# Lemma 1.3. The element [X, X] is nonzero.

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1 Math 210C. The remarkable SU(2) Let G be a non-commutative connected compact Lie group, and assume that its rank (i.e., dimension of maximal tori) is 1; equivalently, G is a compact connected Lie group of rank 1 that has dimension > 1. In class we have seen a natural way to make such G, namely G = Z H (T a )/T a for a non-commutative connected compact Lie group H, a maximal torus T in H, a root a Φ(H, T ), and the codimension-1 subtorus T a := (ker a) 0 T ; this G has maximal torus T/T a. (If dim T = 1 then T a = 1.) There are two examples of such G that we have seen: SO(3) and its connected double cover SU(2). These Lie groups are not homeomorphic, as their fundamental groups are distinct. Also, by inspecting the adjoint action of a maximal torus, SU(2) has center {±1} of order 2 whereas SO(3) has trivial center (see HW7, Exercise 1(iii)), so they are not isomorphic as abstract groups. The main aim of this handout is to prove that there are no other examples. Once that is proved, we use it to describe the structure of Z G (T a ) in the general case (without a rank- 1 assumption). This is a crucial building block in the structure theory of general G. In Chapter V, pages of the course text you ll find two proofs that any rank-1 noncommutative G is isomorphic to SO(3) or SU(2): a topological proof using higher homotopy groups (π 2 (S m ) = 1 for m > 2) and an algebraic proof that looks a bit unmotivated (for a beginner). Our approach is also algebraic, using the representation theory of sl 2 (C) to replace hard group-theoretic problems with easier Lie algebra problems. 1. Rank 1 Fix a maximal torus T in G and an isomorphism T S 1. Consider the representation of T on g via Ad G. By the handout on Frobenius theorem we know that the subspace g T of T -invariants is Lie(Z G (T )), and this is t since Z G (T ) = T (due to the maximality of T in G). On HW7 Exercise 5, you show that the (continuous) representation theory of compact Lie groups on finite-dimensional R-vector spaces is completely reducible, and in particular that the non-trivial irreducible representations of T = S 1 over R are all 2-dimensional and indexed by integers n 1: these are ρ n : S 1 = R/Z GL 2 (R) via n-fold counterclockwise rotation: ρ n (θ) = r 2πnθ. (This makes sense for n < 0 via clockwise n -fold rotation, and ρ n ρ n by choosing an orthonormal basis with the opposite orientation.) Note that (ρ n ) C = χ n χ n where χ : S 1 C is the standard embedding. As R-linear T -representations, g = t ( n 1 g(n)) where g(n) denotes the ρ n -isotypic subspace. In particular, each g(n) is even-dimensional and so has dimension at least 2 if it is nonzero. Passing to the complexfication g C and using the decomposition of (ρ n ) C as a direct sum of reciprocal characters with weights n and n, as a C-linear representation of T we have g C = t C ( a Φ (g C ) a ) where the set Φ X(T ) = X(S 1 ) = Z of nontrivial T -weights is stable under negation and dim(g C ) a = dim(g C ) a (this common dimension being (1/2) dim R g(n) if a : t t n ). 1

2 2 Since the action of T on (g C ) a via Ad G is given by the character a : S 1 = T S 1 C (some power map), the associated action X [X, ] gc of t = R θ on (g C ) a via Lie(Ad G ) = (ad g ) C = ad gc is given by multiplication against Lie(a)( θ θ=1 ) Z R. Thus, the t C - action on (g C ) a via the Lie bracket on g C is via multiplication by the same integer. This visibly scales by c R if we replace θ with c θ. Hence, we obtain: Lemma 1.1. Let H be a nonzero element in the line t. The action of ad(h) = [H, ] on g C has as its nontrivial weight spaces exactly the subspaces (g C ) a, with eigenvalue (Lie(a))(H). Since Φ(G, T ) X(T ) {0} = Z {0} is a non-empty subset stable under negation, it contains a unique highest element, say a Z >0. The stability of Φ(G, T ) under negation implies that a is the unique lowest weight. For any b, b Φ(G, T ) and v (g C ) b, v (g C ) b we have [v, v ] (g C ) b+b since applying Ad G (t) to [v, v ] carries it to [t b v, t b v ] = t b+b [v, v ]. (We allow the case b + b = 0, the 0-weight space being t C.) In particular, since (g C ) ±2a = 0 (due to the nonzero a and a being the respective highest and lowest T -weights for the T -action on g C ), each (g C ) ±a is a commutative Lie subalgebra of g C and [(g C ) a, (g C ) a ] t C. Hence, this latter bracket pairing is either 0 or exhausts the 1-dimensional t C. Lemma 1.2. For any a Φ(G, T ), [(g C ) a, (g C ) a ] = t C. Proof. Suppose otherwise, so this bracket vanishes. Hence, V a := (g C ) a (g C ) a = V a is a commutative Lie subalgebra of g C. By viewing a as an element of X(T ) = Z, we see that V a (ρ a ) d C as C-linear T -representations, where d is the common C-dimension of (g C) ±a. Clearly V a = g(a) C inside g C, where g(a) denotes the ρ a -isotypic part of g as an R-linear representation of T, so g(a) is a commutative Lie subalgebra of g with dimension at least 2. Choose R-linearly independent X, Y g(a), so α X (R)-conjugation on G leaves the map α Y : R G invariant since by connectedness of R such invariance may be checked on the map Lie(α Y ) = α Y (0) : R g sending c R to cα Y (0) = cy by using Ad G(α X (R)) (and noting that Lie(Ad G α X ) = ad g (α X (0)) = [X, ] and [X, Y ] = 0). Hence, the closure α X (R) α Y (R) is a connected commutative closed subgroup of G whose Lie algebra contains α X (0) = X and α Y (0) = Y, so its dimension is at least 2. But connected compact commutative Lie groups are necessarily tori, and by hypothesis G has no tori of dimension larger than 1! Now we may choose X ± (g C ) ±a such that the element H := [X +, X ] t C is nonzero. Clearly [H, X ± ] = Lie(±a)(H)X ± = ±Lie(a)(H)X ± with Lie(a)(H) C. If we replace X + with cx + for c C then H is replaced with H := ch, and [H, cx + ] = Lie(a)(H )(cx + ), [H, X ] = Lie(a)(H )X with Lie(a)(H ) = c Lie(a)(H). Hence, using such scaling with a suitable c allows us to arrange that Lie(a)(H) = 2, so {X +, X, H} span an sl 2 (C) as a Lie subalgebra of g C. The restriction of ad gc to this copy of sl 2 (C) makes g C into a C-linear representation space for sl 2 (C) such that the H-weight spaces for this sl 2 (C)-representation are t C for the trivial weight and each (g C ) b (on which H acts as scaling by Lie(b)(H) C).

3 The highest weight for g C as an sl 2 (C)-representation is Lie(a)(H) = 2 (due to how a was chosen!), so the only other possible weights are ±1, 0, 2, and the entire weight-0 space for the action of H is a single C-line t C. Our knowledge of the finite-dimensional representation theory of sl 2 (C) (e.g., its complete reducibility, and the determination of each irreducible representation via its highest weight) shows that the adjoint representation of sl 2 (C) on itself is the unique irreducible representation with highest weight 2. This representation contains a line with H-weight 0, so as an sl 2 (C)-representation we see that the highest weight of 2 cannot occur in g C with multiplicity larger than 1 (as otherwise g C would contain multiple independent copies of the adjoint representation sl 2 (C), contradicting that the weight-0 space for the H-action on g C is only 1-dimensional). It follows that g C is sl 2 (C)-equivariantly isomorphic to a direct sum of sl 2 (C) and copies of the standard 2-dimensional representation (the only irreducible option with highest weight < 2 that doesn t introduce an additional weight-0 space for H). We conclude that Φ(G, T ) is either {±a} or {±a, ±a/2} and that dim(g C ) ±a = 1. It remains to rule out that possibility that the weights ±a/2 also occur as T -weights on g C. Let s suppose these weights do occur, so a 2X(T ), and let b = a/2 for typographical simplicity. Choose a nonzero X (g C ) b, and let X be the complex conjugate of X inside the complex conjugate (g C ) b of (g C ) b (this makes sense since the T -action on g C respects the R-structure g, and the complex conjugate of t b is t b for t T = S 1 ). Although we cannot argue that (g C ) ±b is commutative, since b isn t the highest weight, we can nonetheless use: Lemma 1.3. The element [X, X] is nonzero. Proof. The elements v := X+X and v := i(x X) in (g C ) b (g C ) b g C are visibly nonzero (why?) and linearly indepedent over R, and they are invariant under complex conjugation on g C, so v and v lie in g. If [X, X] = 0 then clearly [v, v ] = 0, so v and v would span a two-dimensional commutative Lie subalgebra of g. But we saw above via 1-parameter subgroups that such a Lie subalgebra creates a torus inside G with dimension at least 2, contradicting the assumption that G has rank 1. 3 Since H := [X, X] t C, we can use X, X, and H (after preliminary C -scalings) to generate another Lie subalgebra inclusion sl 2 (C) g C such that the diagonal subalgebra of sl 2 (C) is t C. Let H 0 be the standard diagonal element of sl 2 (C), so our new embedding of sl 2 (C) into g C identifies Lie(b) with the weight 2 for the action of H 0. Since a = 2b we see that g C as an sl 2 (C)-representation has H 0 -weights 0, ±2, ±4, with the weight-0 space just the line t C and the highest-weight line (for weight 4) equal to (g C ) a that we have already seen is 1-dimensional. Consequently, as an sl 2 (C)-representation, g C must contain a copy of the 5-dimensional irreducible representation V 4 with highest weight 4. If W g C is any sl 2 (C)-subrepresentation that contains the weight-0 line then W V 4 is nonzero and thus coincdes with V 4 (since V 4 is irreducible); i.e., V 4 W. This V 4 contains a weight-0 line that must be t C, and it also exhausts the lines (g C ) ±a with weights ±4. But the new copy of sl 2 (C) that we have built as a Lie subalgebra of g C is a V 2, which has a weight-0 line and thus contains the unique copy of V 4, an absurdity.

4 4 This contadiction shows that the case Φ(G, T ) = {±a, ±a/2} cannot occur, so in the rank-1 non-commutative case we have shown dim G = 3, as desired. (In class we deduced from the condition dim G = 3 that G is isomorphic to either SO(3) or SU(2).) 2. Centralizers in higher rank Now consider a pair (G, T ) with maximal torus T G (equivalently, Φ := Φ(G, T ) ), and dim T > 0 arbitrary. Choose a Φ, so Z G (T a )/T a is either SO(3) or SU(2). Hence, Z G (T a ) sits in the middle of a short exact sequence 1 T a Z G (T a ) H 1 with H non-commutative of rank 1. In this section, we shall explicit describe all Lie group extensions of such an H by a torus. This provides information about the structure of the group Z G (T a ) that we shall later use in our proof that the commutator subgroup G = [G, G] of G is closed and perfect (i.e., (G ) = G ) in general. Lemma 2.1. Let q : H H be an isogeny between connected Lie groups with π1 ( H) = 1. For any connected Lie group G and isogeny f : G H, there is a unique Lie group homomorphism F : H G over H; i.e., a unique way to fill in a commutative diagram Moreover, F is an isogeny. H F G q For our immediate purposes, the main case of interest is the degree-2 isogeny q : SU(2) SO(3). Later we will show that if H is a connected compact Lie group with finite center then such a q always exists with H compact too. The lemma then says that such an H uniquely sits on top of all isogenous connected covers of H. Proof. Consider the pullback f : G := G H H H of the isogeny f along q, as developed in HW7 Exercise 4, so f is surjective with kernel ker f that 0-dimensional and central in G. In particular, Lie( f) is surjective with kernel Lie(ker f) = 0, so Lie( f) is an isomorphism. Hence, f 0 : G 0 H is a map between connected Lie groups that is an isomorphism on Lie algebras, so it is surjective and its kernel Γ is also 0-dimensional and central. Thus, as we saw on HW5 Exercise 4(iii), there is a surjective homomorphism 1 = π 1 ( H) Γ, so Γ = 1 and hence f 0 is an isomorphism. Composing its inverse with pr 1 : G G defines an F fitting into the desired commutative diagram, and Lie(F ) is an isomorphism since f and q are isogenies. Thus, F is also an isogeny. It remains to prove the uniqueness of an F fitting into such a commutative diagram. If F : H G is a map fitting into the commutative diagram then the equality f F = f F implies that for all h H we have F ( h) = φ( h)f ( h) for a unique φ( h) ker f. Since ker f is central in G, it follows that φ : H ker f is a homomorphism since F and F are, and φ is continuous since F and F are continuous (and G is a topological group). But ker f is discrete and H is connected, so φ must be constant and therefore trivial; i.e., F = F. f H

5 Proposition 2.2. Consider an exact sequence of compact connected Lie groups 1 S G H 1 with S a central torus in G and H non-commutative of rank 1. (1) The commutator subgroup G is closed in G and G H is an isogeny, with the given exact sequence split group-theoretically if and only if G H is an isomorphism, in which case there is a spliting via S H = S G G (using multiplication). (2) The isogeny G H is an isomorphism if H SU(2) or G SO(3), and otherwise S G coincides with the order-2 center µ of G SU(2) and G = (S G )/µ Proof. We know that H is isomorphic to either SO(3) or SU(2). First we treat the case H = SU(2), and then we treat the case H = SO(3) via a pullback argument to reduce to the case of SU(2). Assuming H = SU(2), we get an exact sequence of Lie algebras (2.1) 0 s g su(2) 0 with s in the Lie-algebra center ker ad g of g since ad g = Lie(Ad G ) and S is central in G. We shall prove that this is uniquely split as a sequence of Lie algebras This says exactly that there is a unique Lie subalgebra g of g such that g h is an isomorphism, as then the vanishing of the bracket between s and g implies that g = s g as Lie algebras, providing the unique splitting of the sequence (2.1) using the isomorphism of g onto h. Since H SU(2), it follows that h su(2) is its own commutator subalgebra (see HW4 Exercise 3(ii)). Hence, if there is to be a splitting of (2.1) as a direct product of s and a Lie subalgebra g of g mapping isomorphically onto h then necessarily g = [g, g]. Our splitting assertion for Lie algebras therefore amounts to the claim that the commutator subalgebra [g, g] maps isomorphically onto h. This isomorphism property is something which is necessary and sufficient to check after extension of scalars to C, so via the isomorphism su(2) C sl 2 (C) it is sufficient to show that over a field k of characteristic 0 (such as C) any central extension of Lie algebras (2.2) 0 s g sl 2 0 (i.e., s is killed by ad g ) is split, as once again this is precisely the property that [g, g] maps isomorphically onto sl 2 (which is its own commutator subalgebra, by HW4 Exercise 3(iii)). Now we bring in the representation theory of sl 2. Consider the Lie algebra representation ad g : g gl(g) := End(g). This factors through the quotient g/s = sl 2 since s is central in g, and so as such defines a representation of sl 2 on g lifting the adjoint representation of sl 2 on itself (check!). Note that since s is in the Lie-algebra center of g, it is a direct sum of copies of the trivial representation (the action via zero ) of sl 2, so (2.2) presents the sl 2 -representation g as an extension of the irreducible adjoint representation by a direct sum of copies of the trivial representation. By the complete reducibility of the finite-dimensional representation theory of sl 2, we conclude that the given central extension of Lie algebras admits an sl 2 -equivariant splitting as a representation space, which is to say that there is a k-linear subspace V g stable under the sl 2 -action that is a linear complement to s. We need to show that V a Lie subalgebra of g. By the very definition of the sl 2 -action on g via the central quotient presentation g/s sl 2, it follows that V is stable under the adjoint representation ad g of g on itself, so certainly V is stable under Lie bracket against itself (let alone against the entirety of g). 5

6 6 Now returning to (2.1) that we have split, we have found a copy of h = su(2) inside g lifting the quotient h of g. But H is connected and π 1 (H) = 1, so by the Frobenius handout this inclusion h g integrates to a Lie group homomorphism H G, and its composition H H with the quotient map G H is the identity map (as that holds on the level of Lie algebras). Thus, we have built a Lie group section H G to the quotient map, and since S is central in G it follows that the multiplication map S H G is a Lie group homomorphism. This latter map is visibly bijective, so it is an isomorphism of Lie groups. This provides a splitting when H = SU(2), and in such cases the commutator subgroup G of G is visibly this direct factor H (forcing uniqueness of the splitting) since S is central and SU(2) is its own commutator subgroup (HW7, Exercise 3(i)). In particular, G is closed in G. For the remainder of the proof we may assume H = SO(3). Let H = SU(2) equipped with the degree-2 isogeny q : H H in the usual manner. Now form the pullback central extension of Lie groups (see HW7 Exercise 4 for this pullback construction) 1 S E H 1 id 1 S G H 1 We may apply the preceding considerations to the top exact sequence as long as E is compact and connected. Since E is an S-fiber bundle over H, E inherits connectedness from H and S, and likewise for compactness. We conclude that the top exact sequence is uniquely split. In particular, the commutator subgroup E is closed in E and maps isomorphically onto H = SU(2). The compact image of E in G is visibly the commutator subgroup, so G is closed with the surjective E G sandwiching G in the middle of the degree-2 covering H H! Thus, the two maps H = E G and G H are isogenies whose degrees have product equal to the degree 2 of H over H. A degree-1 isogeny is an isomorphism, so either G H is an isomorphism or G H is identified with H H (and in this latter case the identification over H is unique, by Lemma 2.1). Since G H = SO(3) is an isogeny, the maximal tori of G map isogenously onto those of H and so have dimension 1. Hence, abstractly G is isomorphic to SU(2) or SO(3). In the latter case G has trivial center (as SO(3) has trivial center; see HW7 Exercise 1(iii)), so the isogeny G H cannot have nontrivial kernel and so must be an isomorphism. In other words, G is isomorphic to SO(3) abstractly as Lie groups if and only if the isogeny G H is an isomorphism. In such cases, the multiplication homomorphism of Lie groups S G G is visibly bijective, hence a Lie group isomorphism, so the given exact sequence is split as Lie groups (and the splitting is unique since G = SO(3) is its own commutator subgroup). Now we may and do suppose G is abstractly isomorphic to SU(2) as Lie groups, so the isogeny G H SO(3) must have nontrivial central kernel, yet SU(2) has center {±1} of order 2. Hence, the map G H provides a specific identification of H with the quotient SU(2)/{±1} = SO(3) of SU(2) modulo its center. In these cases the given exact sequence q

7 cannot be split even group-theoretically, since a group-theoretic splitting of G as a direct product of the commutative S and the perfect H would force the commutator subgroup of G to coincide with this copy of the centerless H, contradicting that in the present circumstances G = SU(2) has nontrivial center. Consider the multiplication map S G G that is not an isomorphism of groups (since we have seen that there is no group-theoretic splitting of the given exact sequence). This is surjective since G H = G/S is surjective, so its kernel must be nontrivial. But the kernel is S G anti-diagonally embedded via s (s, 1/s), and this has to be a nontrivial central subgroup of G = SU(2). The only such subgroup is the order-2 center (on which inversion has no effect), so we are done. 7

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