# 22M: 121 Final Exam. Answer any three in this section. Each question is worth 10 points.

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1 22M: 121 Final Exam This is 2 hour exam. Begin each question on a new sheet of paper. All notations are standard and the ones used in class. Please write clearly and provide all details of your work. Good luck. 1 Linear Algebra Answer any three in this section. Each question is worth 10 points. 1. Let V be a 8-dimensional vector space over a field F and let T End F (V ). Let k j be the dimension of Ker(T 5) j over F. It is known that k 1 = 4, k 2 = 7, and k 3 = 8. Write the rational canonical and the jordan canonical form for T. Since Ker(T 5) 3 = V, we see that m T (x)/(x 5) 3. This implies that m T (x) = (x 5) 3 since Ker(T 5) j, j = 1, 2, are proper subspaces of V. We also conclude that there are 4 jordan blocks corresponding to the eigenvalue 5. Since the invariant factors are divisors of (x 5) 3, we have the following two possibilities: V T F [x]/(x 5) F [x]/(x 5) F [x]/(x 5) 3 F [x]/(x 5) 3 (1) V T F [x]/(x 5) F [x]/(x 5) 2 F [x]/(x 5) 2 F [x]/(x 5) 3 (2) But (1) implies that dim Ker(T 5) 2 = 6 which contradicts the hypothesis. Thus the Jordan canonical form is and the rational canonical form is J = J 5,1 J 5,2 J 5,2 J 5,3 R = C(x 5) C(x 2 10x + 25) C(x 2 10x + 25) C(x 3 15x x 125) 2. Let V be a n-dimensional vector space over a field F. Suppose T : V V is a cyclic linear transformation, i.e., there exists v V such that {v, T (v),..., T n 1 (v)} is a basis for V over F. Let S : V V be a linear transformation that commutes with T, i.e., ST = T S. Prove that S is a polynomial in T, namely, S = p(t ) for some polynomial p(x) F [x]. 1

2 The fact that V has a basis as stated above implies that V T = F [x] v (i.e., it is cyclic F [x]-module). Since ST = T S, we see that S : V T V T is a F [x]-linear, i.e., a morphism of F [x]-modules. Write S(v) = a 0 + a 1 T (v) + + a n 1 T n 1 (v) for some a i F, 0 i n 1. Let p(x) = a 0 + a 1 x + a 2 x 2 + a n 1 x n 1 F [x]. Then for any w V, we have w = f(x) v, for some f(x) F [x]. Hence S(w) = S(f(x) v) = f(x) S(v) = f(x)(p(x) v) = p(x)(f(x) v) = p(x) w. Whence S = p(t ). 3. Let A be a n n with entries in F, and let f(x) F [x]. Assume that the characteristic polynomial of A is of the form C A (x) = i (x α i) F [x]. Show that the characteristic polynomial C f(a) (x) of f(a) is given by C f(a) (x) = i (x f(α i )). It is easy to check that f preserves similarity classes, namely, if A = P BP 1, then f(a) = P f(b)p 1. Since the characteristic polynomial only depends on the similarity class, we may assume that A is in upper triangular form with diagonal entries α 1, α 2,..., α n. For such a matrix A, f(a) is also upper triangular with diagonal entries f(α 1 ), f(α 2 ),..., f(α n ), and the conclusion follows. 4. Suppose A is a n n invertible matrix over C and k 1 an integer. Show that if A k is diagonalizable, then so is A. We may replace A by any matrix similar to A. So we may assume A is in the Jordan form. We may further assume that A has only one Jordan block, say, J λ,n. Since J λ,n = λi + N, where N is upper triangular with all super diagonal entries being 1, in paricular, N is nilpotent. Then ( ) λ A k = (λi + D) k = λ k I + kλ k 1 N + N N k 2 Since N is nilpotent, it follows that {I, N,..., N k 1 } are linearly independent in M n n (C) (prove this!) Therefore A k is not diagonalizable unless n = 1, or in other words, unless A is diagonlizable. 2

3 2 Field Theory Answer the following questions. Each is worth 10 points. 1. Let L F be a field extension. Prove that the extension L F is finite if and only if it is finitely generated and algebraic. Suppose L/F is algebraic and finitely generated. Then L = F (α 1, α 2,..., α k ) with each α i algebraic over F. Let n i be the degree of α i and let F i = F (α 1, α 2,..., α i ). Then the minimal polynomial of α i over F i 1 divides the minimal polynomial of α i over F. Since F F 1 F 2 F k = L, we have [L : F ] n 1 n 2... n k. Conversely, if [L : F ] = n <, say {x 1, x 2,..., x n } is a F -basis of L, then clearly L = F (x 1, x 2,..., x n ). Further, for any α L, the set {1, α,..., α n } is linearly dependent over F,i.e., there exists scalars a i, 0 i n, not all zero, such that a 0 + a 1 α + + a n α n = 0. Hence α is algebraic over F. 2. Let f(x) Q(x) be irreducible with splitting field K over Q. Suppose that the Galois group of K/Q is abelian. Prove that K = Q(α) for any root α of f(x). We know that the splitting field of f is generated by the roots of f. Let α be a root of f, then K is Galois over Q(α). and let H be the corresponding Galois group. Then, for σ H, and τ G(K/Q), σ(τ(α)) = τ(σ(α)) = τ(α), i.e., σ fixes τ(α). Since K is generated by the roots of f, it follows that σ is the identity map, i.e, H = {1}. Thus K = Q(α). 3. Suppose K is a field of characteristic p which is not a perfect field, i.e., K p K. Prove that there exist irreducible inseparable polynomials over K. Conclude that there exist inseparable finite extensions of K. Let a K such that a p / K. Let p(x) = x p a K[x]. Suppose β is a root of K in some algebraic closure of K. Then β p = a, this implies that p(x) = x p β p = (x β) p over K(β). Thus β is the only root of p(x) with multiplicity p. In particular p(x) is inseparable. It remains to see that p(x) is irreducible over K. Suppose g(x) K[x] is an irreducible factor of p(x) with degree r < p. Then, g(x) = (x β) r = x r rβx r 1 + ; since g(x) has coefficients in K, this implies that rβ K. But, r 0 since r < p, therefore β K which is a contradiction. Whence g(x) = (x β) p = p(x) is irreducible. Let L = K(β). Then, for any embedding σ of L over K, σ(β) is also a root of p(x), i.e., σ(β) = β. Thus any such embedding σ is the identity morphism. Thus [L : K] s = 1, or in other words, L/K is purely inseperable. 4. Let L/F be a Galois extension of degree 2p, where p is a odd prime. a. Show that there is a unique quadratic subfield E, i.e., F E L and [E : F ] = 2. Let G be the Galois group of L over F. Any p-sylow subgroup of G is of index 2, and hence normal in G. Thus there exists a unique p-sylow subgroup H 3

4 of G. Let E be the subfield corresponding to H which is the required quadratic subfield. b. Does there exist a unique subfield K of index 2, i.e., F K L and [L : K] = 2? Prove or give a counterexample. No. Take L to be the splitting field of x 3 2 over Q. Then [L : Q] = 6. Let ω 1 be a cube root of unity. Then Q( 3 2) and Q( 3 2 ω) are two distinct subfields of L of degree 3 over Q. 5. Determine the Galois group of x over Q. By Eisensteins criterion, the given polynomial is irreducible over Q. Let α = 3 3, and β = 3. Then the splitting field of x is the compositum of Q(α) (of degree 3 over Q) and Q(β) (a quadratic extension of Q) which is of degree 6. Hence the Galois group of x is S 3. Answer one of the following two questions. They are worth 15 points each. 5. Let f(x) Q(x) be an irreducible quartic with Galois group G. If f(x) has exactly two real roots, then either G S 4 or G D 8. The given information reveals that the resolvent cubic h(x) has one real root and two complex roots. Suppose h(x) is irreducible, then its Galois group is isomorphic to S 3 (this was a HW problem). In particular the discriminant of f(x) is not a square, and hence its Galois group is not contained in A 4 with its order divisible by 6. This implies that the Galois group G of f(x) is isomorphic to S 4. Now, if h(x) is reducible, then it splits into a linear and a quadratic. Then G stabilizes one root of h(x) but not the other two. Hence G is isomorphic to a subgroup of D 8. This implies that either G is cyclic of order 4, or is isomorphic to D 8. But, according to #2, G cannot be abelian. Thus G D Let K/F be any finite extension and let α K. Let L be a Galois extension of F containing K and let H G(L/F ) be the subgroup corresponding to K. Define the norm of α from K to F to be N K/F (α) = σ σ(α), where the product is taken over all the embeddings of K into an algebraic closure of F. (This is a product of Galois conjugates of α. In particular, if K/F is Galois this is σ G(K/F ) σ(α).) a. Prove that N K/F (α) F. Let {σ 1 = 1, σ 2,..., σ n } be the coset representatives of G/H, where G = G(L/F ). Then their restrictions to K are the distinct embeddings of K into an algebraic closure L of L. Moreover, for any α K, τ G permutes the set {σ 1 (α), σ 2 (α),..., σ n (α)}. Hence τ fixes N K/F (α), and consequently N K/F (α) F. 4

5 b. Prove that N K/F (αβ) = N K/F (α)n K/F (β), so that the norm is a multiplicative map from K to F. This is clear since σ(αβ) = σ(α)σ(β) for any embedding σ of K into L. c. Let m α (x) = x d + a d 1 x d a 1 x + a 0 F [x] be the minimal polynomial for α K over F. Let n = [K : F ]. Prove that d divides n, that there are d distinct Galois conjugates of α which are all repeated n/d times in the product above and conclude that N K/F (α) = ( 1) n a n/d 0. Since F K L and L is separable over F, we conclude that K is also separable over F. Consider the tower F F (α) K, from this we see that d = [F (α) : F ] divides n = [K : F ]. Let {τ 1, τ 2,..., τ d } be the distinct F -embeddings of F (α) into L. By separabilty, each τ i extends to n/d distinct embeddings of K into L, and these give all the embeddings of K into L. Hence each τ i (α) appears n/d times in the product in question. Further, since i τ i(α) = ( 1) d a 0, the last conclusion follows. 5

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