INTRODUCTION TO STRAIN


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1 SIMPLE STRAIN
2 INTRODUCTION TO STRAIN In general terms, Strain is a geometric quantity that measures the deformation of a body. There are two types of strain: normal strain: characterizes dimensional changes, shear strain: describes distortion (changes in angles).
3 INTRODUCTION TO STRAIN Stress and strain are two fundamental concepts of mechanics of materials. Their relationship to each other defines the mechanical properties of a material, the knowledge of which is of the utmost importance in design.
4 NORMAL STRAIN Defined as the elongation per unit length. δ ε = = L normal strain δ elongation
5 TENSION TEST
6 TENSION TEST
7 TENSION TEST Elastic Limit A material is said to be elastic if, after being loaded, the material returns to its original shape when the load is removed. The elastic limit is, as its name implies, the stress beyond which the material is no longer elastic. The permanent deformation that remains after the removal of the load is called the permanent set.
8 TENSION TEST Yield Point The point where the stressstrain diagram becomes almost horizontal is called the yield point, and the corresponding stress is known as the yield stress or yield strength. Beyond the yield point there is an appreciable elongation, or yielding, of the material without a corresponding increase in load
9 TENSION TEST Ultimate Stress The ultimate stress or ultimate strength, as it is often called, is the highest stress on the stressstrain curve. Rupture Stress The rupture stress or rupture strength is the stress at which failure occurs.
10 HOOKE S LAW Stress Strain diagrams for most engineering materials exhibit a linear relationship between stress and strain within the elastic region. Consequently, an increase in stress causes a proportionate increase in strain. Discovered by Robert Hooke in 1676 using springs and is known as Hooke s law.
11 HOOKE S LAW expressed mathematically as σ = Eε where E = Youngs Modulus or Modulus of Elasticity
12 DEFORMATIONS IN A SYSTEM OF AXIALLY LOADED BARS σl PL δ = = E EA (uniform stress/strain across) δ = L 0 P dx EA (stress/strain varies)
13 SAMPLE PROBLEM 1 The steel propeller shaft ABCD carries the axial loads shown in Fig. (a). Determine the change in the length of the shaft caused by these loads. Use E = 29 x 10 6 psi for steel.
14 SAMPLE PROBLEM 2 The cross section of the 10mlong flat steel bar AB has a constant thickness of 20 mm, but its width varies as shown in the figure. Calculate the elongation of the bar due to the 100kN axial load. Use E = 200 GPa for steel.
15 SAMPLE PROBLEM 3 The rigid bar BC in the figure is supported by the steel rod AC of crosssectional area 0.25 in 2. Find the vertical displacement of point C caused by the 2000lb load. Use E = 29 x 10 6 psi for steel.
16 POISSON S RATIO In 1811, Simeon D. Poisson showed that the ratio of the transverse strain to the axial strain is constant for stresses within the proportional limit. v = t x
17 UNIAXIAL STATE OF STRESS The minus sign indicates that a positive strain (elongation) in the axial direction causes a negative strain (contraction) in the transverse directions. Transverse strain is uniform throughout the cross section and is the same in any direction in the plane of the cross section. = = v y z x σ = = v y z E x
18 SHEAR LOADING Shear stress causes the deformation shown in the figure. lengths of the sides do not change, but the element undergoes a distortion from a rectangle to a parallelogram.
19 SHEAR LOADING The shear strain, which measures the amount of distortion, is the angle γ always expressed in radians. It can be shown that the relationship between shear stress τ and shear strain γ is linear within the elastic range τ = Gγ where G = shear Modulus or Modulus of rigidity E = 2(1 + v )
20 SAMPLE PROBLEM 1 Two 1.75in.thick rubber pads are bonded to three steel plates to form the shear mount shown. Find the displacement of the middle plate when the 1200lb load is applied. Consider the deformation of rubber only. Use E = 500 psi and v = 0.48 for rubber.
21 SAMPLE PROBLEM 2 An initially rectangular element of material is deformed as shown in the figure. Calculate the normal strains and, and the shear strain for the element. ε x ε y γ
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