# PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS

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1 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS Contents 1. Regular elements in semisimple Lie algebras 1 2. The flag variety and the Bruhat decomposition 3 3. The Grothendieck-Springer resolution 6 4. The nilpotent cone The Jacobson-Morozov theorem The exponents of g Regular elements and the principal slice The first Kostant theorem The second Kostant theorem The third Kostant theorem 27 References Regular elements in semisimple Lie algebras Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over C, and let g = Lie(G) be its Lie algebra. Definition 1.1. A semisimple element s g is regular if its centralizer Z g (s) = {x g [x, s] = 0} is a Cartan subalgebra. Recall that a Cartan subalgebra is a nilpotent subalgebra which is self-normalizing. Cartans are maximal abelian subalgebras (though not all maximal abelian subalgebras are Cartans!), and they consist entirely of semisimple elements. All Cartans are conjugate under the adjoint action of G, and every semisimple element is contained in a Cartan. Remark 1.2. Equivalently, a semisimple element s g is regular if and only if the centralizer Z G (s) = {g G Ad g (s) = s} is a maximal torus. We will denote by g rs the subset of regular semisimple elements of g. Fix a Cartan h, and let Φ be the corresponding root system. This produces a corresponding root space decomposition ( ) g = h g α, α Φ where g α = {x g h x = α(h)x h h}. 1

2 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 2 Lemma 1.3. An element s h is regular iff α(s) 0 for all α Φ. Proof. The centralizer Z g (s) just the sum of the root spaces on which the operator ad s has eigenvalue 0: The statement follows. Z g (s) = h α(s)=0 Example 1.4. A diagonalizable element of sl n is regular if and only if its eigenvalues are distinct. Remark 1.5. Since the semisimple elements are dense in g, and since every semisimple element is contained in a Cartan, Lemma 1.3 implies that g rs is a dense subset of g. Let l = dim h be the rank of g. Proposition 1.6. Let x g. Then Z g (x) contains an l-dimensional abelian subalgebra. Proof. Let {x n} be a sequence of regular semisimple elements that converges to x. Consider the Grassmannian Gr = Gr(l, g) of l-dimensional subspaces of g. g α. Since Gr is projective, there is a subsequence {x n } such that the sequence {Z g (x n )} Gr converges call its limit u. We will prove that u is an abelian subalgebra contained in Z g (x). Let w 1,..., w l be a basis for u, and choose for each i a sequence {w i n Z g (x n )} such that w i n w i. Then [w i n, w j n] = 0 [w i, w j ] = 0 u is abelian, and [w i n, x n ] = 0 [w j, x] = 0 u Z g (x). Corollary 1.7. For any x g, dim Z g (x) l and dim Z G (x) l. This justifies the following definition. Definition 1.8. An element x g is regular if the dimension of Z g (x) is equal to l. In other words, x is regular if the dimension of its centralizer is minimal, and the dimension of the G-orbit G x is maximal. Example 1.9. There exist non-semisimple regular elements. When g = sl 3, the maximal nilpotent Jordan block is regular with centralizer 0 a b 0 a. 0 We will give a more general criterion for regularity. Recall the Jordan decomposition, which says that for every x g there exists a unique decomposition x = x ss + x n into a semisimple part x ss and a nilpotent part x n such that [x ss, x n ] = 0. Uniqueness implies in particular that Z g (x) = Z g (x ss ) Z g (x n ).

3 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 3 Proposition The element x g is regular if and only if x n is regular in the derived subalgebra of Z g (x ss ). Proof. The semisimple Lie algebra l = [Z g (x ss ), Z g (x ss )] has rank l k, where k is the dimension of the center of Z g (x ss ). Then dim Z l (x n ) = l k dim Z Zg(xss)(x n ) = l dim Z g (x ss ) Z g (x n ) = l dim Z g (x) = l. Exercise Give a criterion for an element of sl n to be regular. 2. The flag variety and the Bruhat decomposition Most of the next four sections will follow the exposition in [CG]. Fix a Borel subalgebra b g, with corresponding Borel subgroup B. Let B denote the set of all Borel subalgebras this is naturally a closed subvariety of the Grassmannian Gr(dim b, g), and so it is a projective variety. Borel subgroups are self-normalizing, so the stabilizer of b under the G-action on B is N G (B) = B. The isomorphism G/B B gb g b gives a natural bijection B\G/B (1) {B-orbits on B}. The product G G acts on B B. Let G denote the diagonal embedding of G into G G. There is a bijection {B-orbits on B} (2) {G -orbits on B B} B b G (b, b ). Under map (2), the unique B-fixed point b is mapped to the unique closed G -orbit of minimal dimension, G (b, b). Now fix a maximal torus T B, and let W T = N G (T )/T denote the corresponding Weyl group. There is a third map W T (3) B\G/B w BẇB, where ẇ is any coset representative of w in N G (T ). (This is well-defined because any two coset representative differ by an element of T, and T B.)

4 These maps concatenate: PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 4 W T (3) B\G/B (1) {B-orbits on B} (2) {G -orbits on B B}. Theorem 2.1. (The Bruhat Decomposition) Map (3) is also a bijection. The proof of this theorem will be an application of the Bialynicki-Birula decomposition, which we recall here. Let X be a smooth complex projective variety equipped with an algebraic action of C. It is a standard fact that, for every x X, the limit lim z x z 0 exists and is a C -fixed point of X. Let W X be the set of C -fixed points, and assume for our purposes that it is discrete. Then, for every w W, one defines the attracting set Note that w X w. X w = {x X lim z 0 z x = w}. Since w is fixed there is an action of C on the tangent space T w X, which induces a weight space decomposition T w X = n Z T w X[n], where T w X[n] = {v T w X z v = z n v}. Because W is discrete, T w Z[0] = 0, and we get a natural decomposition (2.1) T w X = T + w X T w X. Theorem 2.2 (Bialynicki-Birula). The decomposition X = w W is a decomposition into smooth locally-closed subvarieties, and there is a natural C -equivariant isomorphism X w = Tw X w = T w + X. Remark 2.3. The Bialynicki-Birula decomposition generalizes to the case where W is not discrete, and the attracting sets are parametrized by the connected components of W. Proof of Theorem 2.1. We will prove the following sequence of bijections: (a) X w W T {T -fixed points on B} {C -fixed points on B} (b) BB {B-orbits on B} {attracting sets B w } (a) The first bijection is clear: {T -fixed points on B} {b B h b} {w b w W T } = W T. (c)

5 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 5 (b) Choose an embedding C T such that the Lie algebra Lie C h is spanned by a regular semisimple element h h. This induces a C -action on g and on B, and C fixes b B h b h b T fixes b. Then Bialynicki-Birula gives us a decomposition B = B w. w W T (c) We will show that every B w is a single B-orbit. Fix w W and let U B be the unipotent radical. The C -action on g induces a weight space decomposition g = ( ) ( ) g n = g n h g n = n + h n, n Z n>0 n<0 where g n = {x g h x = nx}. We can choose the embedding C G such that b = h n +, and in this case n + = Lie U. Because B is a homogeneous space, the tangent space of B at the point wb is canonically isomorphic to the quotient of g by the Lie algebra of Stab G (wb) = wb. The differential of the action map of G is the quotient g g/wb = T wb B, and because h wb it factors through g/h: g g/wb = T wb B g/h The surjection g/h T wb B is compatible with the decompositions g/h = n + n and T wb B = T + wb B T wb B, (the second of which comes from (2.1)), and by Theorem 2.2 this produces a surjection n + T wb B w. This is just the differential of the action map U B w, and its surjectivity implies that UwB is an open dense subset of B w. But U is a unipotent group acting on the affine (by Theorem 2.2) space B w, so all its orbits are closed by Lemma 2.4. It follows that B w = UwB = BwB. Lemma 2.4. Suppose U is a unipotent group acting on an affine space X. Then any orbit of U is closed.

6 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 6 Proof. Let O be a U-orbit and O its closure. If O = O, the boundary C = O\O is a nonempty, closed, U-stable subvariety of O. Let I C[O] be its (nonempty) defining ideal. Because C is U-stable, the group U acts on I, and because U is unipotent it has a fixed point a nonzero function g I G. Because g is G-invariant, it is constant on the orbit closure O, and because g I, g C = 0. So, g must be identically 0 on O a contradiction. 3. The Grothendieck-Springer resolution Proposition 3.1. Let b and b be any two Borel subalgebras. There is a canonical isomorphism b/[b, b] b /[b, b ]. Proof. Since all Borels are conjugate, there is some g G with b = gb. This gives an isomorphism that descends to an isomorphism ϕ g : b ϕ g : b/[b, b] b b /[b, b ]. Suppose g is some other group element such that b = g b. Because Borels are self-normalizing, g = gb for some b B. But then ϕ g = ϕ g, because the action of the element b on b/[b, b] is trivial. Definition 3.2. The quotients b/[b, b] are canonically identified with an l-dimensional vector space H called the universal Cartan. Remark 3.3. We emphasize that H is not a subalgebra of g. Let T be a maximal torus with Lie algebra h as before, and fix a Borel subgroup B such that Lie B = b contains h. The pair (T, B) is equipped with the data of a root system Φ T (depending on T ), and a set of simple roots T B (which depends also on the choice of B.) The corresponding Weyl group W T is the Coxeter group generated by the simple reflections {s α α T B } under the usual braid relations. The composition of the morphisms gives an isomorphism h h b b/[b, b] H H (which depends on the choice of b.) This induces a root system Φ on H, together with a set of simple roots, a corresponding Weyl group W, called the universal Weyl group, and an isomorphism W T W. Definition 3.4. The Grothendieck-Springer resolution is the incidence variety g = {(x, b) g B x b}.

7 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 7 We first consider the projection π : g B. For every b B, π 1 (b) = b. Fix a Borel subgroup B with Lie algebra b. The isomorphism G B b g (g, x) (gx, gb) makes g into a G-equivariant vector bundle on B, and π is simply the bundle map. Now we consider the projection µ : g g. The fiber above a point x g is the set of Borel subalgebras containing x: µ 1 (x) = {b B x b} in other words, it is the set of zeros of the vector field induced by x on B. The fiber above 0 g is the entire flag variety B. The fiber above a regular semisimple element s g rs is finite, of the same cardinality as the Weyl group, because the Borel subalgebras containing s are freely permuted by the Weyl group corresponding to the maximal torus Z G (s). Let be the regular semisimple locus of g. g rs = µ 1 (g rs ) Proposition 3.5. For every s g rs, there is a canonical action of the universal Weyl group W on the fiber µ 1 (s), which makes g rs into a principal W-bundle of g rs. Proof. Let s g rs and let the maximal torus T = Z G (s) be its centralizer. There is a natural action of the Weyl group W T on the fiber µ 1 (s). Any b µ 1 (s) induces an isomorphism W T = W, and one defines the action of every w W on b accordingly. We also record here the following observation, which will be useful later: Proposition 3.6. The map µ is proper. Proof. The map µ is just the restriction of the first projection α : g B g to the subvariety g g B, and α is proper because B is projective. There is also a natural map ν : g H (x, b) x + [b, b]. This will be useful in the proof of the following theorem, where we will work our way right-to-left along the diagram (3.1) µ g ν g H.

8 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 8 Fix a Cartan h with associated Weyl group W. The usual restriction C[g] C[h] descends to a homomorphism of algebras ϕ : C[g] G C[h] W. Theorem 3.7 (Chevalley restriction). The restricton map ϕ is an isomorphism. Proof. Injectivity is clear if P C[g] G is such that P h = 0, then by G-invariance P g ss = 0, and because semisimple elements are dense in g this means that P = 0. To prove surjectivity, let P C[h] W and let b be a Borel subalgebra containing h. This choice of b induces an isomorphism h b b/[b, b] = H, and this identification produces a corresponding P H C[H] W. Because P H is W-invariant, it is independent of the choice of b. Pulling P H back through the morphism ν, we obtain a polynomial P = PH ν O( g). This polynomial G-invariant: P (g x, g b) = P H (gx + [gb, gb]) = P H (x + [b, b]) = P (x, b) because of the canonical isomorphism b/[b, b] = gb/[gb, gb] of Proposition 3.1. By Proposition 3.5, g rs is the G-equivariant quotient of g rs by the free action of the finite group W. This gives an identification C(g rs ) = C( g rs ) W, and P descends to a G-invariant regular function R on g rs. We will show that R extends to all of g. Let D g be any relatively compact set. Because µ is proper, µ 1 (D g rs ) g rs is also relatively compact. Then P µ 1 (D g rs ) is bounded because P is a regular function, so R D g rs is also bounded. Since R is bounded on every relatively compact set, it has no poles, and R C[g] G. Last, we check that R restricts to P. Let x h r be a regular element and let b be any Borel containing x. Then R(x) = P (x, b) = P H (x + [b, b]) = P (x). Since R and P agree on the regular locus h r, they agree on all of h. Remark 3.8. A Borel subalgebra b containing h induces an isomorphism h H. Because all such Borel subalgebras are permuted by the Weyl group W, the induced isomorphism of invariant coordinate rings C[H] W C[h] W is independent of the choice of b. So, the Chevalley restriction theorem actually gives a well-defined canonical isomorphism C[g] G C[H] W.

9 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 9 Reversing this isomorphism produces an injection (3.2) C[H] W C[g]. Because W is finite, the polynomials in C[H] W separate W -orbits on H (see for example the proof of Proposition 7.3), and therefore Specm C[H] W = H/W. Because the algebra of polynomial invariants is a free polynomial algebra, the quotient H/W is a vector space of dimension dim H = l. So the injection (3.2) induces a morphism of algebraic varieties ρ : g H/W. Diagram (3.1) is now extended to µ g ν (3.3) g ρ π H H/W Proposition 3.9. Diagram (3.3) commutes. Proof. Because the polynomials in C[H] W separate points on H/W, it is sufficient to show that for any P C[H] W, f ρ µ(x, b) = f π ν(x, b) for all (x, b) g. This is equivalent to commutativity of the diagram O( g) µ ν C[g] ρ π C[H] C[H] W But then, using the notation defined in the proof of Theorem 3.7, µ (ρ (P )) = µ (R) = P = ν (π (P )). Example Let g = sl n, and let h denote the subalgebra of diagonal matrices. The Weyl group is W = S n, and the algebra C[h] W is generated by the elementary symmetric polynomials. Under the Chevalley restriction, they pull back to the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial. That is, for any x sl n, char x (t) = t n + 0 t n 1 + p 1 (x)t n p n 1 (x)

10 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 10 and the algebra of polynomial invariants on sl n is a polynomial algebra generated by p 1,..., p n 1 : C[sl n ] SLn = C[p 1,..., p n 1 ]. The map ρ is then given by ρ : g C l x (p 1 (x),..., p n 1 (x)) So the image of matrix x under ρ depends only on the eigenvalues of x, with multiplicity. Proposition Let b be a Borel subalgebra, n = [b, b] its nilradical, and x b. Then for any P C[g] G, the restriction P x+n is constant. Proof. Let y = x + n for some n n. Then (x, b), (y, b) g, and ν(x, b) = ν(y, b). Let P C[g] G and let P H C[H] W be its image under the Chevalley restriction, so that P µ = P H ν. Then P H (ν(x, b)) = P H (ν(y, b)) P (µ(x, b)) = P (µ(y, b)) P (x) = P (y). 4. The nilpotent cone Definition 4.1. The set of nilpotent element N = {x g x is nilpotent} is closed, G-stable, and stable under scaling by C, and it is called the nilpotent cone. Let Ñ = µ 1 (N ) = {(x, b) N B x b}. The projection π : Ñ B has fibers π 1 (b) = [b, b]. Fix a point b B and let n = [b, b] be its nilradical. conjugate to an element of n, there is an isomorphism Because every nilpotent element in g is G B n Ñ that makes Ñ into a G-equivariant vector bundle on B. Proposition 4.2. There is an isomorphism Ñ = T B. Proof. Fix b B with corresponding Borel subgroup B. Because B = G/B is a homogeneous space, T B = G B b,

11 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 11 where b = {ϕ g ϕ b = 0}. Under the identification g = g via the Killing form, the space b is identified with [b, b]. Then T B = G B n = Ñ. Let C[g] G + be the ideal of C[g] G consisting of polynomials with zero constant term. This is the ideal generated by the polynomials that generate C[g] G = C[H] W as a free algebra. Proposition 4.3. An element x g is nilpotent if and only if P (x) = 0 for every P C[g] G +. Proof. The proposition amounts to showing that N = ρ 1 (0). Let x g and b a Borel subalgebra containing x. Then ρ(x) = π(ν(x, b)) because of the commutativity of diagram (3.3). The element x is nilpotent if and only if x [b, b], if and only if π(x + [b, b]) = π(0) = 0, if and only if ρ(x) = 0. Corollary 4.4. The nilpotent cone N is an irreducible variety of dimension 2 dim n. Proof. The cotangent bundle T B is smooth and connected, so it is irreducible. Because N is its image under the morphism µ, N is also irreducible. The nilpotent cone is the vanishing locus of the l algebraically independent polynomials that generate C[g] G, so dim N = dim g l = 2 dim n. Proposition 4.5. The number of G-orbits in N is finite. The proof will require the following lemma (cf. [Dix] and ): Lemma 4.6. Let g be a Lie algebra and suppose that a is a Lie subalgebra that has an a-stable complement W that is, a subspace W g with g = a W and [a, W ] W. Let G and A be connected algebraic groups so that G = Lie g and A = Lie a. Then for any G-orbit Ω on g, any irreducible component of Ω a is a single A-orbit. Proof. Let Z Ω a be such a component, and let x Z. Identifying g with its tangent space at any point, T x Ω = [g, x] = [a, x] + [W, x]. Because x a, [a, x] a, and because W is a-stable, [W, x] W. Then T x Z = T x Ω T x a = [a, x] = T x (A x). So the orbit A x is open dense in Z. Because this is true for every x, and because intersecting orbits are equal, A x = Z. Proof of Proposition 4.5. The statement is clearly true for gl n, since there are finitely many configurations of nilpotent Jordan blocks. We can embed g gl n, and this embedding preserves nilpotency.

12 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 12 Because g is semisimple the image of this embedding has a g-stable complement. By Lemma 4.6, so that the intersection of each of the finitely many nilpotent GL n -orbits on gl n decomposes into finitely many G-orbits on g. Corollary 4.7. The set N reg of regular nilpotents is an open dense G-orbit in N. Proof. Because N is irreducible with finitely many orbits, it contains a unique open dense orbit O. If x O, then 2 dim n = dim O = dim G dim Z G (x), and therefore dim Z G (x) = l, so x is regular. Fix now a Borel subgroup B containing a maximal torus T, let U be its unipotent radical, b = Lie B, and n = [b, b]. There is a natural action T n/[n, n] which gives a basis of weight vectors ē 1,..., ē l which are the images of the simple root vectors e 1,..., e l under the projection n n/[n, n] x x Define the set n r = {x n x = l i=1 a iē i, a i C }. Proposition 4.8. The set n r is a single B-orbit consisting of regular elements. Proof. The image of n r in n/[n, n] is an open dense T -orbit, so there exists a regular element x n r. The set x + [n, n] is U-stable and dim U x dim n dim Z G (x) = dim[n, n], so the orbit U x is open and dense in x + [n, n]. But because U is unipotent this orbit is also closed by Lemma 2.4, so U x = x + [n, n]. Then B x = T (x + [n, n]) = n r. Corollary 4.9. The element l i=1 e i is a regular nilpotent. Remark In sl n, it follows that every regular nilpotent is conjugate to the unique maximal nilpotent Jordan block. Proposition Every regular nilpotent element is contained in a unique Borel subalgebra. Proof. By Proposition 4.4 dim N = 2 dim n = dim T B = dim Ñ, so the generic fiber of µ : Ñ N is discrete. It is sufficient to prove the proposition for the regular nilpotent e = l i=1 e i. Let α 1,..., α l

13 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 13 be the simple roots determined by T and B, let h = Lie T, and let h h be such that α i (h) = 1 for every index i. Then h is regular by Lemma 1.3, and [h, e] = e. Consider a one-parameter subgroup C G such that Lie C = Ch. For any t C, t e = exp(t)e, and so C stabilizes the fiber µ 1 (e). Since this fiber is discrete, C fixes every point, and therefore h b for all b µ 1 (e). Because h is regular, this means that h b for every such b. But then µ 1 (e) W b, and it is clear that there is only one point in this orbit b itself containing the nilpotent e. Remark This makes µ : Ñ N a resolution of singularities, because Ñ = T B is smooth and µ is an isomorphism onto the open dense regular locus in N. It is called the Springer resolution. 5. The Jacobson-Morozov theorem For any x g, let G x := Z G (x) and g x := Zg x. Theorem 5.1 (Jacobson-Morozov). Let e N be a (not necessarily regular) nilpotent element. There exist h, f g such that h is semisimple, f is nilpotent, and [h, e] = 2e, [h, f] = 2f, [e, f] = h. Corollary 5.2. For any e N, there is a rational group homomorphism SL 2 G ( ) 0 1 whose differential sends the nilpotent to e. 0 0 Proof. Because SL 2 is simply-connected, the homomorphism of Lie algebras sl 2 g given by the Jacobson-Morozov theorem descends to a morphism of groups. The proof will require an important lemma. G-invariant bilinear form Recall that the Killing form is the symmetric (, ) : g g C (x, y) tr(ad x ad y ) In particular, G-invariance implies that for any x, y, z g, ([x, y], z) = (x, [y, z]). Lemma 5.3. Suppose e is a nilpotent element such that the centralizer g e is consists entirely of nilpotent elements. Then (e, g e ) = 0.

15 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 15 and the commutation relation [h, e] = 2e implies that e : g k g k+2. To find an element f g 2 such that [e, f] = h, it is enough to show as before that h Im ad e, or in other words that h (g e ). Since [h, e] = 2e, [h, g e ] g e, and so the subspace Ch + g e is a solvable Lie subalgebra of g. By the theorems of Lie and Engel, for an appropriate choice of basis in End g, ad h is upper triangular and any x Ch + g e is strictly upper triangular. So the product ad h ad x is also strictly upper triangular, and its trace is 0: (h, x) = tr(ad h ad x ) = 0 for any x g e. So there is some f g such that [e, f] = h. It remains to show that f is nilpotent. This is clear because the triple (e, h, f) induces a Lie algebra homomorphism sl 2 g, and the element which maps to f under this homomorphism is a nilpotent element. Proposition 5.4. Let e N. All sl 2 -triples containing e are conjugate by G e. Fix a triple (e, h, f). Then any representation V of g decomposes into a direct sum of irreducible representations of sl 2. diagrammatically as: These are indexed by non-negative integers and are usually represented e where each dot is an h-eigenspace, the action of e shifts the dots to the right, and the action of f shifts them to the left. Then the representation V looks like: f

16 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 16 (5.1) e The left-most dots in each row span the kernel of f, and their complement spans the image of e. This gives a decomposition V = ker f Im e. The Lie algebra g also decomposes in this way, with (5.2) g = g f [g, e]. As before, action of h on g induces a grading g = k Z g k, [g k, g j ] g k+j f by the eigenvalues of h. Remark 5.5. In general, dim g e = dim g f dim g h. Equality holds if and only if all the eigenvalues of h are even, so that every irreducible representation contains a 0-eigenspace. Equivalently, this happens if and only if every sl 2 -irrep is of odd dimension. This inequality also shows that if e is regular, then h and f are also regular, and the number of irreducible representations of sl 2 in the decomposition of g is equal to dim g h = l. In this case (e, h, f) is called a principal sl 2 -triple. Because all regular nilpotents are conjugate, and in view of Proposition 5.4, it is clear that all principal triples are conjugate. Remark 5.6. It is immediate that g e k 0 g k. However, g e is not generally contained in the strictly positive eigenspaces if e is not regular. Define ( ) u = g e g k. This is a nilpotent ideal of g e, and from diagram (5.1) it is easy to see that u = g e [g, e]. k>0

17 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 17 Let U G e be the unipotent normal subgroup such that Lie U = u. Lemma 5.7. The affine space h + u is a single U-orbit. Proof. Because of the grading, [u, u] u, and because u is a sum of h-eigenspaces, [h, u] = u. Therefore h + u is U-stable. Because u h = 0, we also have dim U h = dim h + u, so U h h + u is open dense. Because U is unipotent, U h is closed by Lemma 2.4, so U h = h + u. Proof of Proposition 5.4. Let (e, h, f) and (e, h, f ) be two sl 2 -triples containing e. Notice that if h = h, then [e, f ] = [e, f] f f g e. But g e k 0 g k and f f g 2, so f f = 0. Otherwise, [h, e] = [h, e] h h g e [e, f f] = h h h h [g, e]. So h h u, which means that h h + u and by Lemma 5.7 there is some u U such that h = u h. Now (e, h, f ) and (e, h, u f) are two sl 2 -triples containing e with the same semisimple element, so by the first part of this proof f = u f. Let H be the simultaneous centralizer in G of the sl 2 -triple (e, h, f). When e is regular, g e = u is nilpotent and H = Z(G). More generally, Proposition 5.8. The unipotent subgroup U is the unipotent radical of the centralizer G e, and H is a maximal reductive subgroup of G e. Proof. Because the centralizer of a reductive subgroup is reductive, H is reductive. It is enough to show that G e = HU. Because the intersection H U is a normal unipotent subgroup of the reductive group H, it is trivial. Let g G e, and consider the sl 2 -triple (g 1 e, g 1 h, g 1 f) = (e, g 1 h, g 1 f). By Proposition 5.4 there is some u U such that (e, uh, uf) = (e, g 1 h, g 1 f). But then (e, h, f) = (e, guh, guf), and so gu H, and g HU.

18 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS The exponents of g The restriction map C[g] C[h] is a graded algebra homomorphism, and so the Chevalley isomorphism C[g] G C[h] W of Theorem 3.7 is an isomorphism of graded subalgebras. The algebra of invariants C[h] W is a free polynomial algebra with l = rk g homogeneous generators by the Chevalley-Shephard-Todd theorem [Bou], and these generators pull back to homogeneous generators of C[g] G : C[g] G = C[P 1,..., P l ]. Let d i = deg P i, ordered so that d 1... d l. The integers d 1,..., d l are called the exponents of the Lie algebra g, and they are independent of the choice of homogeneous generators. The following theorem, due to Kostant [Kos2], gives a way of computing these exponents explicitly. Theorem 6.1 (Kostant). Let (e, h, f) be a principal sl 2 -triple, and let g = V i be the corresponding decomposition into irreducible representations of sl 2. Let ordered so that λ 1... λ l. Then d i = λ i + 1. dim V i = 2λ i + 1, The proof on the following proposition, which will be proved at the end of Section 10: Proposition 6.2. Let g be a semisimple Lie algebra of rank l and d 1,..., d l its exponents. Then d d l = 1 (l + dim g). 2 Proof of Theorem 6.1. (See [Dix] for this proof and the next.) Consider the decomposition g = g f [g, e], as in (5.2), and let {ζ 1,..., ζ l } be a basis of h-eigenvectors for g f such that Define the map The differential of ψ at (1, a 1,..., a l ) is [h, ζ i ] = 2λ i ζ i. ψ : G C l g (g, a 1,..., a l ) g (e + ) a i ζ i (6.1) (6.2) d (1,a1,...,a l )ψ : g C l g (x, b 1,..., b l ) [x, e + ] a i ζ i + b i ζ i. The image of d (1,a1,...,a l )ψ is [g, e] g f = g, so the differential is surjective. It follows that the image G(e + g f ) of ψ is open dense in g, and the restriction map C[g] G C[e + g f ]

19 is an injection. PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 19 For every homogeneous generator P j of C[g] G, define R j C[a 1,..., a n ] by ( R j (a 1,..., a l ) = P j ψ(1, a 1,..., a l ) = P j e + ) a i ζ i. Because the polynomials P 1,..., P l are algebraically independent, so are R 1,..., R l. We use the following criterion of Euler: For any P C[x 1,..., x n ], x 1 P x i x n P x n = deg(p )P (x 1,..., x l ). So for every P j, considering u as a tangent vector in T u g and denoting by, the usual pairing between vector and covectors, On the other hand, any element can be written as u, d u P j = d j P j (u). u = e + a i ζ i e + g f Then u, d u P j = u = e + a i ζ i = (e ) λ i a i ζ i + (1 + λ i )a i ζ i = d (1,a1,...,a l )ψ ( h d (1,a1,...,a l )ψ ( h 2, (1 + λ 1)a 1,..., (1 + λ l )a l 2, (1 + λ 1)a 1,..., (1 + λ l )a l ). ), d u P j ( ) h = 2, (1 + λ 1)a 1,..., (1 + λ l )a l, d (1,a1,...,a l )(P j ψ) = ((1 + λ 1 )a 1,..., (1 + λ l )a l ), d (a1,...,a l )R j = (1 + λ 1 )a 1 R j a (1 + λ l )a l R j a l. The second-to-last equality follows because P j is G-invariant, so P j ψ is independent of the first coordinate. We get the equality of polynomials (1 + λ 1 )a 1 R j a (1 + λ l )a l R j a l = d j R j (a 1,..., a l ). The polynomial R j is a sum of monomials of the form a m 1j 1... a m kj k such that (1 + λi )m ij = d j. Suppose towards a contradiction that there is some j 0 such that d j0 < 1 + λ j0. Then for any j j 0, d j < 1 + λ j0, and m ij = 0 for all i j 0. So for all j j 0, R j only depends on the variables x 1,..., x j0 1.

20 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 20 But this contradicts the algebraic independence of the polynomials R 1,..., R j0. So, we must always have d j 1 + λ j. But by (6.2), d d l = 1 2 (l + dim g) = (1 + λ 1) (1 + λ l ), so equality must hold everywhere and d j = 1 + λ j. Proposition 6.3. The differentials dp 1,..., dp l are linearly independent at every point of the slice e + g f. Proof. Because dψ is a bijective linear transformation, it is enough to show that the differentials dr 1,..., dr l are linearly independent at every point of C l. From the proof of Theorem 6.1, for every index j we have the formula d i m ij = d j, where m ij is the cumulative exponent of a i in R j. Then i d i > d j m ij = 0, so R j depends only on the set {a r d r d j }. Moreover, if d i = d j, then either m ij = 0 or m ij = 1 and for all i i we have m i j = 0. Let C j = {i d i = d j }. Then R j (a 1,..., a l ) = i C j α ij a m ij i + g j, where α ij C are constants and g j is a polynomial that depends only on {a r d r < d j }. Then the Jacobian matrix ( ) Rj a i is block-upper triangular, and its diagonal blocks are the matrices (α ij ), i, j C k, listed over all equivalence sets C k without multiplicity. For each C k, the matrix (α ij ), i, j C k, has exactly one nonzero entry in each row and in each column, because the polynomials R 1,..., R l are algebraically independent and so no subset R 1,..., R k can depend on less than k distinct variables. Therefore, ( ) Rj det = det (α ij ) 0, a i and the polynomials R 1,..., R l have linearly independent differentials at every point. Corollary 6.4. The morphism ρ : e + g f C l x (P 1 (x),..., P l (x)) is an isomorphism.

21 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 21 Proof. The map ψ : e + g f C l e + a i z i (a 1,..., a l ) from the proof of Theorem 6.1 is an isomorphism whose pullback takes each polynomial P j to R j = α j a j + g j. (Without loss of generality we can rearrange the indices so that the leading term of R j is a j, and then g j is a polynomial in the variables a 1,..., a j 1.) Its composition with ρ, ρ ψ 1 : C l C l (a 1,..., a l ) (α 1 a 1, α 2 a 2 + g 2 (a 1 ),..., α l a l + g l (a 1,..., a l 1 )), is an isomorphism. 7. Regular elements and the principal slice Now let b be the unique Borel containing the regular nilpotent f. Proposition 7.1. Every element of f + b is regular. Proof. (See [Kos2] Lemma 10.) The action of the regular semisimple element h gives g a grading by even eigenvalues (cf. Remark 5.5): g = g k. k 2Z The principal nilpotent e lives in degree 2, and maps ad e : g k g k+2. Consider the ascending filtration g j = k j g k, and let x = e + v e + b. The element v b = k 0 g k preserves this filtration, and there is an induced filtration on g x : We claim that the image of the injection g x j = g x g j. g x j/g x (j 2) g j lies in the centralizer g e. Let y g x j then y = y j + y, where y j g j and y g (j 2). We have 0 = [y, x] = [y j, e] + [y, e] + [y, v],

22 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 22 where the first term is in g j+2 and the other terms are in g j. This implies that [y j, e] = 0, proving the claim. Therefore, dim g x = j ( ) dim g x j/g x (j 2) j dim (g e g j ) = dim g e = l. Theorem 7.2. The composition is a bijection. e + g f g reg g reg /G Proof. Because the polynomials P 1,..., P l are G-invariant, the morphism ρ of Corollary 6.4 descends to a map This gives the diagram ρ : g reg /G C l. e + g f g reg /G ρ where the top arrow is the composition we are interested in. We know that ρ is an isomorphism from Corollary 6.4, and we will prove in the next proposition that ρ is an injection. The theorem then follows. Proposition 7.3. The map ρ : g reg /G C l is injective. Proof. It is enough to show that invariant polynomials on g separate regular G-orbits. Suppose x, y g reg have the same semisimple part in their Jordan decompositions: ρ C l x = s + n, y = s + n. Then n, n are regular nilpotent elements in g s by Proposition 1.10, so they lie in the same G s -orbit, and x and y lie in the same G-orbit. In particular, x = s + n is conjugate to x = s + cn for any c C. So for any P C[g] G, and by continuity P (x) = P (s + cn) c C, P (x) = P (s). Because of this, it is equivalent to show that invariant polynomials separate semisimple G-orbits, or equivalently that C[h] W separates W -orbits. Let s, t h such that W s W t =, and let R C[h] be a polynomials such that R(ws) = 1 and R(wt) = 0 for all w W. Consider the invariant averaged polynomial P = 1 w R C[h] W #W P (s) = 1 and P (t) = 0, so P separates the orbits of s and t.

23 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 23 Let B be the Borel whose Lie algebra is b, let N be its unipotent radical, and let n = Lie N. Proposition 7.4. The action map is an isomorphism. α : N (e + g f ) e + b This result is due to Kostant [Kos1], but the proof will use a different approach, see [Gin] Theorem 7.5 and the subsequent Remarks. Definition 7.5. Let X be an affine variety with an algebraic action of C. This action is called contracting if there exists a point x 0 X such that for all x X, lim t x = x 0, t C. t 0 Lemma 7.6 ([Gin], (7.7)). Let X 1 and X 2 be smooth irreducible affine varieties with contracting C -actions, to x 1 X 1 and x 2 X 2 respectively. Suppose α : X 1 X 2 is a C -equivariant morphism such that is an isomorphism. Then α is an isomorphism. d x1 α : T x1 X 1 T x2 X 2 Proof of Proposition 7.4. From diagram (5.1), it is clear that In view of (6.1), the differential of α at (1, e) is b = [n, e] g f. d (1,e) α : n g f b (n, x) [n, e] + x, so the image of d (1,e) α is [n, e] g f = b. Since the two tangent spaces have the same dimension and since d (1,e) α is surjective, it is an isomorphism. We will define compatible C -actions so that we can apply the previous lemma. homomorphism SL 2 G given by the sl 2 -triple (e, h, f) induces a homomorphism γ : C G such that the Lie algebra of the image of γ is Ch. Define an action of C on e + b by t (e + x) = t 2 γ(t 1 )(e + x) = e + t 2 γ(t 1 ) x, where the second equality follows because e g 2 under the grading by h-eigenvalues. Then lim t (e + x) = e, t 0 The group

24 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 24 because b consists of the non-positive h-eigenspaces. Similarly, define the action of C on N (e + g f ) by t (g, e + x) = (γ(t 1 )nγ(t), t 2 γ(t 1 )(e + x)) = (γ(t 1 )nγ(t), e + t 2 γ(t 1 ) x). This action is also contracting, because N is generated by the root groups corresponding to negative h-eigenspaces: lim t (n, e + x) = (1, e). t 0 The action map α is C -equivariant with respect to these actions, so from Lemma 7.6 it follows that α is an isomorphism. 8. The first Kostant theorem Fix a Cartan subalgebra h g, and identify it with the universal Cartan H. The Grothendieck- Springer diagram becomes µ g ν (8.1) g ρ π h h/w and for every h h/w we are interested in the fiber V h = ρ 1 ( h). When h = 0, the fiber V 0 is exactly the nilpotent cone N. We have already shown that N is a G-stable variety of dimension dim g rk g (Corollary 4.4), that it consists of finitely many G-orbits (Proposition 4.5), and that the regular locus N reg is its unique open dense G-orbit (Corollary 4.7). Moreover, for any c C, the element n N is G-conjugate to cn (see the proof of Proposition 7.3). Therefore, the point 0 N is the unique closed G-orbit of minimal dimension that lies in the closure of every other nilpotent orbit. We will generalize these results to arbitrary fibers of ρ. Theorem 8.1. The morphism ρ is surjective, and for every h h/w, (1) The dimension of V h is dim g rk g. (2) The fiber V h is irreducible, G-stable, and consists of finitely many G-orbits. (3) The regular locus V reg h is the unique open dense G-orbit. (4) The semisimple locus Vh ss is the unique closed G-orbit of minimal dimension. Proof. The surjectivity of ρ follows from diagram (8.1). Fix a semisimple h h. Then g h is a reductive Lie algebra of the same rank as g, and it decomposes as g h = Z(g h ) [g h, g h ]. The element h is contained in the center Z(g h ), and the cone of nilpotent elements N h g h is contained in the semisimple derived subalgebra [g h, g h ].

25 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 25 Suppose n N h then h + n is a Jordan decomposition and by the argument in the proof of Proposition 7.3 we have P (h) = P (h + n) for any P C[g] G, so h + n V h. It follows by G-invariance that G(h + N h ) V h. Claim. There is an isomorphism G G h (h + N h ) V h (g, x) g x. Proof of claim. Take any element x V h and write its Jordan decomposition x = s + v. Then s is conjugate to some h h, and for any P C[g] G, P (h ) = P (s) = P (s + v) = P (h). It follows that h and h are G-conjugate, so x is in fact conjugate to an element of h + N h. This proves surjectivity. Now suppose g (h + n) = g (h + n ). By uniqueness of the Jordan decomposition, gh = g h and gn = g n. Then g 1 g = a G h, and (g, h + n ) = (ga, h + n ) (g, h + n), proving injectivity. Now we can prove parts (1) (4). (1) If h is regular, g h = h, and N h = 0. Then V h = G h, and dim V h = dim G dim G h = dim g rk g, so the generic fibers have the desired dimension. arbitrary h we have Since fiber dimension can only jump up, for dim g rk g dim V h = dim G G h (h + N h ) = dim G (dim G h dim N h ) = dim g rk g h = dim g rk g, where the first equality follows from the Claim, and second-to-last quality follows from Corollary 4.4. Equality must hold throughout, proving (1). (2) The isomorphism proved in the Claim shows that V h is irreducible. The G-orbits on G G h (h + N h ) are in bijection with the G h -orbits on h + N h. The latter set is finite by Proposition 4.5. (3) By (2), V h contains a unique open dense G-orbit, which must be of dimension dim g rk g. But this is exactly the orbit of a regular element.

26 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 26 (4) Since h is the unique semisimple element in h+n h, its orbit G h is the semisimple locus V ss h of V h. Every G h -orbit in N h contains 0 in its closure, so every G-orbit on G G h (h + N h ) = V h contains G h in its closure. It follows that G h is the unique closed orbit of minimal dimension in V h. Corollary 8.2. The fiber V h is a single G-orbit if and only if h is a regular semisimple element. Example 8.3. Concretely, let g = sl 4 and let 2 h = Theorem 8.1 says that the fiber V h contains an open dense orbit of elements conjugate to , 2 a unique closed semisimple orbit of elements conjugate to 2 2 2, 2 and two intermediate orbits of elements conjugate to and The second Kostant theorem View the point h h/w = Spec C[g] G as a maximal ideal in m h C[g] G. Theorem 9.1. (1) The ring of regular functions on V h is C[V h ] = C[g]/C[g]m h. (2) The variety V h is normal. Proof. Part (1) follows from Lemma 9.2 below, after noting that V h is a complete intersection, and so Cohen-Macaulay, and that the differentials dp 1,..., dp l are linearly independent at every point

27 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 27 of the open dense subset G(e + g) f = g reg. For (2), since V h is a complete intersection, it is sufficient to check that it has no singularities in codimension 1. In other words, to check that codim V h \V reg h 2. This follows immediately from the standard fact that the G-orbits on g are even-dimensional, which we prove in Lemma 9.3. Lemma 9.2 ([CG], ). Let I = (f 1,..., f l ) C[x 1,..., x n ] be an ideal such that the quotient C[x 1,..., x l ]/I is Cohen-Macaulay and such that the differentials df 1,..., df l are linearly independent at every points of an open dense subset X X. Then I = I. Lemma 9.3. Any G-orbit in g has even dimension. Proof. Let ξ g we define a bilinear form on T ξ (G ξ) = [g, ξ] = g/g ξ by the formula ω ξ (x, y) = (ξ, [x, y]). where (, ) is the Killing form. Then ω ξ (y, x) = (ξ, [y, x]) = (ξ, [x, y]) = ω ξ (x, y), so ω ξ is skew-symmetric. Moreover, ker ω ξ = {x g ω ξ (x, y) = 0 y g} = {x g (ξ, [x, y]) = 0 y g} = {x g ([ξ, x], y) = 0 y g} = {x g [ξ, x] = 0} = g ξ, so ω ξ is nondegenerate on the tangent space T ξ (G ξ). Remark 9.4. The form defined in Lemma 9.3 is usually defined on the dual g. This form is in fact symplectic, called the Kirillov-Kostant-Souriau form, and it gives every coadjoint orbit of G in g the structure of a symplectic variety. 10. The third Kostant theorem Theorem (1) The polynomial algebra C[g] is a free C[g] G -module.

28 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 28 (2) Let H C[g] denote the space of G-harmonic polynomials. The multiplication map C[g] G H C[g] is an isomorphism of graded C[g] G -modules. (3) The ring O(V h ) is a sum of finite-dimensional simple G-modules, and any such G-module W appears with multiplicity [O(V h ) : W ] = dim W T the dimension of the set of fixed points of the action of a maximal torus on W. The proof will follow [CG], which takes the approach of [BL]. It will make essential use of the following theorem, cf. [Ste], Theorem 2.2 and Remark 2.3: Theorem 10.2 (Pittie-Steinberg). The algebra C[h] is a free graded C[h] W -module. There is a natural embedding C[W ] C[h] w w 1 λ w where λ w = α is the product of all positive roots α h such that wα is a negative root. The multiplication map C[h] W C[W ] C[h] is an isomorphism. For any vector space V, the coordinate ring of V has a natural grading by degree: C[V ] = i C i [V ]. Proposition Suppose that A C[V ] is a graded subalgebra such that the restriction res : A C[E] is injective, and such that C[E] is a free graded A-module. Then the multiplication map C[V/E] A C[V ] is injective, and C[V ] is a free graded C[V/E] A-module. Proof of Theorem 10.1 (1). Apply Proposition 10.3 with V = g, E = h, and A = C[g] G. By the Chevalley isomorphism, the restriction C[g] G C[h] factors through the isomorphism C[g] G = C[h] W, so it is injective. By the Pittie-Steinberg theorem, C[h] is a free module over its image C[h] W. Then Proposition 10.3 implies that C[g/h] C[g] G C[g]

29 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 29 is an injection, and that C[g] is free over its image. Now let V be a finite-dimensional vector space and let G be a reductive group acting on V. Let D denote the algebra of differential operators with constant coefficients this is a commutative algebra with a natural G-action. Let D+ G be the ideal of the invariant subalgebra D G consisting of invariant differential operators with zero constant term. Definition A polynomial P C[V ] is G-harmonic if DP = 0 for every D D+. G Let H be the space of G-invariant polynomials on V. The goal is to prove the following proposition, from which part (2) of Theorem 10.1 follows in view of part (1). Proposition Suppose that C[V ] is a free graded C[V ] G -module. Then the multiplication map C[V ] G H C[V ] is an isomorphism of graded C[V ] G -modules. Consider the symmetric algebras Sym V = Sym i V and Sym V = Sym i V with the usual gradings. There are canonical graded isomorphisms Sym V = D and Sym V = C[V ] and there is a natural pairing, : D C[V ] C D, P (DP )(0). If D and P are homogeneous of the same degree, then DP is a constant, and so this pairing is a perfect pairing on D i C i [V ]. For any graded G-algebra A, let I A be the ideal generated by A G + in A. Lemma A polynomial P is G-harmonic if and only if P (I D ). Proof. The forward direction is clear. Suppose conversely that P (I D ), and fix D D+. G Then (D DP )(0) = D D, P = 0 D D, so every derivative of DP vanishes at 0 therefore DP = 0. Let K G be a maximal compact subgroup. Then every connected component of G intersects K, and g is the complexification of Lie K, so K is Zariski-dense in G. It follows that for every G-module A, A G = A K. Fix a K-invariant positive-definite Hermitian form on V this gives a K-equivariant skew-linear isomorphism of vector spaces V V,

30 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 30 which extends to a K-equivariant skew-linear isomorphism ϕ : Sym V Sym V. Moreover, ϕ takes G-invariants to G-invariants: ϕ((sym V ) G ) = ϕ((sym V ) K ) = (Sym V ) K = (Sym V ) G. Recall that if E = E i is any graded vector space, the Poincaré polynomial of E is P (E) = (dim E i )t i. Lemma P (H) = P (C[V ]/I C[V ] ). Proof. This is immediate from basic properties of the Poincaré polynomial: P (H) = P ((I D ) ) = P (D/I D ) = P (C[V ]/I C[V ] ), where the last equality follows from the isomorphism ϕ. Lemma There is a G-stable graded direct sum decomposition C[V ] = H I C[V ]. Proof. Under the isomorphism ϕ, the pairing, becomes the K-invariant positive-definite Hermitian form By positive-definiteness, (, ) : Sym V Sym V C (v 1, v 2 ) v 1, ϕ(v 2 ). (I Sym V ) I Sym V = 0, where the orthogonal complement is with respect to the form (, ). Pulling this through ϕ, (I D ) I Sym V = 0, where the orthogonal complement is now with respect to the pairing,. But the left-hand side is exactly H I C[V ]. Then the graded composition H C[V ] C[V ]/I C[V ] is injective. Since it is injective on any graded component, and each graded component is finitedimensional, it is enough to check that the graded components have the same dimension. But ( dim H i = dim C[V ]/I C[V ]) i by the equality of Poincaré polynomials from Lemma 10.7.

31 PART I: GEOMETRY OF SEMISIMPLE LIE ALGEBRAS 31 We are now ready to prove Proposition Proof of Proposition First we will show that the multiplication map is surjective, by showing inductively that every graded component C k [V ] is contained in the image. When k = 0 this is clear, so assume now that it is true for degrees less than k and let P C k [V ]. By the direct sum decomposition in Lemma 10.8, P = P 0 + i Q i Z i, where P 0 H, Q i C[V ], and Z i C[V ] G +. Because the decomposition of Lemma 10.8 is graded, every summand must have degree k. In particular, because deg Z i > 0, each Q i has degree strictly less than k. Applying the induction hypothesis, Q i = j P ij Y ij where P ij H and Y ij C[V ] G. Then P = P 0 + i,j P ij Y ij Z i is in the image of the multiplication map. Because the multiplication is surjective on every graded component, it is again enough to check that the graded components have the same dimension in other words, that C[V ] G H and C[V ] have the same Poincaré polynomials. Since C[V ] is free over C[V ] G by assumption, let E C[V ] be a graded subspace such that C[V ] = C[V ] G E, Then C[V ] = C[V ] G E = (C[V ] G + C) E = (C[V ] G + E) E = I C[V ] E, and on Poincaré polynomials P (C[V ] G H) = P (C[V ] G )P (H) = P (C[V ] G )P (C[V ]/I C[V ] ) = P (C[V ] G )P (E) = P (C[V ]). Proof of Theorem 10.1 (3). Let h = (a 1,..., a l ) H/W, consider the maximal ideal m h = (P 1 a 1,..., P l a l ) C[g] G,

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