A Harvard Sampler. Evan Chen. February 23, I crashed a few math classes at Harvard on February 21, Here are notes from the classes.

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1 A Harvard Sampler Evan Chen February 23, 2014 I crashed a few math classes at Harvard on February 21, Here are notes from the classes. 1 MATH 123: Algebra II In this lecture we will make two assumptions. char(f ) = 0 [K : F ] < Recall that char(f ) = 0 means that the sum of n 1 s is always nonzero. Also, we deal with finite extensions. We will be using the primitive element theorem a lot. There is a Galois theory of infinite extensions, but not covered here. Some notes about the notation F ( ). If α K algebraic over F, K is an extension of F, then F (α) is the subfield of K generated by F. On the other hand, F (x) is the field of rational functions (ratios of polynomials) of x if x is not a priori something in a large field F. 1.1 Review Definition 1.1. A splitting field of a polynomial p(x) over a field F is a field extension K of F over which p factors into linear factors p(x) = deg(p) and such that the roots a i generate K over F. From last lecture we had the following. (X a i ) K[X] Theorem 1.2 (Splitting Theorem). Let F K and suppose f F [x] splitting completely over K as f(x) = (x α i ). If K = F (α 1,..., α n ), then K splits over many polynomials: if g F [x] is any irreducible polynomial with a root in K, then g splits completely in K. Here the roots of g may not necessarily generate K. Here are some basic facts. Given F, f F [x], there exists a splitting field (should be called a splitting extension) F K. That is, splitting fields exist for any polynomial. You just repeatedly adjoin. 1

2 Evan Chen 1 MATH 123: Algebra II Take F L K. If K is a splitting field over F, then it is a splitting field F. This is obvious. Any finite F K is contained in a splitting field. Indeed, we may put K = F (α 1,..., α k ), and take consider g = g i where g i is the minimal polynomial of the α i over F. Then K L is a splitting field for g in F. At this point the professor makes a remark about clearly. He mentions that he had a sobering experience in one of his manuscripts where he noticed a false statement; it was preceded by the word clearly. He then proceeded to search for all other instances of the word clearly and found a half-dozen other errors. 1.2 Galois Theory The basic idea of Galois theory: algebraically, it s impossible to distinguish between the different roots of a polynomial in a splitting field. Explicitly, let α 1,..., α n be the roots of an irreducible polynomial. Consider K = F (α 1,..., α n ), and look at its subfields F (α 1 ), F (α 2 ),..., F (α n ) each themselves an extensions of F. The point is that each of these subfields are isomorphic. Now we want to use automorphisms using the irreducibility. Definition 1.3. The Galois group G(K/F ) is precisely the group of automorphisms of (K/F ); that is, it is the set of maps 1.3 Main Theorem {ϕ : K K such that ϕ F is the identity} Theorem 1.4. For any finite extension F K, then #G(K/F ) [K : F ]. In fact, the order of the Galois group G(K/F ) will divide the degree of the extension [K : F ]. Moreover, equality holds if and only if K is a splitting field over F. Henceforth, splitting fields will also be known as Galois extensions. The above theorem is used to characterize Galois extensions! Note that we are being careful to take char F = 0! These two notions become different if F has characteristic p. Proof. Say F K is a splitting field (hence finite); the other case is pretty similar. Let α be a generator (primitive element) of K that is, K = F (α). Let f be the minimal polynomial (hence irreducible); the splitting theorem then implies where of course α {α i }. f(x) = n (x α i ) K[x]. 2

3 Evan Chen 2 MATH 137: Algebraic Geometry Of course each of the α i is degree n. That means F (α i ) is a degree n extension of K contained in K; hence equal to K. The whole point is that K = F (α 1,..., α n ) = F (α 1 ) =... = F (α n ). Of course these are also isomorphic to F [x]/(f) by α i x. The proof is simply that K = F (α i ) = F [x]/(f) = F (α j ) = K for all i, j. (The isomorphisms are x α i and x α j ). Note that since K = F (α i ), any automorphism of K/F is determined by where it sends any one of the α i. 1 It has no stabilizers if an automorphism fixes any α i, then it is the identity. 2 Hence G(K/F ) S n has an image which is a simply transitive subgroup. Hence #G = n = [K : F ]. What happens if we don t assume F K is a splitting extension? (Reversing the assumption at the beginning of the proof.) Let F K be any finite extension and put n = [K : F ]. Let α K be a primitive element and set K = F (α), and let f(x) F [x] be the irreducible polynomial of α over F. We are no longer sure that f splits completely over F. But if we let α 1,..., α k be the roots that do live in K, then once again we see that K = F (α 1 ) = = F (α k ). Once again we find that G(K/F ) S k and is simply transitive, so #G(K, F ) = k. Now just observe k n. Again note that we ve been using the primitive element theorem; that is, there exists a primitive element. That s why we need char(f ) = Fixed points of Galois groups Given a Galois extension K over F, let G = G(K/F ). By definition, all automorphisms in G fix F. Proposition 1.5. Any element of α K fixed by all automorphisms in G is in F. In other words, F is the set of fixed points of K under G. We write this as F = K G. This means we can recover F from K and G! Let s try doing this the other way around! Theorem 1.6. Let H be any finite group, and K is any field. Suppose H acts on K, with H Aut(K). Set F = K H. Then K/F is Galois, with splitting field G(K/F ) = H. This lets us find any intermediate extensions! The end. 2 MATH 137: Algebraic Geometry Definition 2.1. The radical I of an ideal is defined by {x : n : x n I}. In what follows we will assume S is a polynomial ring. We will be interested in varieties V (I), where I is an ideal in S. This can be interpreted as the set of points in space which vanish on all the polynomials in the ideal. 1 It fixes all the things in F by definition. Because it carries f to f, it carries a root of f to a root of f. 2 If α 3 is fixed by the automorphism, then it fixes everything in K, since K = F (α 3). 3

4 Evan Chen 2 MATH 137: Algebraic Geometry 2.1 Primary Ideal Definition 2.2. Recall that I an ideal of any ring S is primary if fg I implies either f I or g m I for some m. Equivalently, if xy I, then x I, y I, or x, y I. This is a refinement of prime ideal. It s slightly weaker. Roughly, an ideal is primary if it specifies some higher order vanishing conditions uniformly on V (I). Throughout this lecture S = k[x 1,..., x n ] is a polynomial ring we care about. Example 2.3. Let f(x, y) be a nonzero irreducible polynomial and define I = f(x, y), z 2. This ideal is primary (homework), but we claim that I z is not primary. Proposition 2.4. Every ideal has a primary decomposition it is an intersection of of primary ideals. Say I is irreducible if I = I 1 I 2 implies that either I 1 = I or I 2 = I. Claim 2.5. Let I be irreducible. Then it s primary. Proof. Consider the quotient (colon ideal) chain I : g I : g This is an ascending chain contained within I, so it eventually stabilizes. That means I : g N = I : g N+1 for some N. Now we claim that (I + g N ) (I + f ) = I. If so, then irreducibility will force I + g N = I, and hence g N I. Take h = a + bg N = c + df, where a, c I and b, d S. Once we show h I we re done. Product by g gives hg = ag + bg N+1 = cg + dfg. Since fg I dfg I. Now ag, cg I gives bg N+1 I. Now use the ascending chain condition to get b I : g N+1 = I : g N. Proof. By standard argument, we can write I = Q i for Q i irreducible, since otherwise we can just get an infinite chain. Now this gives the proposition. 2.2 Minimal decompositions Definition 2.6. A primary decomposition I = Q i is minimal/irredundant if (a) One cannot delete any of the Q i s and get the same result (b) All the radicals Q i are distinct. Recall that Q i is prime, and Q i is Q i -primary (whatever that means). Lemma 2.7. If I, J are P -primary, then I J is P -primary. Example 2.8. Let I = (x, y 2 ), J = (x 2, y), and P = (x, y). Then I J = (x 2, xy, y 2 ). Proof. Exercise. Theorem 2.9 (LN). Every proper ideal has a minimal primary decomposition. The idea is that given a primary decomposition, we use the lemma to intersect anything appearing more than once. Then throw out redundant terms. 4

5 Evan Chen 3 Math 129: Algebraic Number Theory 2.3 Associated Primes Recall our example I = f(x, y), z 2. We can decompose it as the intersection of the plane and the f(x, y) zero locus from whatever. Theorem If I = Q i If I = Q i is a minimal primary decomposition, then the prime ideals Q i are precisely the primes in the set { I : f f S }. Apparently things that are defined by Q are flat in some sense. The point is that even though primary decompositions need not be unique, the associated primes are unique and hence depend only on I. Here is an example. I = (xy, y 2 ) = (y) (x, y 2 ) = (y) (x 2, xy, y 2 ). This means something geometrically, but I can t tell what it is. The associated primes are (y) and (x, y) in both cases (line and point). We have uniqueness in some cases though. Definition The minimal element of a set of associated primes P are called isolated/minimal primes/components. The others are called embedded. Example In our example, (xy, y 2 ) breaks into two things. Here the guy with (x, y) prime can vary, since it depends only on what it induces in (y). ON the other hand (y) can t change. Fact If Q i is minimal in a primary decomposition Q i, then this Q i is uniquely determined. This lecture was the last in which we describe the objects we study in algebraic geometry (varieties). In future lectures we discuss regular mappings between varieties. 3 Math 129: Algebraic Number Theory Warning: the other two lectures before this sort of made sense to me. This one was all symbols. 3.1 Review Last time we stated the following theorem. Theorem 3.1. Let A be a Dedekind domain, and K a fraction field. (a) The set of fractional ideals of A is a group under multiplication. (b) For any fractional ideal b there is a unique factorization Proposition 3.2. If m A is a maximal ideal and m = {x K : xm A} then m is a fractional ideal and mm = A. There are two lemmas involved. Lemma 3.3. If a prime p A contains a product of ideals Q 1... Q n, then it contains Q i for some i. Lemma 3.4. Any nonzero ideal in A contains a nonzero product of primes. 5

6 Evan Chen 3 Math 129: Algebraic Number Theory 3.2 Some proofs Now we prove the proposition. Proof. First, we claim that m A. Pick 0 a m and observe that by the second lemma, p 1 p 2... p r (a) m. By Lemma 2, we may assume p 1 m (since some prime does, WLOG it is p 1 ). Hence p 1 = m. Suppose that the collection {p 1,..., p r } is minimal with respect to the property p 1 p 2... p r (a). Then p 1 p 2... p m is not contained in A. Then b = p 2 p 3... p m is not contained in (a), so t b (a). On the other hand tm bm bp 1 (a) hence a 1 bm A but a 1 b ina; hence a 1 b m A. If mm = m, then for every x m we have xm m x n m m for all n 0. Thus A[x] K is integral over A. Hence x A because A is an integrable integrably closed; this is a contradiction since m A. Now we prove the theorem. Proof. We will first show that every ideal b has a product decomposition b = p p np(pb). We may assume that b A; otherwise d A such that b d 1 A; hence we may write b = (db)(da) 1. This is the same as saying db A, then we can express db is a product of primes, and hence b. This is the first reduction. Hence we only need to prove the claim when b is an ideal. The assertion is trivially true for maximal ideals. Hence given b A we can assume that every ideal containing b strictly admits a product decomposition (in the style of induction). Pick a maximal prime p A containing b. Then we have the fractional ideal p such that pp = A. We know that p A. Hence b p, so if x p A then xb A. Hence p b A. Since 1 inp, so b p b A. Now we claim that b p b. This is basically the same argument as before if not we can find x p A such that xb b implying x n b b for all n. Hence A[x] K is a fractional ideal, meaning A[x] is integral over A; thus x A by integral closure, contradiction. Now we re basically done. b p b A gives p b = q qnq(pb) admits a composition because it strictly contains b. Hence b = Abpp b = b q qnq(p b), showing part (a). To show uniqueness, we mimic the proof in Z. Corollary 3.5. Given two ideals a, b A, we have a b for all maximal ideas p A if and only if n p (A) n p (b). Proof. Blah. 6

7 Evan Chen 3 Math 129: Algebraic Number Theory 3.3 An Example Example 3.6. Let K = Q(ζ p ), where ζ p is a pth root of unity. Note that ζ p is a root of the irreducible polynomial f(x) = x p One can show that A, the ring of the integers in K, is precisely equal to A = Z[ζ p ] = Z[x]/(f(x)). We want to like find the factorization of the principle ideal (p) generated inside of A. It s convenient toput x = y + 1, so that So let s call g(y) = y p 1 + p 1 So what is A/pA?. It is x p 1 x 1 = (y + 1)p 1 y Since, after all g(y) disappears modulo p. Now y = ζ p 1 and hence p 1 = y p + ( ) p y i 1. i ( p ) i y i 1. Then A = Z[y]/g(y). A/pA = Z[y]/(g(y), p) = F p [y]/(y p 1 ). A/(ζ p 1)A = Z[y]/(g(y), y) = Z/pZ = F p. wat. Okay so (ζ p 1)A is prime. Apparently this gives (ζ p 1) p 1 pa. Hence (ζ p 1) p 1 A pa (ζ p 1)A. That implies in turn that pa = (ζ p 1) e A for some 0 e p 1. On the other hand, A/(ζ p 1) p A = Fp[y] / ye. This is called a ramification. You take p, look at how it decomposes in Z[ζ p ]. They all collapse into one prime. It turns out that essentially p is the only prime with that property. The end. 7

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