# Math 430 Final Exam, Fall 2008

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1 IIT Dept. Applied Mathematics, December 9, PRINT Last name: Signature: First name: Student ID: Math 430 Final Exam, Fall 2008 Grades should be posted Friday 12/12. Have a good break, and don t forget to register for Math 431!

2 IIT Dept. Applied Mathematics, December 9, I. Examples, Counterexamples and short answer. (2 pts ea.) Do not give proofs, but clearly indicate your proposed example or counterexample, or short answer where appropriate. 1. Clearly circle the letter(s) of the transformation(s) below that are plane symmetries of a square. (a) Reflection about the vertical axis of the square. (b) Translation to the right by 1 unit. (c) Contraction by half under the mapping (x, y) (x/2, y/2). (d) Rotation clockwise by 90 degrees. 2. Draw a small figure that has cyclic C 3 symmetry but not dihedral D 3 symmetry. 3. Give an example of a binary operation that is not associative. Give the operation and the underlying set. 4. (Circle one: TRUE / FALSE ). There exists a group G and elements a, b, c G such that b c and ab = ac. 5. Give two finite, nontrivial subgroups of the nonzero complex numbers C under multiplication. 6. Determine the centralizer C(F 1 ) of the reflection F 1 in the dihedral group D 3. D 3 R 0 R 120 R 240 F 1 F 2 F 3 R 0 R 0 R 120 R 240 F 1 F 2 F 3 R 120 R 120 R 240 R 0 F 3 F 1 F 2 R 240 R 240 R 0 R 120 F 2 F 3 F 1 F 1 F 1 F 2 F 3 R 0 R 120 R 240 F 2 F 2 F 3 F 1 R 240 R 0 R 120 F 3 F 3 F 1 F 2 R 120 R 240 R 0

3 IIT Dept. Applied Mathematics, December 9, How many cyclic generators are there for each of the following groups? (A cyclic generator of G is an element g G such that G = g.) (a) Z 5 (b) Z 6 8. Suppose in 1-line permutation notation that α = [ ]. (a) Write α in 2-line notation. (b) Write α in cycle notation. 9. A permutation group G S n on the elements {1,..., n} has order G = 24. The orbit {σ(1) σ G} of 1 has size 6. What is the size of the stabilizer {σ G σ(1) = 1} of 1? 10. How many automorphisms are there of the group Z 5? 11. (Circle one: TRUE / FALSE ) S 3 is isomorphic to D Let p be a prime. What do you know about a group G if G = p?

4 IIT Dept. Applied Mathematics, December 9, Let G be a group and let H G. How many left cosets of H in G are also subgroups of G? (In other words, what is {ah a G, ah G}?) 14. How many elements of order 12 does Z 4 Z 15 have? 15. Write an external direct product of U groups that is isomorphic to U(15). 16. Write down a subgroup of D 4 that is not normal in D (Circle one: TRUE / FALSE ) For all positive integers n, A n S n. 18. Find H and K such that Z 10 = H K, H Z 10, and K Z (Circle one: TRUE / FALSE ) If φ : G G is a homomorphism, then φ must be onto. 20. Let G = {a n x n + a n 1 x n a 1 x + a 0 n Z 0, a i R} be the group of finite degree polynomials with variable x over the reals, with group operation addition. Let φ : G G be the homomorphism defined by φ(f(x)) = f (x), the second derivative of f(x). What is the kernel of φ?

5 IIT Dept. Applied Mathematics, December 9, II. Constructions and Algorithms. (10 pts ea.) Do not write proofs, but do give clear, concise answers, including steps to algorithms where applicable. 21. Use the Euclidean Algorithm to find gcd(354, 126). Find s, t Z such that gcd(354, 126) = 354 s t. 22. The subgroup diagram of a group G consists of points and line segments connecting certain points. For each distinct subgroup H G, there is exactly one point. Two subgroups H and K are connected by a line segment provided that (i) H K, and (ii) There is no third distinct subgroup J with H J K. Construct the subgroup diagram for D 3 based on the given Cayley Table. D 3 R 0 R 120 R 240 F 1 F 2 F 3 R 0 R 0 R 120 R 240 F 1 F 2 F 3 R 120 R 120 R 240 R 0 F 3 F 1 F 2 R 240 R 240 R 0 R 120 F 2 F 3 F 1 F 1 F 1 F 2 F 3 R 0 R 120 R 240 F 2 F 2 F 3 F 1 R 240 R 0 R 120 F 3 F 3 F 1 F 2 R 120 R 240 R 0

6 IIT Dept. Applied Mathematics, December 9, For this question, the group G has Cayley Table as given. Recall that Inn(G) G/Z(G). (a) Compute the left cosets of Z(G) = {e, l} in G. (b) Use (a) to find Inn(G), the group of inner automorphisms of G, without any additional computation. No repetitions write down exactly Inn(G) elements. (c) Construct the Cayley Table for G/Z(G). (d) Explain from the Cayley Table in (c) whether Inn(G) isomorphic to Z 4 or Z 2 Z 2. G e i j k l m n o e e i j k l m n o i i l k n m e o j j j o l i n k e m k k j m l o n i e l l m n o e i j k m m e o j i l k n n n k e m j o l i o o n i e k j m l

7 IIT Dept. Applied Mathematics, December 9, III. Proofs. (10 pts ea.) Part of the score is determined by careful formatting of the proof (forward and reverse directions, assumptions, conclusions, stating whether the proof is direct, contrapositive, contradiction, induction, etc.). Partial credit will be awarded for this as well. 24. Let G be a group and fix x G. Define the function T x : G G by T x (g) = xgx 2. Either prove that T x is always a bijection, or give a counterexample.

8 IIT Dept. Applied Mathematics, December 9, Let H Z and assume H 2. Prove that H Z.

9 IIT Dept. Applied Mathematics, December 9, Prove ONE out of Clearly indicate which proof you want graded. 26. Recall that D 6 is the dihedral group of plane symmetries of the regular hexagon. (a) Write down Z(D 6 ), D 6 /Z(D 6 ), and a list of all possible groups of order D 6 /Z(D 6 ) up to isomorphism. You do not have to justify this part. (b) Determine what group in the list in part (b) that D 6 /Z(D 6 ) is isomorphic to. Justify each step in this part. (Hint: There are at least 2 approaches.) 27. Let N G and N H G. Prove that H/N G/N if and only if H G.

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