# Video 5.1 Vijay Kumar and Ani Hsieh

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1 Video 5.1 Vijay Kumar and Ani Hsieh Robo3x-1.1 1

2 The Purpose of Control Input/Stimulus/ Disturbance System or Plant Output/ Response Understand the Black Box Evaluate the Performance Change the Behavior Robo3x-1.1 2

3 Anatomy of a Feedback Control System Disturbance Input Desired Speed + - Controller Actuator Gas Pedal + + Output Vehicle Speed Sensor Robo3x-1.1 3

4 Twin Objectives of Control Performance Disturbance Rejection Robo3x-1.1 4

5 Learning Objectives for this Week Linear Control Modeling in the frequency domain Transfer Functions Feedback and Feedforward Control Robo3x-1.1 5

6 Frequency Domain Modeling Algebraic vs Differential Equations Laplace Transforms Diagrams Robo3x-1.1 6

7 Laplace Transforms Integral Transform that maps functions from the time domain to the frequency domain with Robo3x-1.1 7

8 Example Let, compute Robo3x-1.1 8

9 Inverse Laplace Transforms Integral Transform that maps functions from the frequency domain to the time domain Robo3x-1.1 9

10 Example Let, compute Robo3x

11 Laplace Transform Tables Robo3x

12 Video 5.2 Vijay Kumar and Ani Hsieh Robo3x

13 Generalizing Given How do we obtain? Robo3x

14 Partial Fraction Expansion Case 1: Roots of D(s) are Real & Distinct Case 2: Roots of D(s) are Real & Repeated Case 3: Roots of D(s) are Complex or Imaginary Robo3x

15 Case 1: Roots of D(s) are Real & Distinct Compute the Inverse Laplace of Robo3x

16 Case 2: Roots of D(s) are Real & Repeated Compute the Inverse Laplace of Robo3x

17 Case 3: Roots of D(s) are Complex Compute the Inverse Laplace of Robo3x

18 Video 5.3 Vijay Kumar and Ani Hsieh Robo3x

19 Using Laplace Transforms Given Solving for x(t) 1. Convert to frequency domain 2. Solve algebraic equation 3. Convert back to time domain Robo3x

20 Properties of Laplace Transforms Robo3x

21 Summary Laplace Transforms time domain <-> frequency domain differential equation <-> algebraic equation Partial Fraction Expansion factorizes complicated expressions to simplify computation of inverse Laplace Transforms Robo3x

22 Example: Solving an ODE (1) Given with, and. Solve for. Robo3x

23 Example: Solving an ODE (2) Robo3x

24 Video 5.4 Vijay Kumar and Ani Hsieh Robo3x

25 Controller Design Disturbance Input + - Input Controller + + Output Robo3x

26 Controller Design Disturbance Input Output Controller Robo3x

27 Controller Design Disturbance Input + - Controller + + System Output Robo3x

28 Controller Design Disturbance Input + - Controller + + System Output Robo3x

29 Transfer Function Relate a system s output to its input 1.Easy separation of INPUT, OUTPUT, SYSTEM (PLANT) 2.Algebraic relationships (vs. differential) 3.Easy interconnection of subsystems in a MATHEMATICAL framework Robo3x

30 In General A General N-Order Linear, Time Invariant ODE G(s) =Transfer Function = output/input Furthermore, if we know G(s), then output = G(s)*input Solution given by Robo3x

31 General Procedure Given performance criteria and desired 1. Convert 2. Analyze 3. Design using 4. Validate using 5. Iterate Robo3x

32 Underlying Assumptions Linearity 1. Superposition 2. Homogeneity System System B/c the Laplace Transform is Linear! Robo3x

33 Video 5.5 Vijay Kumar and Ani Hsieh Robo3x

34 Characterizing System Response Given How do we characterize the performance of a system? Special Case 1: 1 st Order Systems Special Case 2: 2 nd Order Systems Robo3x

35 Poles and Zeros Given Poles Zeros Example: Robo3x

36 First Order Systems In general Let U(s) = 1/s, then As such, Therefore, Robo3x

37 Characterizing First Order Systems Given with U(s) = 1/s Robo3x

38 Characterizing First Order Systems Time Constant Rise Time Settling Time Robo3x

39 Second Order Systems Given, and U(s) = 1/s Possible Cases 1. r 1 & r 2 are real & distinct 2. r 1 & r 2 are real & repeated 3. r 1 & r 2 are both imaginary 4. r 1 & r 2 are complex conjugates Robo3x

40 Case 1: Real & Distinct Roots Overdamped response Robo3x

41 Video 5.6 Vijay Kumar and Ani Hsieh Robo3x

42 Case 2: Real & Repeated Roots Critically damped response Robo3x

43 Case 3: All Imaginary Roots Undamped response Robo3x

44 Case 4: Roots Are Complex Underdamped response Robo3x

45 A Closer Look at Case 4 Exponential Decay (Real Part) Sinusoidal Oscillations (Imaginary Part) Robo3x

46 Summary of 2 nd Order Systems Given, and U(s) = 1/s Solution is one of the following: 1. Overdamped: r 1 & r 2 are real & distinct 2. Critically Damped: r 1 & r 2 are real & repeated 3. Undamped: r 1 & r 2 are both imaginary 4. Underdamped: r 1 & r 2 are complex conjugates Robo3x

47 2 nd Order System Parameters Given and U(s) = 1/s Natural Frequency n System s frequency of oscillation with no damping Damping Ratio Robo3x

48 General 2 nd Order System Given and U(s) = 1/s When b = 0 For an underdamped system Robo3x

49 General 2 nd Order Systems Second-order system transfer functions have the form with poles of the form Example: For Compute, n, and s 1,2? Robo3x

50 Video 5.7 Vijay Kumar and Ani Hsieh Robo3x

51 Characterizing Underdamped Systems Robo3x

52 Peak Time Same Envelope Motion of poles Robo3x

53 Settling Time 2 1 Same Frequency 2 1 Motion of poles 2 1 Robo3x

54 Overshoot 3 Same Overshoot Motion of poles Robo3x

55 In Summary s-plane Robo3x

56 Video 5.8 Vijay Kumar and Ani Hsieh Robo3x

57 Independent Joint Control In general, n-link Robot Arm generally has n actuators Single Input Single Output (SISO) Single joint control Robo3x

58 Permanent Magnet DC Motor Picture Here Basic Principle Source: Wikimedia Commons Robo3x

59 Electrical Part Armature Current Back EMF Motor Torque Torque Constant Robo3x

60 Mechanical Part Gear ratio Actuator Dynamics Robo3x

61 Combining the Two Correction: the K b terms should be K m Robo3x

62 Two SISO Outcomes Input Voltage Motor Shaft Position Load Torque Motor Shaft Position Robo3x

63 Video 5.9 Vijay Kumar and Ani Hsieh Robo3x

64 Two SISO Outcomes Input Voltage Motor Shaft Position Load Torque Motor Shaft Position Assumption: L/R << J m /B m Robo3x

65 2 nd Order Approximation Divide by R and set L/R = 0 In the time domain Robo3x

66 Open-Loop System Actuator Dynamics Set-point tracking (feedback) Trajectory tracking (feedforward) Robo3x

67 Our Control Objectives Motion sequence of end-effector positions and orientations (EE poses) EE poses Joint Angles Motor Commands Transfer function Three primary linear controller designs: P (proportional) PD (proportional-derivative) PID (proportional-integral-derivative) Robo3x

68 Set-Point Tracking The Basic PID Controller Robo3x

69 Proportional (P) Control Control input proportional to error K P controller gain Error is amplified by K P to obtain the desired output signal Robo3x

70 P Control of Vehicle Speed Example: Cruise Control X v Desired linear speed q Y vehicle wheel speed Control input proportional to error Robo3x

71 Performance of P Controller K P = 10 K P = 50 K P = 100 Increases the controller gain decreases rise time Excessive gain can result in overshoot Robo3x

72 Video 5.10 Vijay Kumar and Ani Hsieh Robo3x

73 Proportional-Derivative (PD) Control Control input proportional to error AND 1 st derivative of error Including rate of change of error helps mitigates oscillations Robo3x

74 Performance of PD Controller K P = 10 K D = 1 K P = 10 K D = 3 Decreases rise time K P = 500 K D = 10 K P = 500 K D = 50 Reduces overshoot & Settling Time Robo3x

75 PD Control of a Joint Closed loop system given by w/ Robo3x

76 PD Compensated Closed Loop Response (1) Robo3x

77 PD Compensated Closed Loop Response (2) Robo3x

78 Picking K P and K D Closed loop system w/ Design Guidelines Critically damped w/ Pick and Robo3x

79 Performance of the PD Controller Assuming and Tracking error is given by At steady-state Robo3x

80 Video 5.11 Vijay Kumar and Ani Hsieh Robo3x

81 Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) Controller Control input proportional to error, 1 st derivative AND an integral of the error The integral term offsets any steady-state errors in the system Robo3x

82 Performance of PID Controller K P = 10 K D = 3 K P = 10 K D = 3 K I = 1 K P = 10 K D = 3 K I = 50 Eliminates SS-Error Increases overshoot & settling time Robo3x

83 PID Control of a Joint Closed-loop system is given by w/ Robo3x

84 PID Compensated Closed Loop Response (1) Robo3x

85 PID Compensated Closed Loop Response (2) Robo3x

86 Picking K P, K D, and K I Closed loop system w/ Design Guidelines System stable if K P, K D, and K I >0 Set K I = 0 and pick K P, K D, then go back to pick K I w/ in mind Robo3x

87 Summary of PID Characteristics CL Response Rise Time % Overshoot K P Decrease Increase K D Small Change Decrease Settling Time Small Change Decrease S-S Error Decrease Small Change K I Decrease Increase Increase Eliminate Robo3x

88 Tuning Gains Appropriate gain selection is crucial for optimal controller performance Analytically (R-Locus, Frequency Design, Ziegler Nichols, etc) Empirically The case for experimental validation Model fidelity Optimize for specific hardware Saturation and flexibility Robo3x

89 Feedforward Control Motion sequence of end-effector positions and orientations (EE poses) What if instead of, we want? Robo3x

90 Video 5.12 Vijay Kumar and Ani Hsieh Robo3x

91 Closed Loop Transfer Function (1) Robo3x

92 Closed Loop Transfer Function (2) Robo3x

93 Closed Loop Transfer Function (3) Robo3x

94 Picking F(s) Closed loop transfer function given by Behavior of closed loop response, given by roots of H(s) and F(s) be chosen so that Robo3x

95 Will This Work? Let F(s) = 1/G(s), i.e., a(s) = p(s) and b(s) = q(s), then System will track any reference trajectory! Robo3x

96 Caveats Minimum Phase Systems Picking F(s) = 1/G(s), leads to Assume system w/o FF loop is stable By picking F(s) = 1/G(s), we require numerator of G(s) to be Hurwitz (or ) Systems whose numerators have roots with negative real parts are called Minimum Phase Robo3x

97 Feedforward Control w/ Disturbance Assume: D(s) = constant w/ Pick F(s) = 1/G(s) = Note the following: Robo3x

98 Tracking Error Control law in time domain System dynamics w/ control + disturbance Robo3x

99 Overall Performance Robo3x

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Video 6.1 Vijay Kumar and Ani Hsieh Robo3x-1.6 1 In General Disturbance Input + - Input Controller + + System Output Robo3x-1.6 2 Learning Objectives for this Week State Space Notation Modeling in the

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