# RD Sharma Solutions for Class 10 th

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1 RD Sharma Solutions for Class 10 th Contents (Click on the Chapter Name to download the solutions for the desired Chapter) Chapter 1 : Real Numbers Chapter 2 : Polynomials Chapter 3 : Pair of Linear Equations in Two Variables Chapter 4 : Triangles Chapter 5 : Trigonometric Ratios Chapter 6 : Trigonometric Identities Chapter 7 : Statistics Chapter 8 : Quadratic Equations Chapter 9 : Arithmetic Progression Chapter 10 : Circles Chapter 11 : Constructions Chapter 12 : Some Applications of Trigonometry Chapter 13 : Probability Chapter 14 : Coordinate Geometry Chapter 15 : Areas related to Circles Chapter 16 : Surface Areas and Volumes Check out other Solutions by Vedantu : NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Previous Year Question Paper Solutions for Class 10 Need to solve doubts in a LIVE Session with our expert teachers? Book a FREE Trial Now!

2 Exercise (i) All circles are... (congruent, similar). (ii) All squares are... (similar, congruent). (iii) All... triangles are similar (isosceles, equilaterals): (iv) Two triangles are similar, if their corresponding angles are... (proportional, equal) (v) Two triangles are similar, if their corresponding sides are... (proportional, equal) (vi) Two polygons of the same number of sides are similar, if (a) their corresponding angles are and (b) their corresponding sides are... (equal, proportional). (i) All circles are similar (ii) All squares are similar (iii)all equilateral triangles are similar (iv) Two triangles are similar, if their corresponding angles are equal (v) Two triangles are similar, if their corresponding sides are proportional (vi) Two polygons of the same number of sides are similar, if (a) their corresponding angles are equal and (b) their corresponding sides are proportional. 2. Write the truth value (T/F) of each of the following statements: (i) Any two similar figures are congruent. (ii) Any two congruent figures are similar. (iii) Two polygons are similar, if their corresponding sides are proportional. (iv) Two polygons are similar if their corresponding angles are proportional. (v) Two triangles are similar if their corresponding sides are proportional. (vi) Two triangles are similar if their corresponding angles are proportional. (i) False (ii) True (iii)false (iv) False (v) True (vi) True Exercise In ABC, D and E are points on the sides AB and AC respectively such that DE BC (i) If AD = 6 cm, DB = 9 cm and AE = 8 cm, find AC. (ii) If AD and AC = 15 cm, find AE DB 4 (iii) If AD and AC = 18 cm, find AE DB 3

3 (iv) If AD = 4, AE = 8, DB = x 4, and EC = 3x 19, find x. (v) If AD = 8cm, AB = 12 cm and AE = 12 cm, find CE. (vi) If AD = 4 cm, DB = 4.5 cm and AE = 8 cm, find AC. (vii) If AD = 2 cm, AB = 6 cm and AC = 9 cm, find AE. (viii) If AD and EC = 2.5 cm, find AE BD 5 (ix) If AD = x, DB = x 2, AE = x + 2 and EC = x 1, find the value of x. (x) If AD = 8x 7, DB = 5x 3, AE = 4x 3 and EC = (3x 1), find the value of x. (xi) If AD = 4x 3, AE = 8x 7, BD = 3x 1 and CE = 5x 3, find the volume of x. (xii) If AD = 2.5 cm, BD = 3.0 cm and AE = 3.75 cm, find the length of AC. (i) DE BC Therefore, by basic proportionally theorem, We have AD = AE DB EC 6 = 8 9 EC 2 = 8 3 EC EC = EC = 12 cm Now, AC = AE + EC = = 20 cm AC = 20 cm (ii)

4 AD DB = 3 4 and DE BC Therefore, by basic proportionality theorem, we have AD = AE DB EC Adding 1 on both sides, we get AD + 1 = AE + 1 DB EC = AE+EC 4 EC 3+4 = AC 4 EC 7 4 = 15 EC EC = EC = 60 7 Now, AE + EC = AC AE = 15 AE = = = 45 7 = 6.43 cm AE = 6.43 cm (iii) [ AE + EC = AC] AD DB = 2 3 and DE BC Therefore, by basic proportionality theorem, we have, AD DB = EC AE 3 2 = EC AE Adding 1 on both sides, we get

5 3 + 1 = EC AE 3+2 = EC+AE 2 AE 5 = AC 2 AE 5 2 = 18 AE AE = AE = 36 5 (iv) = 7.2 cm [ AE + EC = AC] [ AC = 18] DE BC Therefore, by basic proportionality theorem, we have, AD = AE DB EC 4 = 8 x 4 3x 19 4(3x 19) = 8(x 4) 12x 76 = 8x 32 12x 8x = x = 44 x = 44 = 11cm 4 x = 11 cm (v)

6 AD = 8cm, AB = 12 cm BD = AB AD = 12 8 BD = 4 cm And, DE BC Therefore, by basic proportionality theorem, we have, AD = AE BD CE 8 = 12 4 CE CE = CE = 6cm CE = 6cm (vi) = 12 2 DE BC Therefore, by basic proportionality theorem, we have, AD = AE DB EC 4 = EC EC = EC = 9cm Now, AC = AE + EC = = 17 cm AC = 17 cm (vii)

7 AD = 2 cm, AB = 6 cm DB = AB AD = 6 2 DB = 4 cm And, DE BC Therefore, by basic proportionality theorem, we have, AD = AE DB EC Taking reciprocal on both sides, we get, DB AD = EC AE 4 = EC 2 AE Adding 1 on both sides, we get = EC AE 4+2 = EC+AE 2 AE 6 = AC 2 AE 6 2 = 9 AE AE = AE = 3cm (viii) [ EC + AE = AC] [ AC = 9cm] DE BC

8 Therefore, by basic proportionality theorem, AD = AE BD EC 4 = AE AE = AE = 2cm (ix) DE BC Therefore, by basic proportionality theorem, AD = AE DB EC x = x+2 x 2 x 1 x(x 1) = (x + 2)(x 2) x 2 x = x 2 (2) 2 [ (a b) (a + b) = a 2 b 2 ] x = 4 x = 4 cm x = 4 cm (x)

9 DE BC Therefore, by basic proportionality theorem, we have, AD = AE DB EC 8x 7 = 4x 3 5x 3 3x 1 (8x 7)(3x 1) = (4x 3)(5x 3) 24x 2 8x 21x + 7 = 20x 2 12x 15x x 2 20x 2 29x + 27x = 0 4x 2 2x 2 = 0 2[2x 2 x 1] = 0 2x 2 x 1 = 0 2x 2 2x + 1x 1 = 0 2x(x 1) + 1(x 1) = 0 (2x + 1) (x 1) = 0 2x + 1 = 0 or x 1 = 0 x = 1 or x = 1 2 x = 1 is not possible 2 x = 1 (xi) DE BC Therefore, by basic proportionality theorem, AD = AE DB EC 4x 3 = 8x 7 3x 1 5x 3 (4x 3)(5x 3) = (8x 7)(3x 1) 4x(5x 3) 3(5x 3) = 8x(3x 1) 7(3x 1) 20x 2 12x 15x + 9 = 24x 2 8x 21x + 7 4x 2 2x 2 = 0

10 2(2x 2 x 1)= 0 2x 2 x 1 = 0 2x 2 2x + 1x 1 = 0 2x(x 1) + 1(x 1) = 0 (2x + 1) (x 1) = 0 2x + 1 = 0 or x 1 = 0 x = 1 2 or x = 1 x = 1 is not possible 2 x = 1 (xii) DE BC Therefore, by basic proportionality theorem, we have, AD = AE DB EC 2.5 = EC EC = = EC = = 45 = 4.5 cm 10 Now, AC = AE + EC = = 8.25 AC = 8.25 cm 2. In a ABC, D and E are points on the sides AB and AC respectively. For each of the following cases show that DE BC: (i) AB = 2cm, AD = 8cm, AE = 12 cm and AC = l8cm. (ii) AB = 5.6cm, AD = 1.4cm, AC= 7.2 cm and AE = 1.8 cm. (iii) AB = 10.8 cm, BD = 4.5 cm, AC = 4.8 cm and AE = 2.8 cm. (iv) AD = 5.7 cm, BD = 9.5 cm, AE = 3.3 cm and EC = 5.5 cm.

11 AB = 12 cm, AD = 12 cm and AC = 18 cm. DB = AB AD = 12 8 DB = 4 cm And, EC = AC AE = EC = 6 cm Now, AD = 8 = 2 [ DB = 4 cm] DB 4 1 And, AE = 12 = 2 [ EC = 6 cm] EC 6 1 AD = AE DB EC Thus, DE divides sides AB and AC of ABC in the same ratio. Therefore, by the converse of basic proportionality theorem, (ii) DE BC AB = 5.6 cm, AD = 1.4 cm, AC = 7.2 cm and AE = 1.8 cm DB = AB AD = DB = 4.2 cm And, EC = AC AE = EC = 5.4 cm

12 Now, AD = 1.4 = 1 [ DB = 4.2 cm] DB And, AE = 1.8 = 1 [ EC = 5.4 cm] EC Thus, DE divides sides AB and AC of ABC in the same ratio. Therefore, by the converse of basic proportionality theorem, (iii) AB = 10.8cm, BD = 4.5cm, AC = 4.8 cm and AE = 2.8cm AD = AB DB = AD = 6.3 cm And, EC = AC AE = EC = 2 cm Now, AD = 6.3 = 7 [ AD = 6.3 cm] DB And, AE = 2.8 = 28 = 75 [ EC = 2 cm] EC Thus, DE divides sides AB and AC of ABC in the same ratio. Therefore, by the converse of basic proportionality theorem. (iv)

13 DE BC AD = 5.7 cm, BD = 9.5 cm, AE = 3.3 cm and EC = 5.5 cm Now AD = 5.7 = 57 BD AD = 3 BD 5 And, AE = 3.3 = 33 EC AE = 3 EC 5 Thus DE divides sides AB and AC of ABC in the same ratio. Therefore, by the converse of basic proportionality theorem. We have DE BC 3. In a ABC, P and Q are points on sides AB and AC respectively, such that PQ BC. If AP = 2.4 cm, AQ = 2 cm, QC = 3 cm and BC = 6 cm, find AB and PQ. We have BC Therefore, by BPT AP = AQ PB QC 2.4 = 2 PB 3 PB = = 3 24 = 3 6 = PB = 3.6 cm Now, AB = AP + PB = = 6cm Now, In APQ and ABC A = A [common] APQ = ABC [ PQ BC Corresponding angles are equal] APQ ~ ABC [By AA criteria] AB = BC [corresponding sides of similar triangles are proportional] AP PQ PQ = PQ = 2.4 cm

14 Hence, AB = 6 cm and PO = 2.4 cm 4. In a ABC, D and E are points on AB and AC respectively such that DE BC. If AD = 2.4cm, AE = 3.2 cm, DE = 2cm and BC = 5 cm, find BD and CE. DE BC Now, In ADE and ABC A = A [common] ADE = ABC [ DE BC Corresponding angles are equal] ADE ~ ABC [By AA criteria] AB = AD [corresponding sides of similar triangles are proportional] BC DE AB = AB = = 6.0 cm AB = 6 cm BD = 6 cm BD = AB AD = = 3.6 cm DB = 3.6 cm Now, AC = AE BC DE AC 5 = AC = = = 8.0 cm AC = 8 cm CE = AC AE = = 4.8 cm Hence, BD = 3.6 cm and CE = 4.8 cm [ Corresponding sides of similar triangles are equal]

15 5. In below Fig., state if PQ EF. DP = 3.9 cm, PE = 3cm, DQ = 3.6 cm and QF = 2.4 cm Now, DP = 3.9 = 1.3 = 13 PE And, DQ = 3.6 = 36 = 3 QF DP DQ PE QF So, PQ is not parallel to EF 6. M and N are points on the sides PQ and PR respectively of a PQR. For each of the following cases, state whether MN QR (i) PM = 4cm, QM = 4.5 cm, PN = 4 cm and NR = 4.5 cm (i) PM = 4cm, QM = 4.5 cm, PN = 4 cm and NR = 4.5 cm Hence, PM = 4 = 8 QM Also, PN = 4 = 8 NR Hence, PM = PN QM NR By converse of proportionality theorem MN QR

16 7. In three line segments OA, OB, and OC, points L, M, N respectively are so chosen that LM AB and MN BC but neither of L, M, N nor of A, B, C are collinear. Show that LN AC. LM AB and MN BC Therefore, by basic proportionality theorem, QL = OM AL MB (i) and, ON = OM (ii) NC MB Comparing equation (i)and equation (ii), we get, ON = ON AL NC Thus, LN divides sides OA and OC of OAC in the same ratio. Therefore, by the converse of basic proportionality theorem, we have, LN AC 8. If D and E are points on sides AB and AC respectively of a ABC such that DE BC and BD = CE. Prove that ABC is isosceles.

17 DE BC Therefore, by BPT, we have, AD = AE DB EC AD DB = AE DB [ BD = CE] AD = AE Adding DB on both sides AD + DB = AE + DB AD + DB = AE + EC AB = AC ABC is isosceles [ BD = CE] Exercise In a ABC, AD is the bisector of A, meeting side BC at D. (i) If BD = 2.5cm, AB = 5cm and AC = 4.2cm, find DC. (ii) If BD = 2cm, AB = 5cm and DC = 3cm, find AC. (iii) If AB = 3.5 cm, AC = 4.2 cm and DC = 2.8 cm, find BD. (iv) If AB = lo cm, AC =14 cm and BC =6 cm, find BD and DC. (v) If AC = 4.2 cm, DC = 6 cm and 10 cm, find AB (vi) If AB = 5.6 cm, AC = 6cm and DC = 3cm, find BC. (vii) If AD = 5.6 cm, BC = 6cm and BD = 3.2 cm, find AC. (viii) If AB = 10cm, AC = 6 cm and BC = 12 cm, find BD and DC. (i) BAD = CAD We know that, the internal bisector of an angle of a triangle divides the opposite side internally in the ratio of the sides containing the angle. BD = AB DC AC 2.5 = 5 DC 4.2

18 DC = = = 5 42 = 210 = 2.1 cm DC = 2.1 cm (ii) (iii) AD is the bisector of A We know that, the internal bisector of an angle of a triangle divides the opposite side internally in the ratio of the sides containing the angle. BD = AB DC AC 2 = 5 3 AC AC = 5 3 = AC = 7.5 cm In ABC, AD is the bisector of A. We know that, the internal bisector of an angle of a triangle divides the opposite side internally in the ratio of the sides containing the angle. BD = AB DC AC BD = =

19 = 7 3 = 2.33 cm BD = 2.3 cm (iv) In ABC, AD is the bisector of A We know that, the internal bisector of an angle of a triangle divides the opposite side internally in the ratio of the sides containing the angle. BD = AB DC AC x = 10 6 x 14 14x = 10(6 x) 24x = 60 x = 60 = 5 = 2.5cm 24 2 Since, DC = 6 x = = 3.5 cm Hence, BD = 2.5cm, and DC = 3.5 cm (v) BC = 10 cm, DC = 6 cm and AC = 4.2 cm BD = BC DC = 10 6 = 4 cm BD = 4 cm

20 (vi) In ABC, AD is the bisector of A. We know that, the internal bisector of an angle of a triangle divides the opposite side internally in the ratio of the sides containing the angle. BD = AB DC AC 4 = AB [ BD = 4 cm] AB = 2.8 cm (vii) In ABC, AD is the bisector of A. We know that, the internal bisector of an angle of a triangle divides the opposite side internally in the ratio of the sides containing the angle. BD = AB DC AC BD = BD = = 5.6 = 2.8cm 6 2 BD = 2.8 cm Since, BC = BD + DC = = 5.8 cm BC = 5.8 cm

21 (viii) In ABC, AD is the bisector of A. We know that, the internal bisector of an angle of a triangle divides the opposite side internally in the ratio of the containing the angle. AB = BD AC DC 5.6 = 3.2 AC = 3.2 AC 2.8 AC = = = 4.9 cm = [ DC = BC BD] In ABC, AD is the bisector of A. We know that, the internal bisector of an angle of a triangle divides the opposite side internally in the ratio of the sides containing the angle. BD = AB DC AC x = z 6 6x = 10(12 x) 6x = 120 x = 120 = 7.5 cm 16 BD = 7.5 cm and DC = 12 x = = 4.5 cm Hence, BD = 7.5 cm and DC = 4.5 cm 2. In Fig. 4.57, AE is the bisector of the exterior CAD meeting BC produced in E. If AB = 10cm, AC = 6cm and BC = 12 cm, find CE.

22 In ABC, AD is the bisector of A. We know that, the internal bisector of an angle of a triangle divides the opposite side internally in the ratio of the sides containing the angle. BD = AB x = 10 DC AC 12 x 6 6(12 + x) = 10x x = 10x 4x 72 x = 72 = 18 cm 4 CE = 18 cm 3. In Fig. 4.58, ABC is a triangle such that AB = BD AC DC, B = 70, C = 50. Find BAD. if a line through one vertex of a triangle divides the opposite side in the ratio of the other two sides, then the line bisects the angle at the vertex. 1 = 2 In ABC A + B + C = 180 A = 180 [ B = 70 and C = 50 ] A = = = = 60 [ 1 = 2]

23 2 1 = 60 1 = 30 BAD = In ABC (Fig., 4.59), if 1 = 2, prove that AB AC = BD DC. Given: A ABC in which 1 = 2 To prove: AB = BD AC DC Construction: Draw CE DA to meet BA produced in E. Proof: since, CE DA and AC cuts them (i) [Alternate angles] And, 1 4.(ii) [Corresponding angles] But, 1 2 [Given] From (i) and (ii), we get 3 4 Thus, in ACE, we have 3 = 4 AE = AC (iii) [Sides opposite to equal angles are equal] Now, In BCE, we have DA CE

24 BD = BA DC AE BD = AB DC AC Hence, AB = BD AC DC [Using basic proportionality theorem] [ BA AB and AE AC from (iii)] 5. D, E and F are the points on sides BC, CA and AB respectively of ABC such that AD bisects A, BE bisects B and CF bisects C. If AB = 5 cm, BC = 8 cm and CA = 4 cm, determine AP, CE and BD. In ABC, CF bisects C. We know that, the internal bisector of an angle of a triangle divides the opposite side internally in the ratio of the sides containing the angle. AF = AC FB BC AF = 4 [ FB = AB AF = 5 AF] 5 AF 8 AF = 1 5 AF 2 2AF = 5 AF 2AF + AF = 5 3AF = 5 AF = 5 3 cm Again, In ABC, BE bisects B. AE = AB EC BC 4 CE = 5 [ AE = AC CE = 4 CE] CE 8 8(4 CE) = 5 CE 32 8CE = 5CE 32 = 13CE

25 CE = 32 cm 13 Similarly, BD = AD DC AC BD = 5 [ DC = BC BD = 8 BD] 8 BD 4 4BD = 40 5BD 9BD = 40 BD = 40 cm 9 Hence, AF = cm, CE = cm and BD = cm In fig., 4.60, check whether AD is the bisector of A of ABC in each of the following: (i) AB = 5cm, AC = 10cm, BD = 1.5 cm and CD = 3.5 cm (ii) AB = 4 cm, AC = 6 cm, BD = 1.6 cm and CD = 2.4 cm (iii) AB = 8 cm, AC = 24 cm, BD = 6 cm and BC = 24cm (iv) AB = 6 cm, AC = 8cm, BD = l.5 cm and CD= 2 cm. (v) AB = 5 cm, AC = l2 cm, BD = 2.5 cm and BC = 9cm Now, BD = 1.5 = 3 CD And, AB = 5 = 1 AC 10 2 BD AB CD AC AD is not the bisector of A. Now, AB = 4 = 2 AC 6 3 And, BD = 1.6 = 2 CD AB = BD AC CD AD is the bisector of A. Now, AB = 8 = 1 AC 24 3

26 And, BD CD = = BD 24 6 BD BC BD [ CD = BC BD] = 6 18 = 1 3 AB = BD AC CD AD is the bisector of A of ABC. AB = 6 = 3 AC 8 4 And, BD = 2.5 [ CD = BC BD] CD BC BD = = = 1 3 AB BD AC CD AD is not the bisector of A of ABC. Exercise (i) In below fig., If AB CD, find the value of x. Since diagonals of a trapezium divide each other proportionally. AO = BO OC OD 4 = x+1 4x 2 2x+4 4(2x + 4) = (x + 1)(4x 2) 8x + 16 = x(4x 2) +1(4x 2) 8x + 16 = 4x 2 + 2x 2 4x 2 + 2x 8x 2 16 = 0 4x 2 6x 18 = 0 2[2x 2 3x 9] = 0 2x 2 3x 9 = 0

27 2x(x 3) + 3(x 3) = 0 (x 3)(2x + 3) = 0 x 3 = 0 or 2x + 3 = 0 x = 3 or x = 3 2 x = 3 or x = 3 2 x = 3 is not possible, because OB = x + 1 = = Length cannot be negative AO = BO OC OD (ii) In the below fig., If AB CD, find the value of x. 3x 1 = 2x+1 5x 3 6x 5 (3x 1) (6x 5) = (2x + 1) (5x 3) 3x (6x 5) 1(6x 5) = 2x (5x 3) + 1 (5x 3) 18x 2 15x 6x + 5 = 10x 2 6x + 5x 3 8x 2 20x + 8 = 0 4(2x 2 5x + 2) = 0 2x 2 4x 1x + 2 = 0 2x(x 2) 1(x 2) = 0 (2x 1)(x 2) = 0 2x 1 = 0 or x 2 = 0 x = 1 or x = 2 2 x = 1 is not possible, because, OC = 5x 3 2 = 5 ( 1 2 ) 3 = = 1 2 (iii) In below fig., AB CD. If OA = 3x 19, OB = x 4, OC = x 3 and OD = 4, find x.

28 Since diagonals of a trapezium divide each other proportionally. AO = BO OC OD 3x 19 x 3 = x 4 4 4(3x 19) = (x 4)(x 3) 12x 76 = x (x 3) 4(x 3) 12x 76 = x 2 3x 4x + 12 x 2 7x 12x = 0 x 2 19x + 88 = 0 x 2 11z 8z + 88 = 0 x(x 11) 8(x 11) = 0 (x 11)(x 8) = 0 x 11 = 0 or x 8 = 0 x = 11 or x = 8 Exercise In fig , ACB ~ APQ. If BC = 8 cm, PQ = 4 cm, BA = 6.5 cm and AP = 2.8 cm, find CA and AQ. Given ACB ~ APQ Then, AC = BC = AB AP PQ AQ AC = 8 = AQ AC = 8 and AQ [corresponding parts of similar are proportional] AC = and AQ =

29 AC = 5.6 cm and AQ = 3.25 cm 2. A vertical stick 10 cm long casts a shadow 8 cm long. At the same time a shadow 30 m long. Determine the height of the tower. Length of stick = 10 cm Length of shadow of stick = 8 cm Length of shadow of tower = h cm In ABC and PQR B = Q = 90 And, C = R [Angular elevation of sun] Then, ABC ~ PQR [By AA similarity] AB = BC PQ QR 10cm = h cm 8 cm 3000 h = = 3750 cm = 37.5 m 8 3. In Fig , AB QR. Find the length of PB. PAB and PQR P = P PAB = PQR [common] [corresponding angles]

30 Then, PAB ~ PQR PB = AB PR QR [By AA similarity] [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] PB 6 = 3 9 PB = = 2 cm 4. In fig , XY BC. Find the length of XY XY BC In AXY and ABC A = A AXY = ABC Then, AXY ~ ABC AX = XY AB BC 1 = XY 4 6 XY = 6 = 1.5cm 4 [common] [corresponding angles] [By AA similarity] [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] 5. In a right angled triangle with sides a and b and hypotenuse c, the altitude drawn on the hypotenuse is x. Prove that ab = cx. We have: C = 90 and CD AB In ACB and CDB

31 B = B [common] ACB = CDB [Each 90 ] Then, ACB ~ CDB [By AA similarity] AC CD CB [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] b x = c a ab = cx 6. In Fig , ABC = 90 and BD AC. If BD = 8 cm and AD = 4 cm, find CD. ABC = 90 and BD AC Now, ABD + DBC 90 (i) [ ABC 90 ] And, C + DBC 90 (ii) [By angle sum prop. in BCD] Compare equations (i) & (ii) ABD = C (iii) In ABD and BCD ABD = C [From (iii)] ADB = BDC [Each 90 ] Then, ABD ~ BCD [By AA similarity] BD CD BD [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] 8 CD 8 CD = 8 8 = 16 cm 4 7. In Fig. 4.14, ABC = 90 and BD AC. If AB = 5.7 cm, BD = 3.8 cm and CD = 5.4 cm, find BC.

32 ABC = 90 and BD AC In ABC and BDC ABC = BDC [Each 90 ] C = C [Common] Then, ABC ~ BDC [By AA similarity] AB = BC [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] BD DC 5.7 = BC BC = cm In Fig , DE BC such that AE = (1/4) AC. If AB = 6 cm, find AD. DE BC, AB = 6 cm and AE = 1 4 AC In ADE and ABC A = A ADE = ABC Then, ADE ~ ABC AD = AE AB AC AD 1 = 4 AC 6 AC AD = AD = 6 = 1.5 cm 4 [Common] [Corresponding angles] [By AA similarity] [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] [ AE = 1 4 AC given]

33 9. In fig., 4.142, PA, QB and RC are each perpendicular to AC. Prove that 1 x + 1 z + 1 y PA AC, QB AC and RC AC Let, AB = a and BC = b In CQB and CPA QCB = PCA [Common] QBC = PAC [Each 90 ] Then, CQB ~ CPA [By AA similarity] QB = CB [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] PA CA y x = b a+b.(i) In AQB and ARC QAB = RAC [common] ABQ = ACR [Each 90 ] Then, AQB ~ ARC [By AA similarity] QB RC AC [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] y = a z.(ii) a+b Adding equations (i) & (ii) y + y = b + a x z a+b a+b y ( ) = b+a x z a+b y( 1 x + 1 z ) = 1 1 x + 1 z = 1 y 10. In below fig., A = CED, Prove that CAB ~ CED. Also, find the value of x.

34 A = CED In CAB and CED C = C A = CED Then, CAB ~ CED CA = AB CE ED 15 = 9 10 x x = 10 9 = 6 cm 15 [Common] [Given] [By AA similarity] [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] 11. The perimeters of two similar triangles are 25 cm and 15 cm respectively. If one side of first triangle is 9 cm, what is the corresponding side of the other triangle? Assume ABC and PQR to be 2 triangles ABC ~ PQR Perimeter of ABC = 25 cm Perimeter of PQR = 15 cm AB = 9 cm PQ =? Since, ABC ~ PQR Then, ratio of perimeter of triangles = ratio of corresponding sides 25 = AB 12 PQ 25 = 9 15 PQ PQ = 15 9 = 5.4 cm In ABC and DEF, it is being given that: AB = 5 cm, BC = 4 cm and CA = 4.2 cm; DE=10cm, EF = 8 cm and FD = 8.4 cm. If AL BC and DM EF, find AL: DM.

35 Since, AB = BC = AC = 1 DE EF DE 2 Then, ABC ~ DEF [By SSS similarity] Now, In ABL ~ DEM B = E [ ABC ~ DEF] ALB = DME [Each 90 ] Then, ABL ~ DEM [By AA similarity] AB = AL [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] DE DM 5 = AL 10 DM 1 = AL 2 DM 13. D and E are the points on the sides AB and AC respectively of a ABC such that: AD = 8 cm, DB = 12 cm, AE = 6 cm and CE = 9 cm. Prove that BC = 5/2 DE. AD = 8 = 2 DB 12 3 And, AE = 6 = 2 EC 9 3 Since, AD = AE DB EC Then, by converse of basic proportionality theorem DE BC

36 In ADE and ABC A = A ADE = B Then, ADE ~ ABC AD = DE AB BC 8 = DE 20 BC 2 = DE 5 BC BC = 5 2 DE [Common] [Corresponding angles] [By AA similarity] [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] 14. D is the mid-point of side BC of a ABC. AD is bisected at the point E and BE produced cuts AC at the point X. Prove that BE : EX = 3 : 1 Given: In ABC, D is the mid-point of BC and E is the mid-point of AD. To prove: BE : EX = 3 : 1 Const: Through D, draw DF BX Proof: In EAX and ADF EAX = ADF [Common] AXE = DAF [Corresponding angles] Then, AEX ~ ADF [By AA similarity] EX = AE [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] DF AD EX = AE [AE = ED given] DF 2AE DF = 2EX. (i) In CDF and CBX [By AA similarity] CD = DF [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] CB BX 1 = DF [BD = DC given] 2 BE+EX BE + EX = 2DF BE + EX = 4EX BE = 4EX EX [By using (i)] BE = 4EX EX

37 BE EX = ABCD is a parallelogram and APQ is a straight line meeting BC at P and DC produced at Q. Prove that the rectangle obtained by BP and DQ is equal to the AB and BC. Given: ABCD is a parallelogram To prove: BP DQ = AB BC Proof: In ABP and QDA B = D BAP = AQD Then, ABP ~ QDA AB = BP QD DA But, DA = BC Then, AB = BP QD BC AB BC = QD BP [Opposite angles of parallelogram] [Alternate interior angles] [By AA similarity] [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] [Opposite sides of parallelogram] 16. In ABC, AL and CM are the perpendiculars from the vertices A and C to BC and AB respectively. If AL and CM intersect at O, prove that: (i) OMA and OLC (ii) OA = OM OC OL

38 AL BC and CM AB In OMA and OLC MOA = LOC [Vertically opposite angles] AMO = CLO [Each 90 ] Then, OMA ~ OLC [By AA similarity] OA = OM [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] OC OL 17. In Fig below we have AB CD EF. If AB = 6 cm, CD = x cm, EF = 10 cm, BD = 4 cm and DE = y cm, calculate the values of x and y. We have AB CD EF. If AB = 6 cm, CD = x cm, EF = 10 cm, BD = 4 cm and DE = y cm In ECD and EAB CED = AEB [common] ECD = EAB [corresponding angles] Then, ECD ~ EAB.(i) [By AA similarity] EC = CD [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] EA AB EC = x.(ii) EA 6 In ACD and AEF CAD = EAF [common] ACD = AEF [corresponding angles] Then, ACD ~ AEF [By AA similarity] AC = CD AE EF AC = x (iii) AE 10 Add equations (iii) & (ii) EC EA + AC AE = x 6 + x 10 AE = 5x+3x AE 30 1 = 8x 30 x = 30 8 = 3.75 cm From (i) DC = ED AB BE

39 3.75 = y 6 y+4 6y = 3.75y y = 15 y = 15 = 6.67 cm ABCD is a quadrilateral in which AD = BC. If P, Q, R, S be the mid-points of AB, AC, CD and BD respectively, show that PQRS is a rhombus. AD = BC and P, Q, R and S are the mid-points of sides AB, AC, CD and BD respectively, show that PQRS is a rhombus. In BAD, by mid-point theorem PS AD and PS = 1 2 AD In CAD, by mid-point theorem QR AD and QR = 1 2 AD (i) (ii) Compare (i) and (ii) PS QR and PS = QR Since one pair of opposite sides is equal as well as parallel then PQRS is a parallelogram...(iii) Now, In ABC, by mid-point theorem PQ BC and PQ = 1 2 BC (iv) And, AD = BC (v) [given] Compare equations (i) (iv) and (v) PS = PQ (vi) From (iii) and (vi) Since, PQRS is a parallelogram with PS = PQ then PQRS is a rhombus 19. In Fig. below, if AB BC, DC BC and DE AC, Prove that CED ~ ABC.

40 Given: AB BC, DC BC and DE AC To prove: CED ~ ABC Proof: BAC + BCA = 90 (i) [By angle sum property] And, BCA + ECD = 90 (ii) [DC BC given] Compare equation (i) and (ii) BAC = ECD (iii) In CED and ABC CED = ABC [Each 90 ] ECD = BAC [From (iii)] Then, CED ~ ABC [By AA similarity] 20. In an isosceles ABC, the base AB is produced both the ways to P and Q such that AP BQ = AC 2. Prove that APC ~ BCQ. Given: In ABC, CA = CB and AP BQ = AC2 To prove: APC ~ BCQ Proof: AP BQ = AC 2 [Given] AP BQ = AC AC AP BQ = AC BC [AC = BC given] AP = AC (i) BC BQ Since, CA = CB [Given] Then, CAB = CBA (ii) [Opposite angles to equal sides] Now, CAB + CAP = 180 (iii) [Linear pair of angles] And, CBA + CBQ = 180 (iv) [Linear pair of angles]

41 Compare equation (ii) (iii) & (iv) CAP = CBQ (v) In APC and BCQ CAP = CBQ AP = AC BC BQ Then, APC~ BCQ [From (v)] [From (i)] [By SAS similarity] 21. A girl of height 90 cm is walking away from the base of a lamp-post at a speed of 1.2m/sec. If the lamp is 3.6 m above the ground, find the length of her shadow after 4 seconds. Height of girl = 90 cm = 0.9 m Height of lamp-post = 3.6 m Speed of girl = 1.2 m/sec Distance moved by girl (CQ) = Speed Time = = 4.8m Let length of shadow (AC) = x cm In ABC and APQ ACB = AQP [Each 90 ] BAC = PAQ [Common] Then, AB ~ APQ [By AA similarity] AC = BC [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] AQ PQ x = 0.9 x x = 1 x x = x x x = 4.8 3x = 4.8 x = = 1.6 m

42 Length of shadow = 1.6m 22. Diagonals AC and BD of a trapezium ABCD with AB DC intersect each other at the point O. Using similarity criterion for two triangles, show that OA = OB. OC OD ABCD is a trapezium with AB DC In AOB and COD AOB = COD [Vertically opposite angles] OAB = OCD [Alternate interior angles] Then, AOB ~ COD [By AA similarity] OA = OB [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] OC OD 23. If ABC and AMP are two right triangles, right angled at B and M respectively such that MAP = BAC. Prove that (i) ABC ~ AMP (ii) CA = BC PA MP B = M = 90 And, BAC = MAP In ABC and AMP B = M [Each 90 ] BAC = MAP [Given] Then, ABC ~ AMP [By AA similarity]

43 CA PA = BC MP [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] 24. A vertical stick of length 6 m casts a shadow 4 m long on the ground and at the same time a tower casts a shadow 28 m long. Find the height of the tower. Let AB be a tower CD be a stick, CD = 6m Shadow of AB is BE = 28m Shadow of CD is DF = 4m At same time light rays from sun will fall on tower and stick at same angle. So, DCF = BAE And DFC = BEA CDF = ABE (tower and stick are vertical to ground) Therefore ABE ~ CDF (By AA similarity) So, AB CD = BE DF AB = AB = 28 6 = 42m 4 So, height of tower will be 42 metres. 25. In below Fig., ABC is right angled at C and DE AB. Prove that ABC ~ ADE and Hence find the lengths of AE and DE. In ACB, by Pythagoras theorem AB 2 = AC 2 + BC 2 AB 2 = (5) 2 + (12) 2

44 AB 2 = = 169 AB = 169 = 13 cm In AED and ACB A = A [Common] AED = ACB [Each 90 ] Then, AED ~ ACB [By AA similarity] AE = DE = AD [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] AC CB AB AE = DE = AE = 3 DE and = AE = cm and DE = cm Exercise Triangles ABC and DEF are similar (i) If area ( ABC) = 16cm 2, area ( DEF) = 25 cm 2 and BC = 2.3 cm, find EF. (ii) If area ( ABC) = 9cm 2, area ( DEF) = 64 cm 2 and DE = 5.1 cm, find AB. (iii)if AC = 19cm and DF = 8 cm, find the ratio of the area of two triangles. (iv) If area ( ABC) = 36cm 2, area ( DEF) = 64 cm 2 and DE = 6.2 cm, find AB. (v) If AB = 1.2 cm and DE = 1.4 cm, find the ratio of the areas of ABC and DEF. (i) ABC ~ DEF Area ( ABC) = 16 cm 2, Area ( DEF) = 25 cm 2 And BC = 2.3 cm Since, ABC ~ DEF Then, Area ( ABC) = BC2 Area ( DEF) EF 2 16 = (2.3)2 25 EF 2 4 = EF EF = 11.5 = cm 4 (ii) ABC ~ DEF Area( ABC) = 9 cm 2 Area ( DEF) = 64 cm 2 [By area of similar triangle theorem] [By taking square root]

45 And DE = 5.1 cm Since, ABC ~ DEF Then, Area ( ABC) Area ( DEF) = AB2 DE = AB2 (5.1) 2 [By area of similar triangle theorem] 3 = AB [By taking square root] AB = = cm 8 (iii) ABC ~ DEF AC = 19 cm and DF = 8 cm By area of similar triangle theorem Area ( ABC) = AC2 = (19)2 = 361 Area ( DEF) DF ABC ~ DEF AC = 19 cm and DF = 8 cm By area of similar triangle theorem Area ( ABC) = AC2 = (19)2 = 361 Area ( DEF) DF (iv) Area ( ABC) = 36 cm 2 Area ( DEF) = 64 cm 2 DE = 6.2 cm And, ABC ~ DEF By area of similar triangle theorem Area( ABC) Area ( DEF) = AB2 DE 2 36 = AB2 64 (6.2) 2 [By taking square root] AB = = 4.65 cm 8 (v) ABC ~ DEF AB = 1.2 cm and DF = 1.4 cm By area of similar triangle theorem Area ( ABC) Area ( DEF) = AB2 DE 2 = (1.2)2 (1.4) 2

46 = = In fig. below ACB ~ APQ. If BC = 10 cm, PQ = 5 cm, BA = 6.5 cm and AP = 2.8 cm, find CA and AQ. Also, find the area ( ACB): area ( APQ) ACB ~ APQ Then, AC = CB = AB [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] AP PQ AQ AC = 10 = AQ AC = and = AQ AC = and AQ = AC = 5.6 cm and AQ = 3.25 cm By area of similar triangle theorem Area ( ACB) Area ( APQ) = BC2 PQ 2 = (10)2 (5) 2 = = The areas of two similar triangles are 81 cm 2 and 49 cm 2 respectively. Find the ratio of their corresponding heights. What is the ratio of their corresponding medians?

47 ABC ~ PQR Area ( ABC) = 81 cm 2, Area ( PQR) = 49 cm 2 And AD and PS are the altitudes By area of similar triangle theorem Area ( ABC) Area ( PQR) = AB2 PQ = AB2 PQ 2 9 = AB 7 PQ.(i) [Taking square root] In ABD and PQS B = Q [ ABC ~ PQR] ADB = PSQ [Each 90 ] Then, ABD ~ PQS [By AA similarity] AB PQ PS (ii) [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] Compare (1) and (2) AD PS = 9 7 Ratio of altitudes = 9 7 Since, the ratio of the area of two similar triangles is equal to the ratio of the squares of the squares of their corresponding altitudes and is also equal to the squares of their corresponding medians. Hence, ratio of altitudes = Ratio of medians = 9 : 7 4. The areas of two similar triangles are 169 cm 2 and 121 cm 2 respectively. If the longest side of the larger triangle is 26 cm, find the longest side of the smaller triangle. ABC ~ PQR Area( ABC) = 169 cm 2 Area( PQR) = 121 cm2 And AB = 26 cm

48 By area of similar triangle theorem Area ( ABC) Area ( PQR) = AB2 PQ = (26)2 121 PQ 2 13 = 26 [Taking square root] 11 PQ PQ = = 22 cm Two isosceles triangles have equal vertical angles and their areas are in the ratio 36 : 25. Find the ratio of their corresponding heights. Given: AB = AC, PQ = PQ and A = P And, AD and PS are altitudes And, Area ( ABC) = 36 Area ( PQR) 25 (i) To find: AD PS Proof: Since, AB = AC and PQ = PR Then, AB PQ = 1 and = 1 AC PR AB = PQ AC PR AB = AC PQ PR In ABC and PQR A = P AB = AC PQ PR Then, ABC~ PQR Area ( ABC) Area ( PQR) = AB2 PQ 2 (ii) Compare equation (i)and (iii) AB 2 = 36 PQ 2 25 AB = 6.(iv) PQ 5 [Given] [From (2)] [By SAS similarity].(iii) [By area of similar triangle theorem]

49 In ABD and PQS B = Q [ ABC ~ PQR] ADB = PSQ [Each 90 ] Then, ABD ~ PQS [By AA similarity] AB PQ PS 6 = AD 5 PS [From (iv)] 6. The areas of two similar triangles are 25 cm 2 and 36 cm 2 respectively. If the altitude of the first triangle is 2.4 cm, find the corresponding altitude of the other. ABC ~ PQR Area ( ABC) = 25 cm 2 Area ( PQR) = 36 cm 2 AD = 2.4 cm And AD and PS are the altitudes To find: PS Proof: Since, ABC ~ PQR Then, by area of similar triangle theorem Area ( ABC) Area ( PQR) = AB2 PQ = AB2 PQ 2 5 = AB.(i) 6 PQ In ABD and PQS B = Q [ ABC ~ PQR] ADB ~ PSQ [Each 90 ] Then, ABD ~ PQS [By AA similarity] AB = AD.(ii) [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] PS PS Compare (i) and (ii)

50 AD = 5 PS = 5 PS 6 PS = = 2.88 cm 5 7. The corresponding altitudes of two similar triangles are 6 cm and 9 cm respectively. Find the ratio of their areas. ABC ~ PQR AD = 6 cm And, PS = 9 cm By area of similar triangle theorem Area ( ABC) Area ( PQR) = AB2 PQ 2 (i) In ABD and PQS B = Q [ ABC ~ PQR] ADB = PSQ [Each 90 ] Then, ABD ~ PQS [By AA similarity] AB = AD [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] PQ PS AB = 6 PQ 9 AB = 2 (ii) PQ 3 Compare equations (i) and (ii) Area( ABC) Area ( PQR) = (2 3 )2 = ABC is a triangle in which A =90, AN BC, BC = 12 cm and AC = 5cm. Find the ratio of the areas of ANC and ABC.

51 In ANC and ABC C = C [Common] ANC = BAC [Each 90 ] Then, ANC ~ BAC [By AA similarity] By area of similarity triangle theorem Area ( ANC) Area ( BAC) = AC2 BC 2 = = In Fig , DE BC (i) If DE = 4 cm, BC = 6 cm and Area ( ADE) = 16 cm 2, find the area of ABC. (ii) If DE = 4cm, BC = 8 cm and Area ( ADE) = 25 cm 2, find the area of ABC. (iii)if DE : BC = 3 : 5. Calculate the ratio of the areas of ADE and the trapezium BCED. DE BC, DE = 4 cm, BC = 6 cm and area ( ADE) = 16cm 2 In ADE and ABC A = A [Common] ADE = ABC [Corresponding angles] Then, ADE ~ ABC [By AA similarity] By area of similar triangle theorem Area ( ADE) = DE2 Area ( ABC) BC 2 16 Area ( ABC) =

53 10. In ABC, D and E are the mid-points of AB and AC respectively. Find the ratio of the areas of ADE and ABC D and E as the mid-points of AB and AC So, according to the mid-point theorem DE BC and DE = 1 2 BC (i) In ADE and ABC A = A [Common] ADE = B [Corresponding angles] Then, ADE ~ ABC [By AA similarity] By area of similar triangle theorem ar( ADE) = DE2 ar( ABC) BC 2 = (1 2 BC)2 BC 1 4 = BC2 BC 2 = [From (i)] 11. In Fig., 4.179, ABC and DBC are on the same base BC. If AD and BC intersect at O, prove that area ( ABC) = AO area ( DBC) DO We know that area of a triangle = 1 Base height 2 Since ABC and DBC are one same base, Therefore ratio between their areas will be as ratio of their heights. Let us draw two perpendiculars AP and DM on line BC.

54 In APO and DMO, APO = DMO (Each is 90 ) AOP = DOM (vertically opposite angles) OAP = ODM (remaining angle) Therefore APO ~ DMO (By AAA rule) Therefore AP = AO DM DO Therefore area ( ABC) = AO area ( DBC) DO 12. ABCD is a trapezium in which AB CD. The diagonals AC and BD intersect at O. Prove that: (i) AOB and COD (ii) If OA = 6 cm, OC = 8 cm, Find: (a) (b) area ( AOB) area ( COD) area ( AOD) area ( COD) AB DC In AOB and COD AOB = COD [Vertically opposite angles] OAB = OCD [Alternate interior angles] Then, AOB ~ COD [By AA similarity] (a) By area of similar triangle theorem ar ( AOB) ar ( COD) = OA2 OC 2 = = = 9 16 (b) Draw DP AC 1 area ( AOD) = 2 AO DP 1 area ( COD) 2 CO DP = AO CO = 6 8 = 3 4

55 13. In ABC, P divides the side AB such that AP : PB = 1 : 2. Q is a point in AC such that PQ BC. Find the ratio of the areas of APQ and trapezium BPQC. PQ BC And AP = 1 PB 2 In APQ and ABC A = A [Common] APQ = B [Corresponding angles] Then, APQ ~ ABC [By AA similarity] By area of similar triangle theorem ar ( APQ) = AP2 ar ( ABC) AB 2 ar ( APQ) = 12 ar( APQ)+ar(trap.BPQC) 3 2 [AP = 1 ] PB 2 9ar (APQ) = ar( APQ) + ar(trap. BPQC) 9ar (APQ) ar( APQ) + ar(trap. BPQC) 8ar(APQ) = ar(trap. BPQC) ar ( APQ) ar(trap.bpqc) = The areas of two similar triangles are 100 cm 2 and 49 cm 2 respectively. If the altitude the bigger triangle is 5 cm, find the corresponding altitude of the other. ABC ~ PQR

56 Area( ABC) = 100 cm 2, Area ( PQR) = 49 cm 2 AD = 5 cm And AD and PS are the altitudes By area of similar triangle theorem Area ( ABC) Area ( PQR) = AB2 PQ = AB2 PQ 2 10 = AB (i) 7 PQ In ABD and PQS B = Q [ ABC ~ PQR] ADB = PSQ [Each 90 ] Then, ABD ~ PQS [By AA similarity] AB = AD (ii) [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] PQ PS Compare (i) and (ii) AD = 10 PS 7 5 = 10 PS 7 PS = 5 7 = 3.5 cm The areas of two similar triangles are 121 cm 2 and 64 cm 2 respectively. If the median of the first triangle is 12.1 cm, find the corresponding median of the other. ABC ~ PQR Area ( ABC) = 121 cm 2, Area ( PQR) = 64 cm 2 AD = 12.1 cm And AD and PS are the medians By area of similar triangle theorem Area( ABC) Area( PQR) = AB2 PQ 2

57 = AB2 PQ 2 11 = AB 8 PQ Since, ABC ~ PQR Then, AB = BC PQ QR AB = 2BD PQ 2QS AB = BD PQ QS In ABD and PQS B = Q AB = BD PQ QS (i) [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] [AD and PS are medians] (ii) [ ABC ~ PQS] [From (ii)] Then, ABD ~ PQS [By SAS similarity] AB = AD PQ PS Compare (i) and (iii) 11 = AD 8 PS 11 = PS PS = PS PS = = 8.8 cm PS (iii) [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] 16. If ABC ~ DEF such that AB = 5 cm, area ( ABC) = 20 cm 2 and area ( DEF) = 45 cm 2, determine DE. ABC ~ DEF such that AB = 5 cm, Area ( ABC) = 20 cm 2 and area( DEF) = 45 cm 2 By area of similar triangle theorem Area( ABC) Area( DEF) = AB2 DE = 52 DE 2 4 = 52 9 DE 2 2 = 5 3 DE DE = = 7.5 cm [Taking square root] 17. In ABC, PQ is a line segment intersecting AB at P and AC at Q such that PQ BC and PQ divides ABC into two parts equal in area. Find BP AB

58 PQ BC And ar( APQ) = ar(trap. PQCB) ar( APQ) = ar( ABC) ar( APQ) 2ar( APQ) = ar( ABC) (i) In APQ and ABC A = A [common] APQ = B [corresponding angles] Then, APQ ~ ABC [By AA similarity] By area of similar triangle theorem ar( APQ) ar( ABC) = AP2 AB 2 ar( APQ) = AP2 ar( APQ) AB = AP2 AB = AP AB 2 1 = AP 2 AB 1 = AB BP 2 AB 1 = AB BP 2 AB AB 1 = 1 BP 2 AB = BP = 1 1 AB 2 BP AB = [By using (i)] [Taking square root] 18. The areas of two similar triangles ABC and PQR are in the ratio 9:16. If BC = 4.5 cm, find the length of QR.

59 ABC ~ PQR area ( ABC) area ( PQR) = BC2 QR 2 9 = (4.5)2 16 QR 2 3 = QR QR = = 6cm [Taking square root] 19. ABC is a triangle and PQ is a straight line meeting AB in P and AC in Q. If AP = 1 cm, PB = 3 cm, AQ = 1.5 cm, QC = 4.5 m, prove that area of APQ is one- sixteenth of the area of ABC. AP = 1 cm, PB = 3 cm, AQ = 1.5 cm and QC = 4.5 m In APQ and ABC A = A [Common] AP = AQ AB AC [Each equal to 1 4 ] Then, APQ ~ ABC [By SAS similarity] By area of similar triangle theorem ar( APQ) ar( ABC) = ar( APQ) ar( ABC) = 1 16 ar( ABC) 20. If D is a point on the side AB of ABC such that AD : DB = 3.2 and E is a Point on BC such that DE AC. Find the ratio of areas of ABC and BDE.

60 AD = 3 DB 2 DB = 2 AD 3 In BDE and BAC B = B [common] BDE = A [corresponding angles] Then, BDE ~ BAC [By AA similarity] By area of similar triangle theorem ar( ABC) ar( BDE) = AB2 BD 2 = [AD DB = 3 2 ] = If ABC and BDE are equilateral triangles, where D is the mid-point of BC, find the ratio of areas of ABC and BDE. ABC and BDE are equilateral triangles then both triangles are equiangular ABC ~ BDE [By AAA similarity] By area of similar triangle theorem

62 Exercise If the sides of a triangle are 3 cm, 4 cm, and 6 cm long, determine whether the triangle is a right-angled triangle. Sides of triangle AB = 3 cm BC = 4 cm AC = 6 cm AB 2 = 3 2 = 9 BC 2 = 4 2 = 16 AC 2 = 6 2 = 36 Since, AB 2 + BC 2 AC 2 Then, by converse of Pythagoras theorem, triangle is not a right triangle. 2. The sides of certain triangles are given below. Determine which of them right triangles are. (i) a = 7 cm, b = 24 cm and c = 25 cm (ii) a = 9 cm, b = l6 cm and c = 18 cm (iii) a = 1.6 cm, b = 3.8 cm and c = 4 cm (iv) a = 8 cm, b = 10 cm and c = 6 cm a = 7 cm, b = 24 cm and c = 25 cm a 2 = 49, b 2 = 576 and c 2 = 625 Since, a 2 + b 2 = = 625 = c 2 Then, by converse of Pythagoras theorem, given triangle is a right triangle. a = 9 cm, b = 16 cm and c = 18 cm a 2 = 81, b 2 = 256 and c 2 = 324 Since, a 2 + b 2 = = 337 c 2 Then, by converse of Pythagoras theorem, given triangle is not a right triangle. a = 1.6 cm, b = 3.8 cm and C = 4 cm a 2 = 64, b 2 = 100 and c 2 = 36 Since, a 2 + c 2 = = 100 = b 2

63 Then, by converse of Pythagoras theorem, given triangle is a right triangle. 3. A man goes 15 metres due west and then 8 metres due north. How far is he from the starting point? Let the starting point of the man be O and final point be A. In ABO, by Pythagoras theorem AO 2 = AB 2 + BO 2 AO 2 = AO 2 = = 289 AO = 289 = 17m He is 17m far from the starting point. 4. A ladder 17 m long reaches a window of a building 15 m above the ground. Find the distance of the foot of the ladder from the building. In ABC, by Pythagoras theorem AB 2 + BC 2 = AC BC 2 = BC 2 = 17 2 BC 3 = BC 2 = 64

64 BC = 8 m Distance of the foot of the ladder from building = 8 m 5. Two poles of heights 6 m and 11 m stand on a plane ground. If the distance between their feet is 12 m, find the distance between their tops. Let CD and AB be the poles of height 11 and 6 m. Therefore CP = 11 6 = 5 m From the figure we may observe that AP = 12m In triangle APC, by applying Pythagoras theorem AP 2 + PC 2 = AC = AC 2 AC 2 = = 169 AC = 13 Therefore distance between their tops = 13m. 6. In an isosceles triangle ABC, AB = AC = 25 cm, BC = 14 cm. Calculate the altitude from A on BC. We have AB = AC = 25 cm and BC = 14 cm In ABD and ACD ADB = ADC [Each 90 ] AB = AC [Each 25 cm]

66 AC = 14 m, DC = 12m and ED = BC = 9m Construction: Draw EB AC AB = AC BC = 14 9 = 5m And, EB = DC = 12 m In ABE, by Pythagoras theorem, AE 2 = AB 2 + BE 2 AE 2 = AE 2 = = 169 AE = 169 = 13 m Distance between their tops = 13 m 9. Using Pythagoras theorem determine the length of AD in terms of b and c shown in Fig In BAC, by Pythagoras theorem BC 2 = AB 2 + AC 2 BC 2 = c 2 + b 2 BC = c 2 + b 2 In ABD and CBA B = B (i) [Common]

67 ADB = BAC [Each 90 ] Then, ABD ~ CBA [By AA similarity] AB CB CA [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] c = AD c 2 +b 2 b bc AD = c 2 +b A triangle has sides 5 cm, 12 cm and 13 cm. Find the length to one decimal place, of the perpendicular from the opposite vertex to the side whose length is 13 cm. Let, AB = 5cm, BC = 12 cm and AC = 13 cm. Then, AC 2 = AB 2 + BC 2. This proves that ABC is a right triangle, right angles at B. Let BD be the length of perpendicular from B on AC. Now, Area ABC = 1 (BC BA) 2 = 1 (12 5) 2 = 30 cm 2 Also, Area of ABC = 1 AC BD = 1 (13 BD) 2 2 (13 BD) = 30 2 BD = 60 cm ABCD is a square. F is the mid-point of AB. BE is one third of BC. If the area of FBE = 108 cm 2, find the length of AC.

68 Since, ABCD is a square Then, AB = BC = CD = DA = x cm Since, F is the mid-point of AB Then, AF = FB = x 2 cm Since, BE is one third of BC Then, BE = x cm 3 area of FBE = 108 cm BE FB = x 3 x 2 = 108 x 2 = x 2 = 1296 x = 1296 = 36cm In ABC, by pythagoras theorem AC 2 = AB 2 + BC 2 AC 2 = x 2 + x 2 AC 2 = 2x 2 AC 2 = 2 (36) 2 AC = 36 2 = = cm 12. In an isosceles triangle ABC, if AB = AC = 13 cm and the altitude from A on BC is 5 cm, find BC. In ADB, by Pythagoras theorem AD 2 + BD 2 = BD 2 = 169 BD 2 = = 144 BD = 144 = 12 cm In ADB and ADC ADB = ADC [Each 90 ] AB = AC [Each 13 cm]

70 ABCD is a rhombus with diagonals AC = 10 cm and BD = 24 cm We know that diagonal of a rhombus bisect each other at 90 AO = OC = 5 cm and BO = OD = 12 cm In AOB, by Pythagoras theorem AB 2 = AO 2 + BO 2 AB 2 = AB 2 = = 169 AB = 169 = 13 cm 15. Each side of a rhombus is 10 cm. If one of its diagonals is 16 cm find the length of the other diagonal. ABCD is a rhombus with side 10 cm and diagonal BD = 16 cm We know that diagonals of a rhombus bisect each other at 90 BO = OD = 8 cm In AOB, by pythagoras theorem AO 2 + BO 2 = AB 2 AO = 10 2 AO 2 = = 36 AO = 36 = 6 cm hence, AC = = 12 cm [By above property]

72 17. Calculate the height of an equilateral triangle each of whose sides measures 12 cm. ABC is an equilateral with side 12 cm. Draw AE BC In ABD and ACD ADB = ADC [Each 90 ] AB = AC [Each 12 cm] AD = AD [Common] Then, ABD ACD [By RHS condition] AD 2 + BD 2 = AB 2 AD = 12 2 AD 2 = = 108 AD = 108 = cm 18. In right-angled triangle ABC in which C = 90, if D is the mid-point of BC, prove that AB 2 = 4 AD 2 3 AC 2. C = 90 and D is the mid-point of BC In ACB, by Pythagoras theorem AB 2 = AC 2 + BC 2 AB 2 = AC 2 + (2CD) 2 [D is the mid-point of BC]

73 AB 2 = AC 2 + 4CD 2 AB 2 = AC 2 + 4(AD 2 AC 2 ) AB 2 = AC 2 + 4AD 2 4AC 2 AB 2 = 4AD 2 3AC 2 [In ACD, by Pythagoras theorem] 19. In Fig , D is the mid-point of side BC and AE BC. If BC = a, AC = b, AB = c, ED = x, AD = p and AE = h, prove that: (i) (ii) (iii) b 2 = p 2 + ax + a2 4 c 2 = p 2 ax + a2 4 b 2 + c 2 = 2p 2 + a2 2 D as the mid-point of BC (i) AC 2 = AE 2 + EC 2 b 2 = AE 2 + (ED + DC) 2 [By pythagoras theorem] b 2 = AD 2 + DC 2 + 2DC ED b 2 = p 2 + ( a 2 )2 + 2 ( a 2 ) x [BC = 2CD given] (ii) (iii) b 2 = p 2 + a2 + ax (i) 4 In AEB, by pythagoras theorem AB 2 = AE 2 + BE 2 c 2 = AD 2 ED 2 + (BD ED) 2 [By pythagoras theorem] c 2 = p 2 ED 2 + BD 2 + ED 2 2BD ED c 2 = p 2 + ( a 2 )2 2 ( a ) x (ii) 2 Add equations (i) and (ii) b 2 + c 2 = 2p 2 + a In Fig., 4.221, B < 90 and segment AD BC, show that

74 (i) b 2 = h 2 + a 2 + x 2 2ax (ii) b 2 = a 2 + c 2 2ax In ADC, by pythagoras theorem AC 2 = AD 2 + DC 2 b 2 = h 2 + (a x) 2 b 2 = h 2 + a 2 + x 2 2ax b 2 = a 2 + (h 2 + x 2 ) 2ax b 2 = a 2 + c 2 2ax by Pythagoras theorem 21. In ABC, A is obtuse, PB AC and QC AB. Prove that: (i) AB AQ = AC AP (ii) BC 2 = (AC CP + AB BQ) Then, APB ~ AQC [By AA similarity] AP = AB [Corresponding parts of similar are proportional] AQ AC AP AC = AQ AB (i) (ii) In BPC, by pythagoras theorem BC 2 = BP 2 + PC 2 BC 2 = AB 2 AP 2 + (AP + AC) 2 [By pythagoras theorem] BC 2 = AB 2 + AC 2 + 2AP AC (ii) In BQC, by pythagoras theorem, BC 2 = CQ 2 + BQ 2 BC 2 = AC 2 AQ 2 + (AB + AQ) 2 [By pythagoras theorem]

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