition (Group). A nonempty set G is said to form a group if there is an associated binary operation (which we will denote by ) such that 1. (Closure) If a, b G, then a b G. 2. (Associativity) If a, b, c G, then (a b) c G. 3. (Existence of Identity) There is an element e G such that a e = e a = a for every a G. 4. (Existence of Inverses) For every a G there is an element a 1 G such that a a 1 = a 1 a = e. If, in addition, the group satisfies the condition that for every a, b G, a b = b a, then we call the group an abelian group. Exercise 2.1. Show that the identity in a group is unique. Show also that each g G has a unique inverse and so we can talk about "the" identity and "the" inverse of g. Exercise 2.2. Show that for each pair a, b G, there is a unique element x G such that a x = b and a unique y G such that y a = b. This means that the "equations" a x = b and y a = b have unique solutions. 2

3 2 GROUPS Exercise 2.3. Suppose that H is a nonempty set with an associative operation (which we will denote by ) and an identity element e. Suppose that every element h H has a left inverse h such that h h = e. Show that (H, ) is a group. By showing this, you are showing that the axioms for a group are stronger than necessary. Exercise 2.4. For an arbitrary element in a group, show that h 1 g 1 = (g h) 1. Example 2.5. Let X be a nonempty set and let L(X ) be the set of all bijections from X to itself. Then L(X ) is a group under the operation of composition of functions. If X is finite, what is L(X )? Definition. Suppose that (G, ) is a group. Suppose that H and K are subsets of G. Then define H K to be the set {h k : h H, k K}. Similarly, we can define gh and K g for g G to be {gh : h H} and {kg : k K} respectively. Definition. Suppose G = (G, ) is a group. Suppose H is a nonempty subset of G which is closed under. Suppose that the following also hold. 1. H H H. 2. If h H, then h 1 H. Then we say H is a subgroup of G. Exercise 2.6. Suppose that for every i I, H i is a subgroup of a group G. Show that is a subgroup of G. H i i I Do you remember an analogous theorem for subspaces? You will see many similarities with subspaces and subgroups because a Vector space is really an abelian group with respect to addition. Exercise 2.7. Note that (, +) is a group. Show that every subgroup of under + is of the form n = {nz : z } where n. Definition (Cosets). Suppose that H is a subgroup of G and g G. Then gh as defined above is called the left coset of g with respect to H. We can analogously define H g, the right coset of g with respect to H. Exercise 2.8. Suppose that G is a group and that N is a subgroup of G. Let be a relation on a group G such that g h iff h gn. Show that this is an equivalence relation on G. We denote G/ = {gn : g G} by G/N. Exercise 2.9. Consider the group (, +). Suppose n +. What is /n? Definition (Normal Subgroup). A subgroup N of a group G is called a normal subgroup of G if gn = N g for every g G. We call gn the coset of g modulo N. That is, the left and right cosets are the same. Every subgroup in an abelian group is clearly normal, but normal subgroups are possible in non-abelian groups as well. Exercise Suppose that N is a normal subgroup of a group G and g, h G. Show that (gn)(hn) = (g h)n where (gn)(hn) denotes the product of the sets gn and hn as defined above. This shows that normal subgroups respect products, and this allows for a lot of interesting properties. Exercise Suppose that G is a group and N is a normal subgroup of N. Let [g] denote gn, the coset of g modulo N. Let : G/N G/N be defined by [g] [h] = [g h]. Show that (G/N, ) is a group. What is the identity? What is the inverse of [g]? 3

4 2 GROUPS Definition (Group Homomorphism). Suppose (G, ) and (G, ) are groups. A function φ : G G is called a group homomorphism if for every g, h G we have φ(g h) = φ(g) φ(h). A homomorphism from G to itself is called an endomorphism. Definition. Suppose φ : G G is a group homomorphism. The kernel of φ, denoted by ker φ, is the set {g G : φ(g) = e } = φ 1 (e ). Exercise Suppose e and e are the identity elements of G and G respectively. Show that φ(e) = e. Suppose g G. What is φ(g 1 )? Exercise Suppose φ : G G is a group homomorphism. Show that ker φ is a normal subgroup of G. Exercise Suppose N is a normal subgroup of a group G. Show that there is some group homomorphism for which N is the kernel. Exercise Suppose φ : G G is a group homomorphism. Let N = ker φ. Then, for g G, show that gn = N g = φ 1 (φ(g)). Exercise Show that a homomorphism φ : G G is injective iff ker φ = {e}. Exercise Suppose N is a normal subgroup of G. Show that the quotient function ψ : G G/N is a surjective homomorphism. What is ker ψ? Definition. A bijective homomorphism φ : G G is called an isomorphism. In this case we say that G and G are isomorphic and write G = G. An isomorphism from a group to itself is called an automorphism. Isomorphic groups are essentially identical. equivalence relation. In fact, the relation = on a set of groups is an Exercise Suppose that φ : G G is an isomorphism. Show that φ 1 is an isomorphism as well. Exercise Suppose that G is a group and that g G. Then the map φ : G G defined by φ(x) = g x g 1 is an automorphism. Exercise Let φ : G G be a homomorphism. Is Im φ a normal subgroup of G? Exercise Show that the image of a normal subgroup N of a group G under a surjective homomorphism φ : G G is a normal subgroup of G. What happens if φ is not surjective? Exercise 2.22 (First Isomorphism Theorem). Let φ : G G be a homomorphism and that ψ is the quotient function ψ : G G/ ker φ. Then there is a unique isomorphism φ : G/ ker φ Im φ such that φ = φ ψ. Hence G/ ker φ = Im φ. Definition. The order of a group (G, ) is G and is denoted by o(g). This is only relevant when G is finite. Exercise Show that there is a bijection between the (left) right cosets formed by a subgroup H of a group G. Exercise (Lagrange s Theorem) Suppose that G is a group having finite order and that H is a subgroup of G. Show that H also has finite order and that o(h) o(g). 4

5 3 ALGEBRAS OVER A FIELD 3 Algebras over a Field Definition (Algebra over a Field). An algebra over a field (sometimes called an -algebra) is a vector space V over which also has a binary operation (which we call "multiplication" or a bilinear product) such that for all u, v, w V we have 1. u ( v + w) = u v + u w, 2. ( v + w) u = v u + w u, 3. and, v (a w) = a( v w) = (a v) w for any scalar a. We say that an algebra has a unit element if there is a 1 V such that 1 v = v 1 = v. Note that any field is an algebra over itself, but every algebra need not be a field because there may be non-invertible non-zero elements in the algebra. Definition. Suppose that V is a vector space over a field. Let End(V ) denote the set of endomorphisms on V. Remember that End(V ) is a vector space over. Let s make End(V ) into an algebra. For f, g End(V ) define f g to be h End(V ) where h(v) = f (g(v)). That is f g = f g, where represents the usual operation of composition. Exercise 3.1. Show that End(V ) is really an algebra with the multiplication defined above. Is there a unit element? Definition (Units). Suppose that A is an algebra with a unit element 1. Then define an element a A to be a unit if there is a b A such that ab = ba = 1. That is, a unit is an invertible element in A. Exercise 3.2. Suppose A is an algebra over a field. Suppose the multiplication on A is associative (we call it an associative algebra). Show that U, the set of all the units in A, is a group under multiplication. In the case of End(V ), this group is denoted by G L(V ) and called the general linear group over V. G L(n, ) (or G L n ( ) in general) is the set of invertible n n matrices with elements in. Do you see why G L(n, ) is a group? Exercise 3.3. What is the order of G L 2 ( /p ) when p is prime? Exercise 3.4. Show that the units in End(V ) are precisely the automorphisms on V. Exercise 3.5. Suppose A is an algebra over and v A. Define φ a : A A by φ a (v) = a v for any v A. Show that φ a is an endomorphism on A. Similarly show that ψ a : A A by ψ a (v) = v a is an endomorphism as well. Thus the multiplication in an algebra is a special type of an operation called a bilinear map. Can you guess why it is called that? Exercise 3.6. Suppose V and W are vector spaces and φ : End(V ) End(V ) is an isomorphism. (a) Suppose that V and V are finite dimensional. Show that V = V. (b) Now remove the assumption that V or V is finite dimensional. Show that V = V. Definition (Division Algebra). An algebra A with a unit 1 is called a division algebra if A \ {0} is a group under multiplication. That is, in a division algebra every non-zero element is a unit. Exercise 3.7. Show that a finite dimensional algebra A with unity is a division algebra iff it has no zero divisors. 5

6 3 ALGEBRAS OVER A FIELD Let s talk about quaternions. They came about as William Rowan Hamilton s failed efforts to form a three dimensional number system (the real numbers are a one dimensional number system and the complex numbers are a two dimensional number system). He instead discovered the Quaternions, which is a almost a four dimensional number system because it lacks commutativity. Definition. Consider, a four dimensional vector space over with a basis {1, i, j, k}. That is, every element h can be written uniquely in the form h = a1 + bi + c j + dk for reals a, b, c, d. Lets make it into an algebra with the following rules of multiplication: 1. 1 h = h for every h ; 2. i 2 = j 2 = k 2 = 1; 3. i j = k, j j = i, k i = j; 4. j i = k, k j = i, i k = j. We call this the Quaternion Algebra over. Exercise 3.8. Consider the map C : defined by C(a + bi + c j + dk = a bi c j dk. We call this the "complex conjugation map" and write C(z) = z for z. SHow that z 1 z 2 = z 1 z 2 for every z 1, z 2. Note that we expect this to be true because the quaternions are really meant to be an extension of the complex numbers. Exercise 3.9. Suppose z = a + bi + c j + dk. Show z z = a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + d 2. Exercise Show that every non-zero element in is invertible. Hence conclude that is a division algebra. 6

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