# 10. Show that the conclusion of the. 11. Prove the above Theorem. [Th 6.4.7, p 148] 4. Prove the above Theorem. [Th 6.5.3, p152]

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1 foot of the altitude of ABM from M and let A M 1 B. Prove that then MA > MB if and only if M 1 A > M 1 B. 8. If M is the midpoint of BC then AM is called a median of ABC. Consider ABC such that AB < AC. Let E, D and H denote the points in which bisector of angle, median and altitude from A intersect line BC, respectively. Show that (a) AEB < AEC; (b) BE < CE; (c) we have H E D. 9. (a.) Prove that in a neutral geometry if ABC is isosceles with base BC then the following are collinear: (i) the median from A; (ii) the bisector of A; (iii) the altitude from A; (iv) the perpendicular bisector of BC. (b.) Conversely, in a neutral geometry prove that if any two of (i)-(iv) are collinear then the triangle is isosceles (six different cases). 10. Show that the conclusion of the Pythagorean Theorem is not valid in the Poincaré Plane by considering ABC with A(2,1), B(0, 5), and C(0,1). Thus the Pythagorean Theorem does not hold in every neutral geometry. Theorem In a neutral geometry, if BD is the bisector of ABC and if E and F are the feet of the perpendiculars from D to BA and BC then DE DF. 11. Prove the above Theorem. [Th 6.4.7, p 148] 20 Circles and Their Tangent Lines Definition. (circle with center C and radius r, chord, diameter, radius segment). If C is a point in a metric geometry (S,L,d) and if r > 0, then C = C r (C) = {P S P C = r} is a circle with center C and radius r. If A and B are distinct points of C then AB is a chord of C. If the center C is a point on the chord AB, then AB is a diameter of C. For any Q C, CQ is called a radius segment of C. 1. Find and sketch the circle of radius 1 with center (0,0) in the Euclidean Plane and in the Taxicab Plane. [Ex 6.5.1, p150] 2. Consider {R 2,L E } with the max distance d s (recall d s (P,Q) = max{ x 1 x 2, y 1 y 2 } where P (x 1,y 1 ) and Q(x 2,y 2 ) denote two points in R 2 ). Sketch the circle C 1 ((0,0)). 3. Show that A = {(x,y) H x 2 + (y 5) 2 = 16} is the Poincaré circle C with center (0,3) and radius ln 3. [Ex 6.5.2, p151] Our first result tells us that in a neutral geometry the center and radius of a circle are determined by any three points on the circle. Theorem. In a neutral geometry, let C 1 = C r (C) and C 2 = C s (D). If C 1 C 2 contains at least three points, then C = D and r = s. Thus, three points of a circle in a neutral geometry uniquely determine that circle. 4. Prove the above Theorem. [Th 6.5.3, p152] Corollary. For any circle in a neutral geometry, the perpendicular bisector of any chord contains the center. 5. If AB is a chord of a circle in a neutral geometry but is not a diameter, prove that the line through the midpoint of AB and the center of the circle is perpendicular to AB. 6. Prove that a line in a neutral geometry intersects a circle at most twice. Definition. (interior, exterior). Let C be the circle with center C and radius r. The interior of C is the set int(c) = {P S CP < r}. The exterior of C is the set ext(c) = {P S CP > r}. Theorem. If C is a circle in a neutral geometry then int(c) is convex. 7. Prove the above Theorem. [Th 6.5.5, p153] Definition. (tangent, point of tangency). In a metric geometry, a line l is a tangent to the circle C if l C contains exactly one point (which is called the point of tangency). l is called a secant of the circle C if l C has exactly two points. 8. In the Taxicab Plane prove that for the circle C = C 1 ((0,0)): (a). There are exactly four points at which a tangent to C exists. (b). At each point in part (a) there are infinitely many tangent lines. 27

2 Theorem. In a neutral geometry, let C be a circle with center C and let Q C. If t is a line through Q, then t is tangent to C if and only if t is perpendicular to the radius segment CQ. 9. Prove the above Theorem. [Th 6.5.6, p154] Corollary. (Existence and Uniqueness of Tangents). In a neutral geometry, if C is a circle and Q C then there is a unique line t which is tangent to C and whose point of tangency is Q. 10. Prove the above Corollary. [Cor 6.5.7, p155] Definition. (continuous). Function h : R R is continuous at t 0 R if for every ε > 0 there is a δ > 0 such that h(t) h(t 0 ) ε if t t 0 < δ. (Thus if t is near t 0 then h(t) is near h(t 0 )). Intermediate Value Theorem. If h : [a,b] R is continuous at every t 0 [a,b] and if y is a number between h(a) and h(b) then there is a point s [a,b] with h(s) = y. Theorem. Let r be a positive real number and let A, B, C be points in a neutral geometry such that AC < r and AB AC. Then there is a point D AB with CD = r. 11. Prove the above Theorem. [Th 6.5.8, p156] Theorem. (Line-Circle Theorem). In a neutral geometry, if a line l intersects the interior of a circle C, then l is a secant. 12. Prove the above Theorem. [Th 6.5.9, p157] Theorem. (External Tangent Theorem). In a neutral geometry, if C is a circle and P ext(c), then there are exactly two lines through P tangent to C. 13. Prove the above Theorem. [Th , p158] 14. In a neutral geometry, if C is a circle with A int(c) and B ext(c), prove that AB C. 21 The Two Circle Theorem From previus lesson we know that two distinct circles in a neutral geometry intersect in at most two points. The main point of this section is to give a condition for when two circles intersect in exactly two points. This result, called the Two Circle Theorem, will follow directly from a converse of the Triangle Inequality. Theorem. (Sloping Ladder Theorem). In a neutral geometry with right triangles ABC and DEF whose right angles are at C and F, if AB DE and AC > DF, then BC < EF. 1. Prove the above Theorem. [Th 6.6.1, p160] Theorem. Let AB and DE be two chords of the circle C = C r (C) in a neutral geometry. If AB and DE are both perpendicular to a diameter of C at points P and Q with C P Q, then DQ < AP < r. 2. Prove the above Theorem. Theorem. (Triangle Construction Theorem). Let {S,L,d,m} be a neutral qeometry and let a, b, c be three positive numbers such that the sum of any two is greater than the third. Then there is a triangle in S whose sides have length a, b and c. 3. Prove the above Theorem. [Th 6.6.3, p161] Theorem. (Two Circle Theorem). In a neutral geometry, if C 1 = C b (A), C 2 = C a (B), AB = c, and if each of a, b, c is less than the sum of the other two, then C 1 and C 2 intersect in exactly two points, and these points are on opposite sides of AB. 4. Prove the above Theorem. Theorem. If a protractor geometry satisfies SSS and both the Triangle Inequality and the Two Circle Theorem with the neutral hypothesis omitted, then it also satisfies SAS and is a neutral geometry. 5. Prove the above Theorem. [Th 6.6.6, p164] 6. Prove that in a neutral geometry, two circles C 1 and C 2 intersect in exactly two points if and only C 1 int(c 2 ) and C 1 ext(c 2 ). 7. Prove that in a neutral geometry a circle of radius r has a chord of length c if and only if 0 < c 2r. 8. In a neutral geometry prove that for any s > 0 there is an equilateral triangle each of whose sides has length s. 28

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