# HYPERSURFACES IN PROJECTIVE SCHEMES AND A MOVING LEMMA

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2 HYPERSURFACES IN PROJECTIVE SCHEMES AND A MOVING LEMMA 2 X such that C H and ξ 1,..., ξ r / H. Such a statement is commonly referred to as an Avoidance Lemma (see, e.g., 4.6). Our next theorem establishes an Avoidance Lemma for Families. As usual, when X is noetherian, Ass(X) denotes the finite set of associated points of X. Theorem 5.1. Let S be an affine scheme, and let X S be a quasi-projective and finitely presented morphism. Let O X (1) be a very ample sheaf relative to X S. Let (i) C be a closed subscheme of X, finitely presented over S; (ii) F 1,..., F m be subschemes 1 of X of finite presentation over S; (iii) A be a finite subset of X such that A C =. Assume that for all s S, C does not contain any irreducible component of positive dimension of (F i ) s and of X s. Then there exists n 0 > 0 such that for all n n 0, there exists a global section f of O X (n) such that: (1) the closed subscheme H f of X is a hypersurface that contains C as a closed subscheme; (2) for all s S and for all i m, H f does not contain any irreducible component of positive dimension of (F i ) s ; and (3) H f A =. Assume in addition that S is noetherian, and that C Ass(X) =. Then there exists such a hypersurface H f which is locally principal. When H f is locally principal, H f is the support of an effective ample Cartier divisor on X. This divisor is horizontal in the sense that it does not contain in its support any irreducible component of fibers of X S of positive dimension. In some instances, such as in 5.5 and 5.6, we can show that H f is a relative effective Cartier divisor, i.e., that H f S is flat. Corollary 5.5 also includes a Bertini-type statement for X S with Cohen-Macaulay fibers. We use Theorem 5.1 to establish in 6.3 the existence of finite quasi-sections in certain projective morphisms X/S, as we now discuss. B. Existence of finite quasi-sections. Let X S be a surjective morphism. Following EGA [26], IV, 14, p. 200, we define: Definition 0.1 We call a closed subscheme C of X a finite quasi-section when C S is finite and surjective. Some authors call multisection a finite quasi-section C S which is also flat, with C irreducible (see e.g., [31], p. 12 and 4.7). When S is integral noetherian of dimension 1 and X S is proper and surjective, the existence of a finite quasi-section C is well-known and easy to establish. It suffices to take C to be the Zariski closure of a closed point of the generic fiber of X S. When dim S > 1, the process of taking the closure of any closed point of the generic fiber does not always produce a closed subset finite over S (see 6.1). Theorem 6.3. Let S be an affine scheme and let X S be a projective, finitely presented morphism. Suppose that all fibers of X S are of the same dimension d 0. Let C be a finitely presented closed subscheme of X, with C S finite 1 Each F i is a closed subscheme of an open subscheme of X ([26], I.4.1.3).

3 HYPERSURFACES IN PROJECTIVE SCHEMES AND A MOVING LEMMA 3 but not necessarily surjective. Then there exists a finite quasi-section T of finite presentation which contains C. Moreover: (1) Assume that S is noetherian. If C and X are both irreducible, then there exists such a quasi-section with T irreducible. (2) If X S is flat with Cohen-Macaulay fibers (e.g., if S is regular and X is Cohen-Macaulay), then there exists such a quasi-section with T S flat. (3) If X S is flat and a local complete intersection morphism 2, then there exists such a quasi-section with T S flat and a local complete intersection morphism. (4) Assume that S is noetherian. Suppose that π : X S has fibers pure of the same dimension, and that C S is unramified. Let Z be a finite subset of S (such as the set of generic points of π(c)), and suppose that there exists an open subset U of S containing Z such that X S U U is smooth. Then there exists such a quasi-section T of X S and an open set V U containing Z such that T S V V is étale. As an application of Theorem 6.3, we obtain a strengthening in the affine case of the classical splitting lemma for vector bundles. Proposition Let A be a commutative ring. Let M be a projective A-module of finite presentation with constant rank r > 1. Then there exists an A-algebra B, finite and faithfully flat over A, with B a local complete intersection over A, such that M A B is isomorphic to a direct sum of projective B-modules of rank 1. Another application of Theorem 6.3, to the problem of extending a given family of stable curves D Z after a finite surjective base change, is found in It is natural to wonder whether Theorems 5.1 and 6.3 hold for more general bases S which are not affine, such as a noetherian base S having an ample invertible sheaf. It is also natural to wonder if the existence of finite quasi-sections in Theorem 6.3 holds for proper morphisms. C. Existence of Integral Points. Let R be a Dedekind domain 3 and let S = Spec R. When X S is quasi-projective, an integral finite quasi-section is also called an integral point in [52], 1.4. The existence of a finite quasi-section in the quasi-projective case over S = Spec Z when the generic fiber is geometrically irreducible is Rumely s famous Local-Global Principle [64]. This existence result was extended in [52], 1.6, as follows. As in [52], 1.5, we make the following definition. Definition 0.2 We say that a Dedekind scheme S satisfies Condition (T) if: (a) For any finite extension L of the field of fractions K of R, the normalization S of S in Spec L has torsion Picard group Pic(S ), and (b) The residue fields at all closed points of S are algebraic extensions of finite fields. For example, S satisfies Condition (T) if S is an affine integral smooth curve over a finite field, or if S is the spectrum of the ring of P -integers in a number field K, where P is a finite set of finite places of K. 2 Since the morphism X S is flat, it is a local complete intersection morphism if and only if every fiber is a local complete intersection morphism (see, e.g., [46], ). 3 A Dedekind domain in this article has dimension 1, and a Dedekind scheme is the spectrum of a Dedekind domain.

4 HYPERSURFACES IN PROJECTIVE SCHEMES AND A MOVING LEMMA 4 Our next theorem is only a mild sharpening of the Local-Global Principle in [52], 1.7: We show in 7.9 that the hypothesis in [52], 1.7, that the base scheme S is excellent, can be removed. Theorem 7.9. Let S be a Dedekind scheme satisfying Condition (T). Let X S be a separated surjective morphism of finite type. Assume that X is irreducible and that the generic fiber of X S is geometrically irreducible. Then X S has a finite quasi-section. Condition (T)(a) is necessary in the Local-Global Principle, but it is not sufficient, as shown by an example of Raynaud over S = Spec Q[x] (x) ([51], 3.2, and [13], 5.5). The following weaker condition is needed for our next two theorems. Definition 0.3 Let R be any commutative ring and let S = Spec R. We say that R or S is pictorsion if Pic(Z) is a torsion group for any finite morphism Z S. Any semi-local ring R is pictorsion. A Dedekind domain satisfying Condition (T) is pictorsion ([52], 2.3, see also 8.10 (2)). Rings which satisfy the primitive criterion (see 8.13) are pictorsion and only have infinite residue fields. D. A Moving Lemma. Let S be a Dedekind scheme and let X be a noetherian scheme over S. An integral closed subscheme C of X finite and surjective over S is called an irreducible horizontal 1-cycle on X. A horizontal 1-cycle on X is an element of the free abelian group generated by the irreducible horizontal 1-cycles. Our next application of the method developed in this article is a Moving Lemma for horizontal 1-cycles. Theorem 7.2. Let R be a Dedekind domain, and let S := Spec R. Let X S be a flat and quasi-projective morphism, with X integral. Let C be a horizontal 1-cycle on X. Let F be a closed subset of X. Assume that for all s S, F X s and Supp(C) X s have positive codimension 4 in X s. Assume in addition that either (a) R is pictorsion and the support of C is contained in the regular locus of X, or (b) R satisfies Condition (T). Then some positive multiple mc of C is rationally equivalent to a horizontal 1-cycle C on X whose support does not meet F. Under the assumption (a), if furthermore R is semi-local, then we can take m = 1. Moreover, if Y S is any separated morphism of finite type and h : X Y is any S-morphism, then h (mc) is rationally equivalent to h (C ) on Y. Example 7.11 shows that the Condition (T)(a) is necessary for Theorem 7.2 to hold. A different proof of Theorem 7.2 when S is semi-local, X is regular, and X S is quasi-projective, is given in [22], 2.3, where the result is then used to prove a formula for the index of an algebraic variety over a Henselian field ([22], 8.2). It follows from [22], 6.5, that for each s S, a multiple m s C s of the 0-cycle C s is rationally equivalent on X s to a 0-cycle whose support is disjoint from F s. Theorem 6.5 in [22] expresses such an integer m s in terms of Hilbert-Samuel multiplicities. 4 The definition of codimension in [26], Chap. 0, , implies that the codimension of the empty set in X s is +, which we consider to be positive.

5 HYPERSURFACES IN PROJECTIVE SCHEMES AND A MOVING LEMMA 5 The 1-cycle C in X can be thought of as a family of 0-cycles, and Theorem 7.2 may be considered as a Moving Lemma for 0-cycles in families. Even for schemes of finite type over a finite field, Theorem 7.2 is not a consequence of the classical Chow s Moving Lemma. Indeed, let X be a smooth quasi-projective variety over a field k. The classical Chow s Moving Lemma [63] immediately implies the following statement: 0.4 Let Z be a 1-cycle on X. Let F be a closed subset of X of codimension at least 2 in X. Then there exists a 1-cycle Z on X, rationally equivalent to Z, and such that Supp(Z ) F =. Consider a morphism X S as in Theorem 7.2, and assume in addition that S is a smooth affine curve over a finite field k. Let F be a closed subset as in 7.2. Such a subset may be of codimension 1 in X. Thus, Theorem 7.2 is not a consequence of Chow s Moving Lemma for 1-cycles just recalled, since 0.4 can only be applied to X S when F is a closed subset of codimension at least 2 in X. E. Existence of finite morphisms to P d S. Let k be a field. A strong form of the Normalization Theorem of E. Noether that applies to graded rings (see, e.g., [15], 13.3) implies that every projective variety X/k of dimension d admits a finite k-morphism X P d k. Our next theorem guarantees the existence of a finite S-morphism X P d S when X S is projective with R pictorsion, and d := max{dim X s, s S}. Theorem 8.1. Let R be a pictorsion ring, and let S := Spec R. Let X S be a projective morphism, and set d := max{dim X s, s S}. Then there exists a finite S-morphism X P d S. If we assume in addition that dim X s = d for all s S, then there exists a finite surjective S-morphism X P d S. The above theorem generalizes to schemes X/S of any dimension the results of [25], Theorem 2, and [10], Theorem 1.2, which apply to morphisms of relative dimension 1. After this article was written, we became aware of the preprint [11], where the general case is also discussed. We also prove the converse of this theorem: Proposition (see 8.7). Let R be any commutative ring and let S := Spec R. Suppose that for any d 0, and for any projective morphism X S such that dim X s = d for all s S, there exists a finite surjective S-morphism X P d S. Then R is pictorsion. F. Method of proof. Now that the main applications of our method for proving the existence of hypersurfaces H f in projective schemes X/S with certain desired properties have been discussed, let us summarize the method. 0.5 Let X S be a projective morphism with S = Spec R affine and noetherian. Let O X (1) be a very ample sheaf relative to X S. Let C X be a closed subscheme defined by an ideal I, and set I(n) := I O X (n). Our goal is to show the existence, for all n large enough, of a global section f of I(n) such that the associated subscheme H f has the desired properties. To do so, we fix a system of generators f 1,..., f N of H 0 (X, I(n)), and we consider for each s S a subset Σ(s) A N (k(s)) consisting of all the vectors (α 1,..., α N ) such that i α if i Xs does not have the desired properties. We show then that all these subsets Σ(s), s S, are the rational points of a single pro-constructible subset

6 HYPERSURFACES IN PROJECTIVE SCHEMES AND A MOVING LEMMA 6 T of A N S (which depends on n). To find a desired global section f := i a if i with a i R which avoids the subset T of bad sections, we show that for some n large enough the pro-constructible subset T satisfies the hypotheses of the following theorem. The section σ whose existence follows from 2.1 provides the desired vector (a 1,..., a N ) R N. Theorem (see 2.1). Let S be a noetherian affine scheme. Let T := T 1... T m be a finite union of pro-constructible subsets of A N S. Suppose that: (1) For all i m, dim T i < N, and (T i ) s is constructible in A N k(s) for all s S. (2) For all s S, there exists a k(s)-rational point in A N k(s) which does not belong to T s. Then there exists a section σ of π : A N S S such that σ(s) T =. To explain the phrasing of (1) in the above theorem, note that the union T 1... T m =: T is pro-constructible since each T i is. However, it may happen that dim T > max i (dim T i ). This can be seen already on the spectrum T of a discrete valuation ring, which is the union of two (constructible) points, each of dimension 0. The proof of Theorem 2.1 is given in section 2. The construction alluded to in 0.5 of the pro-constructible subset T whose rational points are in bijection with Σ(s) is done in Proposition We present our next theorem as a final illustration of the strength of the method. This theorem, stated in a slightly stronger form in section 3, is the key to the proof of Theorem 7.2 (a), as it allows for a reduction to the case of relative dimension 1. Note that in this theorem, S is not assumed to be pictorsion. Theorem (see 3.4). Let S be an affine noetherian scheme of finite dimension, and let X S be a quasi-projective morphism. Let C be a closed irreducible subscheme of X, of codimension d > dim S in X. Assume that C S is finite and surjective, and that C X is a regular immersion. Let F be a closed subset of X. Fix a very ample sheaf O X (1) relative to X S. Then there exists n 0 > 0 such that for all n n 0, there exists a global section f of O X (n) such that: (1) C is a closed subscheme of codimension d 1 in H f, and C H f is a regular immersion; (2) For all s S, H f does not contain any irreducible component of positive dimension of F s. The proof of Theorem 3.4 is quite subtle and spans sections 3 and 4. In Theorem 7.2 (a), we start with the hypothesis that C is contained in the regular locus of X. It is not possible in general to expect that a hypersurface H f containing C can be chosen so that C is again contained in the regular locus of H f. Thus, when no regularity conditions can be expected on the total space, we impose regularity conditions by assuming that C is regularly immersed in X. Great care is then needed in the proof of 3.4 to insure that a hypersurface H f can be found with the property that C is regularly immersed in H f. Section 3 contains most of the proof of Theorem 3.4. Several lemmas needed in the proof of Theorem 3.4 are discussed separately in section 4. Sections 5, 6, 7 and 8 contain the proofs of the applications of our method.

7 HYPERSURFACES IN PROJECTIVE SCHEMES AND A MOVING LEMMA 7 It is our pleasure to thank Max Lieblich and Damiano Testa for the second example in 5.3, Angelo Vistoli for helpful clarifications regarding 6.12 and 6.13, and Robert Varley for Example We also warmly thank the referees, for a meticulous reading of the article, for several corrections and strengthenings, and many other useful suggestions which led to improvements in the exposition. Contents 1. Zero locus of sections of a quasi-coherent sheaf 7 2. Sections in an affine space avoiding pro-constructible subsets Existence of hypersurfaces Variations on the classical Avoidance Lemma Avoidance lemma for families Finite quasi-sections Moving lemma for 1-cycles Finite morphisms to P d S. 53 References Zero locus of sections of a quasi-coherent sheaf We start this section by reviewing basic facts on constructible subsets, a concept introduced by Chevalley in [9]. We follow the exposition in [26]. We introduce the zero-locus Z(F, f) of a global section f of a finitely presented O X -module F on a scheme X, and show in 1.4 that this subset is locally constructible in X. Given a finitely presented morphism π : X Y, we further define a subset T F,f,π in Y, and show in 1.6 that it is locally constructible in Y. The main result in this section is Proposition 1.10, which is a key ingredient in the proofs of Theorems 3.3 and 3.4. Let X be a topological space. A subset T of X is constructible 5 if it is a finite union of subsets of the form U (X \V ), where U and V are open and retro-compact 6 in X. A subset T of X is locally constructible if for any point t T, there exists an open neighborhood V of t in X such that T V is constructible in V ([26], Chap. 0, and ). When X is a quasi-compact and quasi-separated scheme 7 (e.g., if X is noetherian, or affine), then any quasi-compact open subset is retro-compact and any locally constructible subset is constructible ([26], IV.1.8.1). When T is a subset of a topological space X, we endow T with the induced topology, and define the dimension of T to be the Krull dimension of the topological space T. As usual, dim T < 0 if and only if T =. Let π : X S be a morphism 5 See [26], Chapter 0, Beware that in the second edition [27], Chapter 0, 2.3, a globally constructible subset now refers to what is called a constructible subset in [26]. 6 A topological space X is quasi-compact if every open covering of X has a finite refinement. A continuous map f : X Y is quasi-compact if the inverse image f 1 (V ) of every quasi-compact open V of Y is quasi-compact. A subset Z of X is retro-compact if the inclusion map Z X is quasi-compact. 7 X is quasi-separated if and only if the intersection of any two quasi-compact open subsets of X is quasi-compact ([26], IV.1.2.7).

8 HYPERSURFACES IN PROJECTIVE SCHEMES AND A MOVING LEMMA 8 and let T X be any subset. For any s S, we will denote by T s the subset π 1 (s) T. 1.1 Recall that a pro-constructible subset in a noetherian scheme X is a (possibly infinite) intersection of constructible subsets of X ([26], IV.1.9.4). Clearly, the constructible subsets of X are pro-constructible in X, and so are the finite subsets of X ([26], IV.1.9.6), and the constructible subsets of any fiber of a morphism of schemes X Y ([26], IV (vi)). The complement in X of a pro-constructible subset is called an ind-constructible of X. Equivalently, an ind-constructible subset of X is any union of constructible subsets of X. We are very much indebted to a referee for pointing out that our original hypothesis in Theorem 2.1 that T be the union of a constructible subset and finitely many closed strict subsets of fibers A N k(s) could be generalized to the hypothesis that T be pro-constructible. We also thank this referee for suggestions which greatly improved the exposition of the proof of our original Proposition Lemma 1.2. (a) Let X/k be a scheme of finite type over a field k, and let T X be a constructible subset, with closure T in X. Then dim T = dim T. (b) Let X/k be as in (a). Let k /k be a finite extension, and denote by T k the preimage of T under the map X k k X. Then dim T k = dim T. (c) Let Y be any noetherian scheme and π : X Y be a morphism of finite type. Let T X be constructible. Assume that for each y Y, dim T y d. Then dim T dim Y + d. (d) Suppose X is a noetherian scheme. Let T be a pro-constructible subset of X. Then T has finitely many irreducible components and each of them has a generic point. Proof. (a)-(b) Let Γ be an irreducible component of T of dimension dim T. As T is dense in T, T Γ is dense in Γ. As T Γ is constructible and dense in Γ, it contains a dense open subset U of Γ. Therefore, because Γ is integral of finite type over k, dim Γ = dim U dim T dim T = dim Γ and dim T = dim T. This proves (a). We also have dim Γ = dim Γ k = dim U k dim T k dim T k = dim T = dim Γ. This proves (b). (c) Let {Γ i } i be the irreducible components of T. They are closed in T, thus constructible in X. As dim T = max i {dim Γ i } and the fibers of Γ i Y all have dimension bounded by d, it is enough to prove the statement when T itself is irreducible. Replacing X with the Zariski closure of T in X with reduced scheme structure, we can suppose X is integral and T is dense in X. Let ξ be the generic point of X and let η = π(ξ). As T is constructible and dense in X, it contains a dense open subset U of X. Then U η is dense in X η. Hence dim X η = dim U η dim T η d. Therefore dim T dim X dim π(x) + d dim Y + d, where the middle inequality is given by [26], IV (d) The subspace T of X is noetherian and, hence, it has finitely many irreducible components ([7], II, 4.2, Prop. 8 (i), and Prop. 10). Let Γ be an irreducible component of T. Let Γ be its closure in X. Since Γ is also irreducible, it has a generic

9 HYPERSURFACES IN PROJECTIVE SCHEMES AND A MOVING LEMMA 9 point ξ X. We claim that ξ Γ, so that ξ is also the generic point of Γ. Indeed, suppose that Γ is contained in a constructible W := m i=1u i F i, with U i open and F i closed in X, and such that (U i F i ) Γ for all i = 1,..., m. Then there exists j such that Γ F j. Since U j contains an element of Γ by hypothesis, we find that it must also contain ξ, so that ξ W. The subset Γ is pro-constructible in X since it is closed in the pro-constructible T. Hence, by definition, Γ is the intersection of constructible subsets, which all contain ξ. Hence, ξ Γ. 1.3 Let X be a scheme. Let F be a quasi-coherent O X -module, such as a finitely presented O X -module ([26], Chap. 0, (5.2.5)). Fix a section f H 0 (X, F). For x X, denote by f(x) the canonical image of f in the fiber F(x) := F x OX,x k(x). We say that f vanishes at x if f(x) = 0 (in F(x)). Define Z(F, f) := {x X f(x) = 0} to be the zero-locus of f. Let q : X X be any morphism of schemes. Let F := q F, and let f H 0 (X, F ) be the canonical image of f. Then Z(F, f ) = q 1 (Z(F, f)). Indeed, for any x q 1 (x), the natural morphism F(x) F (x ) = F(x) k(x) k(x ) is injective. When F is invertible or, more generally, locally free, then Z(F, f) is closed in X. As our next lemma shows, Z(F, f) in general is locally constructible. When X is noetherian, this is proved for instance in [59], Proposition 5.3. We give here a different proof. Lemma 1.4. Let X be a scheme and let F be a finitely presented O X -module. Then the set Z(F, f) is locally constructible in X. Proof. Since the statement is local on X, it suffices to prove the lemma when X = Spec A is affine. We can use the stratification X = 1 i n X i of X described in [26], IV.8.9.5: each X i is a quasi-compact subscheme of X, and F i := F OX O Xi is flat on X i. Let f i be the canonical image of f in H 0 (X i, F i ). Then Z(F, f) = 1 i n Z(F i, f i ). Since F i is finitely presented and flat, it is projective ([44], 1.4) and, hence, locally free. So Z(F i, f i ) is closed in X i. 1.5 Let π : X Y be a finitely presented 8 morphism of schemes. Let T be a locally constructible subset of X. Set T π := {y Y T y contains a generic point of X y }, where a generic point of a scheme X is the generic point of an irreducible component of X. Such a point is called a maximal point in [26], just before IV Let F be a finitely presented O X -module and fix a global section f F(X). Set T F,f,π := {y Y f vanishes at a generic point of X y }. 8 A morphism π : X Y is finitely presented (or of finite presentation) if it is locally of finite presentation, quasi-compact, and quasi-separated ([26], IV.1.6.1).

10 HYPERSURFACES IN PROJECTIVE SCHEMES AND A MOVING LEMMA 10 For future use, let us note the following equivalent expression for T F,f,π. For any y Y, let F y := F OX O Xy = F OY k(y), and let f y be the canonical image of f in H 0 (X y, F y ). Let x X y. Since the canonical map F(x) F y (x) of fibers at x is an isomorphism, f y vanishes at x if and only if f vanishes at x. Thus T F,f,π = {y Y f y vanishes at a generic point of X y }. When the morphism π is understood, we may denote T F,f,π simply by T F,f. Note that when π = id : X X, the set T F,f,id is equal to the zero locus Z(F, f) of f introduced in 1.3. Proposition 1.6. Let π : X Y be a finitely presented morphism of schemes. Let T be a locally constructible subset of X. Let F be a finitely presented O X -module, and fix a section f H 0 (X, F). Then the subsets T π and T F,f,π are both locally constructible in Y. Proof. Let us start by showing that T π is locally constructible in Y. By definition of locally constructible, the statement is local on Y, and it suffices to prove the statement when Y is affine. Assume then from now on that Y is affine. Since π is quasi-compact and quasi-separated and Y is affine, X is also quasi-compact and quasi-separated ([26], IV.1.2.6). Hence, T is constructible and we can write it as a finite union of locally closed subsets T i := U i (X \ V i ) with U i and V i open and retro-compact. Then T y contains a generic point of X y if and only if (T i ) y contains a generic point of X y for some i. Therefore, it suffices to prove the statement when T = U (X \ V ) with U and V open and retro-compact. We therefore assume now that T = U Z, with U and X \ Z open and retrocompact. Fix y Y. We claim that T y contains a generic point of X y if and only if there exists x T y such that codim x (Z y, X y ) = 0. To justify this claim, let us recall the following. Let Γ 1,..., Γ n be the irreducible components of Z y passing through x (X y is noetherian). Then codim x (Z y, X y ) = min 1 i n {codim(γ i, X y )} ([26], (i)). So codim x (Z y, X y ) = 0 if and only if Z y contains an irreducible component of X y passing through x. Now, if T y contains a generic point ξ of X y, then Z y contains the irreducible component {ξ} ξ of X y and codim ξ (Z y, X y ) = 0. Conversely, if codim x (Z y, X y ) = 0 for some x T y, then Z y contains an irreducible component Γ of X y passing through x. As T y is open in Z y, T y Γ is open in Γ and non-empty, so T y contains the generic point of Γ. Since Z is closed, we can apply [26], IV.9.9.1(ii), and find that the set X 0 := {x X codim x (Z π(x), X π(x) ) = 0} is locally constructible in X. It is easy to check that T π = π(t X 0 ). Since T X 0 is locally constructible, it follows then from Chevalley s theorem ([26], IV.1.8.4) that T π is locally constructible in Y.

11 HYPERSURFACES IN PROJECTIVE SCHEMES AND A MOVING LEMMA 11 Let us now show that T F,f,π is locally constructible in Y. Set T to be the zero locus Z(F, f) of f in X, which is locally constructible in X by 1.4. Then T F,f,π is nothing but the associated subset T π which was shown to be locally constructible in Y in the first part of the proposition. The formation of T F,f,π is compatible with base changes Y Y, as our next lemma shows. Lemma 1.7. Let π : X Y be a finitely presented morphism of schemes. Let q : Y Y be any morphism of schemes. Let X := X Y Y and π : X Y. Let F be a finitely presented O X -module, and fix a section f H 0 (X, F). Let F := F OY O Y and let f be the image of f in H 0 (X, F ). Then T F,f,π = q 1 (T F,f,π ). Proof. For any y Y, we have a natural k(y )-isomorphism X y (X y) k(y ). Any generic point ξ of X y maps to a generic point ξ of X y, and any generic point of X y is the image of a generic point of X y. Moreover, f (ξ ) is identified with the image of f(ξ) under the natural injection F y (ξ) F y (ξ ) = F y (ξ) k(ξ ). 1.8 Let X Y be a finitely presented morphism of schemes, and let F be a finitely presented O X -module. Let N 1 and let f 1,..., f N H 0 (X, F). For each y Y, define { } Σ(y) := (α 1,..., α N ) k(y) N α i f i,y vanishes at some generic point of X y. i When X y =, we set Σ(y) :=. The subset Σ(y) depends on the data X Y, F, and {f 1,..., f N }. Example 1.9 Consider the special case in 1.8 where Y = Spec k = {y}, with k a field. For each generic point ξ of X = X y, consider the k-linear map k N F k(ξ), (α 1,..., α N ) α i f i (ξ). The kernel K(ξ) of this map is a linear subspace of k N and, hence, can be defined by a system of homogeneous polynomials of degree 1. The same equations define a closed subscheme T (ξ) of A N y. Then the set Σ(y) is the union of the sets K(ξ), where the union is taken over all the generic points of X, and Σ(y) is the subset of k(y)-rational points of the closed scheme T := ξ T (ξ) of A N Y. This latter statement is generalized to any base Y in our next proposition. Proposition Let X Y, F, and {f 1,..., f N } H 0 (X, F), be as in 1.8. Then there exists a locally constructible subset T of A N Y such that for all y Y, the set of k(y)-rational points of A N k(y) contained in T y is equal to Σ(y). Moreover: (a) The set T satisfies the following natural compatibility with respect to base change. Let Y Y be any morphism of schemes, and denote by q : A N Y AN Y the associated morphism. Let X := X Y Y Y and let F := F OY O Y. Let f 1,..., f N be the images of f 1,..., f N in H 0 (X, F ). Then the constructible set T associated with the data X Y, F, and f 1,..., f N, is equal to q 1 (T ). In particular, for all y Y, the set of k(y )-rational points of A N k(y ) contained in (q 1 (T )) y is equal to the set Σ(y ) associated with f 1,..., f N H0 (X, F ).

12 HYPERSURFACES IN PROJECTIVE SCHEMES AND A MOVING LEMMA 12 (b) We have dim T dim Y + sup y Y dim T y when Y is noetherian. In general for each y Y, dim T y is the maximum of the dimension over k(y) of the kernels of the k(y)-linear maps k(y) N F k(ξ), for each generic point ξ of X y. (α 1,..., α N ) i α i f i (ξ), Proof. Let π : A N X AN Y be the finitely presented morphism induced by the given morphism X Y. Let p : A N X X be the natural projection, and consider the finitely presented sheaf p F on A N X induced by F. Write A N Z = Spec Z[u 1,..., u N ], and identify H 0 (A N X, p F) with H 0 (X, F) Z Z[u 1,..., u N ]. Using this identification, let f H 0 (A N X, p F) denote the section corresponding to 1 i N f i u i. Apply now Proposition 1.6 to the data π : A N X A N Y, p F, and f, to obtain the locally constructible subset T := T p F,f of A N Y. Fix y Y, and let z be a k(y)-rational point in A N Y above y. We may write z = (α 1,..., α N ) k(y) N. The fiber of π above z is isomorphic to X y, and the section f z (p F) z is identified with i α if i H 0 (X y, F y ). Therefore, it follows from the definitions that z T y if and only if z Σ(y), and the first part of the proposition is proved. (a) The compatibility of T with respect to a base change Y Y results from Lemma 1.7. (b) The inequality on the dimensions follows from 1.2 (c). By the compatibility described in (a), we are immediately reduced to the case Y = Spec k for a field k, which is discussed in Sections in an affine space avoiding pro-constructible subsets The following theorem is an essential part of our method for producing interesting closed subschemes of a scheme X when X S is projective and S is affine. Theorem 2.1. Let S = Spec R be a noetherian affine scheme. Let T := T 1... T m be a finite union of pro-constructible subsets of A N S. Suppose that: (1) There exists an open subset V S with zero-dimensional complement such that for all i m, dim(t i A N V ) < N and (T i) s is constructible in A N k(s) for all s V. (2) For all s S, there exists a k(s)-rational point in A N k(s) which does not belong to T s. Then there exists a section σ of π : A N S S such that σ(s) T =. Proof. We proceed by induction on N, using Claims (a) and (b) below. Claim (a). There exists δ 1 such that for all s V, T s is contained in a hypersurface in A N k(s) of degree at most δ. Proof. It is enough to prove the claim for each T i. So to lighten the notation we set T := T i in this proof. Thus, by hypothesis, dim T A N V < N. We start by proving that for each s V, there exist a positive integer δ s and an ind-constructible subset (see 1.1) W s of V containing s, such that for each s W s, T s is contained in a hypersurface of degree δ s in A N k(s ). Indeed, let s V. As dim T s dim T A N V < N,

13 HYPERSURFACES IN PROJECTIVE SCHEMES AND A MOVING LEMMA 13 and T s is constructible, T s is not dense in A N k(s) (Lemma 1.2(a)). Thus, there exists some polynomial f s of degree δ s > 0 whose zero locus contains T s. Hence, for some affine open neighborhood V s of s, we can find a polynomial f O V (V s )[t 1,..., t N ] of degree δ s, lifting f s and defining a closed subscheme V (f) of A N V s. Let W 1 := π(a N V s \V (f)), which is constructible in V by Chevalley s Theorem. Let W 2 be the complement in V of π(t (A N V s \ V (f))), which is ind-constructible in V since π(t (A N V s \ V (f))) is pro-constructible in V ([26], IV (vii)). Hence, both W 1 and W 2 are ind-constructible and contain s. The intersection W s := W 1 W 2 is the desired ind-constructible subset containing s. Since V is quasi-compact because it is noetherian, and since each W s is ind-constructible, it follows from [26], IV.1.9.9, that there exist finitely many points s 1,..., s n of V such that V = W s1... W sn. We can take δ := max i {δ si }, and Claim (a) is proved. A proof of the following lemma in the affine case is given in [65], Proposition 13. We provide here an alternate proof. Lemma 2.2. Let S be any scheme. Let c N. Then the subset {s S Card(k(s)) c} is closed in S and has dimension at most 0. When S is noetherian, this subset is then finite. Proof. It is enough to prove that when S is a scheme over a finite prime field F p, and q is a power of p, the set {s S Card(k(s)) = q} is closed of dimension 0. Let F q be a field with q elements. Then any point s S with Card(k(s)) = q is the image by the projection S Fq S of a rational point of S Fq. Therefore we can suppose that S is a F q -scheme and we have to show that S(F q ) is closed of dimension 0. Let Z be the Zariski closure of S(F q ) in S, endowed with the reduced structure. Let U be an affine open subset of Z. Let f O Z (U). For any x U(F q ), (f q f)(x) = 0 in k(x), hence x V (f q f). As U(F q ) is dense in U and U is reduced, we have f q f = 0. For any irreducible component Γ of U, this identity then holds on O(Γ), so Γ is just a rational point. Hence U = U(F q ) and dim U = 0. Consequently, Z = S(F q ) is closed and has dimension 0. The key to the proof of Theorem 2.1 is the following assertion: Claim (b). Suppose N 1. Then there exist t := t 1 + a 1 R[t 1,..., t N ] with a 1 R, and an open subset U S with zero-dimensional complement, such that H := V (t) is S-isomorphic to A N 1 S and the pro-constructible subsets T 1 H,..., T m H of H satisfy: (i) For all i m, dim(t i H U ) < N 1, and (T i H) s is constructible in H s for all s U. (ii) For all s S, there exists a k(s)-rational point in H s which does not belong to T s H s. Using Claim (b), we conclude the proof of Theorem 2.1 as follows. First, note that when N = 0, Condition 2.1 (2) implies that T = and the theorem trivially holds true. When N 1, we apply Claim (b) repeatedly to obtain a sequence of closed sets A N S V (t 1 + a 1 ) V (t 1 + a 1, t 2 + a 2,..., t N + a N ). The latter set is the image of the desired section, as we saw in the case N = 0.

14 HYPERSURFACES IN PROJECTIVE SCHEMES AND A MOVING LEMMA 14 Proof of Claim (b): Let {ξ 1,..., ξ ρ } be the set of generic points of all the irreducible components of the pro-constructible sets T i A N V, i = 1,..., m (see 1.2 (d) for the existence of generic points). Upon renumbering these points if necessary, we can assume that for some r ρ, the image of ξ i under π : A N S S has finite residue field if and only if i > r. Let δ > 0. Let Z be the union of S \V with {π(ξ r+1 ),..., π(ξ ρ )} and with the finite subset of the closed points s of S satisfying Card(k(s)) δ (that this set is finite follows from 2.2). We will later set δ appropriately to be able to use Claim (a). For each s Z, we can use 2.1 (2) and fix a k(s)-rational point x s A N k(s) \ T s. We now construct a closed subset V (t) A N S which contains x s for all s Z, and does not contain any ξ i with i r. Since every point of Z is closed in S, the Chinese Remainder Theorem implies that the canonical map R s Z k(s) is surjective. Let a R be such that a t 1 (x s ) in k(s), for all s Z. Replacing t 1 by t 1 a, we can assume that t 1 (x s ) = 0 for all s Z. Let p j R[t 1,..., t N ] be the prime ideal corresponding to ξ j. Let m s R denote the maximal ideal of R corresponding to s Z. Let I := s Z m s, and in case Z =, we let I := R. For t R[t 1,..., t N ], let I + t := {a + t a I}. We claim that: I + t 1 1 j r p j. Indeed, the intersection (I + t 1 ) p j is either empty, or contains a j + t 1 for some a j I. In the latter case, (I + t 1 ) p j = t 1 + a j + (p j I). If I + t 1 1 j r p j, then every t 1 + a with a I belongs to some t 1 + a j + (p j I). Let q j := R p j. It follows that I j (a j + q j ) where the union runs over a subset of {1,..., r}. Since the domains R/q j are all infinite when j r, Lemma 2.3 below implies that I is contained in some q j0 for 1 j 0 r. As I = s Z m s, we find that q j0 = m s for some s Z. This is a contradiction, since for j r, π(ξ j ) does not belong to Z because the residue field of π(ξ j ) is infinite and π(ξ j ) / S \ V. This proves our claim. Now that the claim is proved, we can choose t (I + t 1 ) \ 1 j r p j. Clearly, the closed subset H := V (t) A N S does not contain any ξ i with i r. Since t has the form t = t 1 + a 1 for some a 1 I = s Z m s, we find that V (t) contains x s for all s Z. Let U := S \ Z. The complement of U in S is a finite set of closed points of S. It is clear that H := V (t) is S-isomorphic to A N 1 S, and that for each i, the fibers of T i H S are constructible. Let us now prove (i), i.e., that dim(t i H U ) < N 1 for all i m. Let Γ be an irreducible component of some T i A N V, with generic point ξ j for some j. If j > r, then π(ξ j ) Z and Γ A N U =. Suppose now that j r. Then Γ AN U is non-empty and open in Γ, hence irreducible. By construction, H does not contain ξ j since j r. So Γ H U is a proper closed subset of the irreducible space Γ A N U. Thus dim(γ H U ) < dim(γ A N U ) dim Γ < N. As T i H U is the finite union of its various closed subsets Γ H U, this implies that dim(t i H U ) < N 1. Let us now prove (ii), i.e., that for all s S, H s contains a k(s)-rational point that does not belong to T s. When s Z, H contains the k(s)-rational point x s and this

15 HYPERSURFACES IN PROJECTIVE SCHEMES AND A MOVING LEMMA 15 point does not belong to T s. Let now s / Z. Then k(s) δ + 1 by construction. Choose now δ so that the conclusion of Claim (a) holds: for all s V, T s is contained in a hypersurface in A N k(s) of degree at most δ. Then, since t has degree 1, we find that H s T is contained in a hypersurface V (f) of H s with deg(f) δ. We conclude that H s contains a k(s)-rational point that does not belong to T s using the following claim: Assume that k is either an infinite field or that k = q δ + 1. Let f k[t 1,..., T l ] with deg(f) δ, f 0. Then V (f)(k) A l (k). When k is a finite field, we use the bound V (f)(k) δq l 1 + (q l 1 1)/(q 1) < q l found in [69]. When k is infinite, we can use induction on l to prove the claim. Our next lemma follows from [49], Theorem 5. We provide here a more direct proof using the earlier reference [57]. Lemma 2.3. Let R be a commutative ring, and let q 1,..., q r be (not necessarily distinct) prime ideals of R with infinite quotients R/q i for all i = 1,..., r. Let I be an ideal of R and suppose that there exist a 1,..., a r R such that I 1 i r (a i + q i ). Then I is contained in the union of those a i + q i with I q i. In particular, I is contained in at least one q i. Proof. We have I = i ((a i +q i ) I). If (a i +q i ) I, then it is equal to α i +(q i I) for some α i I. Hence I = i (α i + (q i I)) where the union runs on part of {1,..., r}. By [57], 4.4, I is the union of those α i + (q i I) with I/(q i I) finite. For any such i, the ideal (I + q i )/q i of R/q i is finite and, hence, equal to (0) because R/q i is an infinite domain. Remark 2.4 One can show that the conclusion of Theorem 2.1 holds without assuming in 2.1 (1) that T s is constructible in A N k(s) for all s V. Since we will not need this statement, let us only note that when S has only finitely many points with finite residue field, then the conclusion of Theorem 2.1 holds if in 2.1 (1) we remove the hypothesis that T s is constructible for all s V. Indeed, with this hypothesis, we do not need to use Claim (a). First shrink V so that k(s) is infinite for all s V, and then proceed to construct the closed subset H = V (t) discussed in Claim (b). The use of Claim (a) in the proof of (ii) in Claim (b) can be avoided using our next lemma. Let k be an infinite field, and let V A N k be a closed subset. The property that if dim(v ) < N, then V (k) A N k (k), can be generalized as follows. Lemma 2.5. Let k be an infinite field. Let T A N k be a pro-constructible subset with dim(t ) < N. Then T does not contain all k-rational points of A N k. Proof. Assume that T contains all k-rational points of A N k. We claim first that T is irreducible. Indeed, if T = (V (f) T ) (V (g) T ), then V (fg) = V (f) V (g) contains all k-rational points of A N k. Thus V (fg) = AN k and either V (f) T = T or V (g) T = T. Since T is irreducible, it has a generic point ξ (see 1.2 (d)), and the closure F of ξ in A N k contains all k-rational points of AN k. Hence, F = AN k, so that T then contains the generic point of A N k. Consider now an increasing sequence of

16 HYPERSURFACES IN PROJECTIVE SCHEMES AND A MOVING LEMMA 16 closed linear subspaces F 0 F 1 F N contained in A N k, with F i = A i k. Then T F i contains all k-rational points of F i by hypothesis, and the discussion above shows that it contains then the generic point of F i. It follows that dim(t ) = N. Remark 2.6 The hypothesis in 2.1 (1) on the dimension of T is needed. Indeed, let S = Spec Z, and N = 1. Consider the closed subset V (t 3 t) of Spec Z[t] = A 1 Z. Let T be the constructible subset of A 1 Z obtained by removing from V (t3 t) the maximal ideals (2, t 1) and (3, t 1). Then, for all s S, the fiber T s is distinct from A 1 k(s) (k(s)), and dim T s = 0. However, dim T = 1, and we note now that there exists no section of A 1 Z disjoint from T. Indeed, let V (t a) be a section. If it is disjoint from T, then a 0, 1, 1, and 6 a 1. So there exists a prime p > 3 with p a, and V (t a) meets T at the point (p, t). For a more geometric example, let k be any infinite field. Let S = Spec k[u] and A 1 S = Spec k[u, t]. When T := V (t2 u) A 1 S, then A1 S \ T does not contain any section V (t g(u)) of A 1 S. Indeed, otherwise (t2 u, t g(u)) = (1), and g(u) 2 u would be an element of k. 3. Existence of hypersurfaces Let us start by introducing the terminology needed to state the main results of this section. 3.1 Let X be any scheme. A global section f of an invertible sheaf L on X defines a closed subset H f of X, consisting of all points x X where the stalk f x does not generate L x. Since O X f L, the ideal sheaf I := (O X f) L 1 endows H f with the structure of a closed subscheme of X. When X is noetherian and H f, it follows from Krull s Principal Ideal Theorem that any irreducible component Γ of H f has codimension at most 1 in X. Assume now that X Spec R is a projective morphism, and write X = Proj A, where A is the quotient of a polynomial ring R[T 0,..., T N ] by a homogeneous ideal I. Let O X (1) denote the very ample sheaf arising from this presentation of X. Let f A be a homogeneous element of degree n. Then f can be identified with a global section f H 0 (X, O X (n)), and H f is the closed subscheme V + (f) of X defined by the homogeneous ideal fa. When X S is a quasi-projective morphism and f is a global section of a very ample invertible sheaf L relative to X S, we may also sometimes denote the closed subset H f of X by V + (f). Let now S be any affine scheme and X S any morphism. We call the closed subscheme H f of X a hypersurface (relative to X S) when no irreducible component of positive dimension of X s is contained in H f, for all s S. If, moreover, the ideal sheaf I is invertible, we say that the hypersurface H f is locally principal. Note that in this case, H f is the support of an effective Cartier divisor on X. Hypersurfaces satisfy the following elementary properties. Lemma 3.2. Let S be affine. Let X S be a finitely presented morphism. Let L be an invertible sheaf on X and let f H 0 (X, L) be such that H := H f is a hypersurface on X relative to X S. (1) If dim X s 1, then dim H s dim X s 1. If, moreover, X S is projective, L is ample, and H, then H s meets every irreducible component of positive dimension of X s, and in particular dim H s = dim X s 1.

17 HYPERSURFACES IN PROJECTIVE SCHEMES AND A MOVING LEMMA 17 (2) The morphism H S is finitely presented. (3) Assume that X S is flat of finite presentation. Then H is locally principal and flat over S if and only if for all s S, H does not contain any associated point of X s. (4) Assume S noetherian. If H does not contain any associated point of X, then H is locally principal. Proof. (1) Recall that by convention, if H s is empty, then dim H s < 0, and the inequality is satisfied. Assume now that H s is not empty. By hypothesis, H s does not contain any irreducible component of X s of positive dimension. Since H s is locally defined by one equation, we obtain that dim H s dim X s 1. The strict inequality may occur for instance in case dim X s 2, and H s does not meet any component of X s of maximal dimension. Consider now the open set X f := X \H. Under our additional hypotheses, for any s S, X f X s = (X s ) fs is affine and, thus, can only contain irreducible components of dimension 0 of the projective scheme X s. (2) Results from the fact that H is locally defined by a single equation in X. (3) See [26], IV , c) a). Each fiber X s is noetherian. Use the fact that in a noetherian ring, an element is regular if and only if it is not contained in any associated prime. (4) The property is local on X, so we can suppose X = Spec A is affine and L = O X e is free. So f = he for some h A. The hypothesis H Ass(X) = implies that h is a regular element of A. So the ideal sheaf I = (O X f) L 1 is invertible. We can now state the main results of this section. Theorem 3.3. Let S be an affine noetherian scheme of finite dimension, and let X S be a quasi-projective morphism with a given very ample invertible sheaf O X (1). (i) Let C be a closed subscheme of X; (ii) Let F 1,..., F m be locally closed subsets 9 of X such that for all s S and for all i m, C s does not contain any irreducible component of positive dimension of (F i ) s ; (iii) Let A be a finite subset of X such that A C =. Then there exists n 0 > 0 such that for all n n 0, there exists a global section f of O X (n) such that: (1) C is a closed subscheme of H f, (2) for all s S and for all i m, H f does not contain any irreducible component of positive dimension of F i X s, and (3) H f A =. Moreover, (4) if, for all s S, C does not contain any irreducible component of positive dimension of X s, then there exists f as above such that H f is a hypersurface 9 Recall that a locally closed subset F of a topological space X is the intersection of an open subset U of X with a closed subset Z of X. When X is a scheme, we can endow F with the structure of a subscheme of X by considering U as an open subscheme of X and F as the closed subscheme Z U of U endowed with the reduced induced structure.

### where Σ is a finite discrete Gal(K sep /K)-set unramified along U and F s is a finite Gal(k(s) sep /k(s))-subset

Classification of quasi-finite étale separated schemes As we saw in lecture, Zariski s Main Theorem provides a very visual picture of quasi-finite étale separated schemes X over a henselian local ring

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