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1 Production Series Circuits Page 2 Copyright 2017

2 Series Parallel Circuits + + SERIES CIRCUIT PARALLEL CIRCUIT Page 3 Copyright 2017

3 Trick to Remember Ohm s Law V V=I*R R = V I I R I = V R Page 4 Copyright 2017

4 Series Circuit Closed Circuit Single Path from +V to GND + - SERIES CIRCUIT Page 5 Copyright 2017

5 Series Circuits +? + Yes Page 6 Copyright 2017

6 Series Circuit Is the same current is flowing in both resistors? Yes, there is only one path for the current and it is the same at all points ion the circuit + SERIES CIRCUIT Page 7 Current Copyright 2017

7 Series Circuits + + Page 8 Copyright 2017

8 Production Lab Time Page 9 Copyright 2017

9 Go Get the following Power Supply the smaller ones are better Power to Breadboard Adaptor Breadboard About 6 wire 1 plastic cup Resistors: One 10Ω resistor Three 330Ω resistors One 680Ω resistor Two 1KΩ resistors One 2KΩ resistor Page 10 Copyright 2017

10 Log some data Open your log books On the next available Page Note the Date Draw a table ( for a fixed 5 volt power supply ) R1 + R2 (measure together) R1 R2 Measured Resistance Measured Voltage I (for circuit) X X Measured Current X X X Page 11 Copyright 2017

11 Series Circuit + 330Ω 330Ω SERIES CIRCUIT Page 12 Copyright 2017

12 Lab Question? How do we measure the total resistance in our series circuit? What about individual resisters? Page 13 Copyright 2017

13 Series Circuit Resistance 330Ω 330Ω Measure Combined Resistance Page 14 Copyright 2017

14 Series Circuit Resistance 330Ω 330Ω Measure Individual Resistance Page 15 Copyright 2017

15 Series Circuit Resistance 330Ω 330Ω Measure Individual Resistance Page 16 Copyright 2017

16 Lab Question? How do we measure the total Voltage in our series circuit? What about the voltage across the individual resisters? Page 17 Copyright 2017

17 Series Circuit Voltage + 330Ω 330Ω Measure Combined Voltage Page 18 Copyright 2017

18 Series Circuit Voltage + 330Ω 330Ω Measure Individual Voltage Page 19 Copyright 2017

19 Series Circuit Voltage + 330Ω 330Ω Measure Individual Voltage Page 20 Copyright 2017

20 Lab Question? How do we measure the total Current in our series circuit? What about the voltage through the individual resisters? Page 21 Copyright 2017

21 Series Circuit Current + 330Ω 330Ω Measure Combined Voltage Page 22 Copyright 2017

22 Lab #1 Series Circuit 330Ω + 330Ω 330Ω 330Ω Create table and make the measurements SERIES CIRCUIT Page 23 Copyright 2017

23 Log some data Open your log books On the next available Page Note the Date Draw a table ( for a fixed 5 volt power supply ) R1 + R2 (measure together) R1 R2 Measured Resistance Measured Voltage I (for circuit) X X Measured Current X X X Page 24 Copyright 2017

24 Production Math behind the measurements Page 25 Copyright 2017

25 Series Circuits 220Ω? 440Ω 220Ω Yes Page 26 Copyright 2017

26 Calculating Series Resistance 220Ω 220Ω R t = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + etc. To find the total resistance of a series circuit, just add the values of the individual resistors together 440Ω Page 27 Copyright 2017

27 Series Circuit Resistance R t = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + etc. + R1 R2 R 1 = 330Ω, R 2 = 330Ω R t = R 1 = 330Ω, R 2 = 680Ω R t = R 1 = 1KΩ, R 2 = 2KΩ R t = R 1 = 680Ω, R 2 = 1KΩ R t = Calculate R t Page 28 Copyright 2017

28 Lab #2 Series Circuit R 1 = 330Ω, R 2 = 680Ω R 1 = 1KΩ, R 2 = 2KΩ R 1 = 680Ω, R 2 = 1KΩ + R1 R2 Create 3 more tables like lab #1, and make the same measurements Page 29 Copyright 2017

29 Production Math behind the measurements Page 30 Copyright 2017

30 Can we Calculate the Voltage on a resistor in a series circuit? How does the battery see the combination of the 2 resistors? How do the Resistors see the battery? Nether Resistor is connected directly across the battery How much voltage is applied to each Resistor? Series Resistors share or Divide the applied voltage + - Page 31 Copyright 2017

31 Voltage Division with Resistors V = V( R x ) Where: x R t R t = Total Resistance of series string R x = Resistor for which we are calculating the voltage drop V = Applied voltage V x = Voltage drop across R x Page 32 Copyright 2017

32 Lets do some calculations R 1 = 330Ω, R 2 = 680Ω, V = 5v V x = V( R x R t ) R t = 1.01KΩ R x = 330Ω V = V( 5( R330Ω x ) x R1.01KΩ ) t + R1 R2 V x = 1.63V Page 33 Copyright 2017

33 Lets do some calculations R 1 = 330Ω, R 2 = 680Ω, V = 5v V x = V( R x R t ) R t = 1.01KΩ R x = 680Ω V = V( 5( R680Ω x ) x R1.01KΩ ) t + R1 R2 V x = 3.37V Page 34 Copyright 2017

34 Lab #3 Series Circuit 5 v + R1 R 1 = 330Ω, R 2 = 330Ω R 1 = 330Ω, R 2 = 680Ω R 1 = 1KΩ, R 2 = 2KΩ R 1 = 680Ω, R 2 = 1KΩ R2 V x = V( R x R t ) Using the data from your 4 tables, calculate the voltage over R1 and R2. Verify that your measurements are correct. Page 35 Copyright 2017

35 Variable Resistors Resistor that has the ability to change resistance manually Resistor that have it s resistance change do to environmental effects Potentiometer Photoresistor Page 36 Copyright 2017

36 Series Circuit Voltage +? Ω 1KΩ Measure Variable Voltage Page 37 Copyright 2017

37 Series Circuit Voltage +? Ω Measure Variable Voltage Page 38 Copyright 2017

38 Series Circuit Voltage Measure Variable Voltage? Ω Page 39 Copyright 2017

39 Variable Resistor Lab Turn the Potentiometer to have equal resistance on both sides ie: for a 10KΩ Potentiometer each segment should be about 5KΩ Measure: The resistance of each side, then connect power, and measure the voltage Page 40 Copyright 2017

40 Series Circuit Voltage +? Ω 1KΩ Measure Variable Voltage Page 41 Copyright 2017

41 Production Math behind the measurements Page 42 Copyright 2017

42 How Do you find the Resistance given a known voltage Divider? We know that you can find V x When you know R x How do we manipulate to solve for R x? V = V( R x ) x R t Page 43 Copyright 2017

43 manipulate to solve for R x V = V( R x ) x R t Page 44 Copyright 2017

44 manipulate to solve for R x R t Vx = V R x R t Rt Page 45 Copyright 2017

45 manipulate to solve for R x R t Vx = V(Rx) R t Vx = VRx Page 46 Copyright 2017

46 manipulate to solve for R x R t Vx V = VR x V Page 47 Copyright 2017

47 manipulate to solve for R x R t Vx V = Rx Page 48 Copyright 2017

48 manipulate to solve for R x R x = R t Vx V Page 49 Copyright 2017

49 manipulate to solve for R x R x = R t Vx V Page 50 Copyright 2017

50 Lets do some calculations R 1 = 5.24KΩ, R 2 = 10KΩ, V = 5v V x = V( R x R t ) R t = 15.24KΩ R x = 5.24KΩ V = V( 5( R5.24KΩ x ) x R15.24KΩ ) t + R1 R2 V x = 1.719V Page 51 Copyright 2017

51 Lets do some calculations R 1 =? Ω, R 2 = 10KΩ, V = 5v R x = R t Vx V R t = 15.24KΩ V x = 1.719V R x = 15.24KΩ 1.719V R x = R t Vx + Rp V 5 R2 R x = 5.24KΩ Page 52 Copyright 2017

52 Variable Resistor Lab Build the circuit with the variable R p and fixed R 2 Turn the Potentiometer and measure the Voltage Using this formula calculate R p R x = R t Vx V + Rp R2 Page 53 Copyright 2017

53 Variable Resistor Lab Build the circuit with the variable R p and fixed R 2 Turn the Potentiometer and measure the Voltage Using this formula calculate R p R x = R t Vx V + Rp R2 Page 54 Copyright 2017

54 Series Circuit Voltage + + See What Effect Variable Resistance Has On the LED brightness? 150Ω Page 55 Copyright 2017

55 Series Circuit Voltage + + See What Effect Light Has On the LED brightness? Optional Why? Page 56 Copyright 2017

56 Variable Resistor Lab Turn the Potentiometer to have equal resistance on both sides ie: for a 10KΩ Potentiometer each segment should be about 5KΩ Measure: The resistance of each side, then connect power, and measure the voltage Page 57 Copyright 2017

57 Production Reference Page 58 Copyright 2017

58 Lab #2 Series Circuit R 1 = 330Ω, R 2 = 680Ω R 1 = 1KΩ, R 2 = 2KΩ R 1 = 680Ω, R 2 = 1KΩ + R1 R2 Page 59 Copyright 2017

59 Series Circuit Resistance R t = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + etc. + R1 R2 R 1 = 330Ω, R 2 = 330Ω R t = R 1 = 330Ω, R 2 = 680Ω R t = R 1 = 1KΩ, R 2 = 2KΩ R t = R 1 = 680Ω, R 2 = 1KΩ R t = Calculate R t Page 60 Copyright 2017

60 Work Sheet Lab / Quiz Objectives Demonstrate knowledge of Ohms Law Demonstrate proper use of a Digital Multi Meter Demonstrate knowledge of Series Circuits fundamentals Apply the Voltage divider principles Equipment needed 5 volt DC power supply and bread board adaptor DMM Bread board Assorted resistors and wires Page 61 Copyright 2017

61 Lets do some calculations R 1 = 330Ω, R 2 = 680Ω, V = 5v V x = V( R x R t ) RR t =? t = 330Ω + 680Ω R t = 1010Ω R t = 1.01KΩ + R1 V x = V( R x R t ) Page 62 R2 Copyright 2017

62 Series Circuit Resistance R t = R 1 + R 2 + R 3 + etc. + R1 R2 R 1 = 330Ω, R 2 = 330Ω R t = R 1 = 330Ω, R 2 = 680Ω R t = R 1 = 1KΩ, R 2 = 2KΩ R t = R 1 = 6800Ω, R 2 = 1KΩ R t = Calculate R t Page 63 Copyright 2017

63 Series Circuit + SERIES CIRCUIT Page 64 Copyright 2017

64 measuring voltage Set the DMM to Ω (to measure Resistance) Set it to the closest value above the target resistor you are measuring + - SERIES CIRCUIT Red lead Black lead This is how we measure volts in a circuit Page 65 Copyright 2017

65 measuring Current Set the DMM to Amps (to measure Current) Set it to the closest value above the target current you expect to measure + - SERIES CIRCUIT Red lead Break the circuit, so the current flows into and out of the DMM Black lead This is how we measure Amps in a circuit Page 66 Copyright 2017

66 Electronic symbols + Page 67 Copyright 2017

67 Sources 30 years of electronics in my head Electronic Projects for Photographers add some of the hypothesis and Questions to the labs tlab/index.html <-- maybe add a lab to prove current is the same <-- good lab work sheet add to presentation Page 68 Copyright 2017

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