# Boundary of Cohen-Macaulay cone and asymptotic behavior of system of ideals

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1 Boundary of Cohen-Macaulay cone and asymptotic behavior of system of ideals Kazuhiko Kurano Meiji University 1 Introduction On a smooth projective variety, we can define the intersection number for a given divisor and a given curve. By this pairing, we can define the numerical equivalence on divisors and curves. We get a (finitely generated) lattice if we divide the set of Weil divisors or curves by the numerical equivalence. In order to study the intersection pairing, we have some concepts of positive elements, e.g., ample, base point-free, nef, etc.. Consider the cone spanned by positive elements in the lattice tensored with the field of real numbers. This cone gives us many informations on the given algebraic variety. In this note, we are interested in the intersection pairing around a fixed singular point of a scheme, or the vertex of the affine cone of a smooth projective variety. Let R be a Noetherian (Cohen-Macaulay) local ring corresponding to the given point. We first define a pairing between a finitely generated module, and a module of finite length and finite projective dimension. Consider the Grothendieck group of finitely generated R-modules, and divide it by the numerical equivalence. Then, we get a finitely generated lattice. It is natural to think that Cohen-Macaulay modules are positive elements under the pairing. So, we study the cone spanned by Cohen-Macaulay modules in the numerical Grothendieck group tensored with R. We always assume that R is a d-dimensional Noetherian Cohen-Macaulay local domain such that one of the following conditions are satisfied 1 : 1 If either (a) or (b) is satisfied, there exists a regular alteration of Spec R by de Jong s

2 (a) R is a homomorphic image of an excellent regular local ring containing Q. (b) R is essentially of finite type over a field, Z or a complete DVR. In this note, modules are always assumed to be finitely generated. 2 Intersection pairing on Spec R and the Cohen- Macaulay cone Let G 0 (R) be the Grothendieck group of finitely generated R-modules. The symbol [M] means the element in G 0 (R) corresponding to an R-module M. Let C R be the category of modules of finite length and finite projective dimension. Here, note that R/(x 1,..., x d ) C R for a system of parameters x 1,..., x d. In particular, C R is not empty. 2 For L C R, we define χ L : G 0 (R) Z by χ L ([M]) = i ( 1)i l R (Tor R i (L, M)). Consider the map C R G 0 (R) Z defined by (L, [M]) χ L ([M]). (1) Here, we define numerical equivalence as follows. For α, β G 0 (R), α β def χ L (α) = χ L (β) for any L C R. Here, we put G 0 (R) = G 0 (R)/{α G 0 (R) α 0}. By Theorem 3.1 and Remark 3.5 in [9], we have the following result. Theorem 1 G 0 (R) is a finitely generated torsion-free abelian group. theorem [6]. 2 By the new intersection theorem due to Roberts, we know that, for a Noetherian local ring R, C R is not empty if and only if R is Cohen-Macaulay.

3 Remark 2 MCM (Maximal Cohen-Macaulay) modules behave as positive elements under the pairing (1) by the following reason. Let L be an object in C R. Then, by Auslander-Buchsbaum formula, we have depth L + pd R L = depth R = d. Then, we have pd R L = d. Let F. be the minimal free resolution of L. Then, it is very easy to check that the complex F. has a depth sensitive property, i.e., for any module N, we have depth N = d max{i H i (F. R N) 0}. We say that M is a MCM module if depth M = d. By the depth sensitivity, if M is MCM, then Tor R i (L, M) = 0 for any i > 0. Therefore, we have χ L ([M]) = l R (L R M) > 0. By Auslander-Buchsbaum formula, any MCM module over a regular local ring is free. We say that a ring R is of finite (Cohen-Macaulay) representation type if there are only finitely many isomorphism classes of indecomposable MCM s. If R is of finite representation type, then R has only isolated singularity. It was proved that a Gorenstein local ring of finite representation type has a simple singularity. Simple singularities are of finite representation type. We refere the reader to Yoshino [17] for the representation theory of MCM s. Bad Cohen-Macaulay rings have many MCM s in general. But, if we do not assume that R is Cohen-Macaulay, it is not known whether there exists an MCM module. This open problem is called the small Mac conjecture [5]. Example 3 1. If L = R/(x 1,..., x d ) for a system of parameters x 1,..., x d, then χ L ([R]) 0. Hence, G 0 (R) If d 2, then rank G 0 (R) = 1. See Proposition 3.7 in [9]. 3. Let X be a smooth projective variety with embedding X P n. Let R (resp. D) be the affine cone (resp. the very ample divisor) of this

4 embedding. Then, we have the following commutative diagram: G 0 (R) Q A (R) Q CH (X) Q /D CH (X) Q G 0 (R) ϕ Q A (R) Q CH num(x) Q /D CH num(x) Q (a) By the commutativity of this diagram, ϕ is a surjection. Therefore, we have rank G 0 (R) dim Q CH num(x) Q /D CH num(x) Q. (2) (b) If CH (X) Q CH num(x) Q, then ϕ is an isomorphism ([9], [15]). In this case, the equality holds in (2). (c) There exists an example such that ϕ is not an isomorphism [15]. Further, Roberts and Srinivas [15] proved the following: Assume that the standard conjecture and Bloch-Beilinson conjecture are true. Then ϕ is an isomorphism if the defining ideal of R is generated by polynomials with coefficients in the algebraic closure of the prime field. 4. It is conjectured that G 0 (R) Q Q if R is complete intersection isolated singularity with d even. It is true if R is the affine cone of a smooth projective variety X over C ([2]). In fact, since we have an injection and the natural surjection CH i hom(x) Q H 2i (X, Q) = Q CH i hom(x) Q CH i num(x) Q 0, we know CH i num(x) Q = Q for each i = 0, 1,..., dim X. Here, remark that H 2i (X, Q) = Q since the dimension of X is odd. Then, we have CH num(x) Q /D CH num(x) Q = Q. Therefore, the rank of G 0 (R) is one by 3 (a) as above.

5 Definition 4 We define the Cohen-Macaulay cone as follows: C CM (R) = R 0 [M] G 0 (R) R. Here G 0 (R) R = G 0 (R) Z R. M:MCM We refer the reader to [1] for basic properties on Cohen-Macaulay cones. It is easy to see that the dimension of the cone is equal to the rank of G 0 (R). Further, we have G 0 (R) R C CM (R) C CM (R) Int(C CM (R) ) = Int(C CM (R)) [R], where C CM (R) is the closure of C CM (R) with respect to the classical topology on G 0 (R) R, and Int( ) is the interior. If R is of finite representation type, then C CM (R) is a strongly convex polyhedral cone, in particular C CM (R) = C CM (R). We have no example that C CM (R) is not equal to C CM (R), or C CM (R) is not a polyhedral cone. Remark that, for any L C R, χ L induces χ L which makes the following diagram commutative: G 0 (R) G 0 (R) χ L χ L Z The map χ L induces (χ L ) R : G 0 (R) R R. Let x 1,..., x d be a system of parameters. Consider the map χ R/(x) : G 0 (R) Z. Let K. be the Koszul complex with respect to x. This map satisfies χ R/(x) ([M]) = rank M χ R/(x) ([R]), since K. is the minimal free resolution of R/(x) and K. admits this property. Therefore, we have a map rk : G 0 (R) Z

6 and rk R : G 0 (R) R R defined by rk([m]) = rank M. (Here, rk = 1 χ R/(x) ([R]) χ R/(x).) Let F be the kernel of the map rk. Then, F is generated by cycles [M] with dim M < d. Thus, we have Example 5 G 0 (R) = Z[R] F and G 0 (R) R = R[R] F R. 1. Put R = k[x, y, z, w] (x,y,z,w) /(xy zw), where k is a field. Then, F = Z[R/(x, z)] Z. This ring has only three indecomposable MCM modules, R, (x, z) and (x, w). Then, the Cohen-Macaulay cone is spanned by [(x, z)] = ([R], [R/(x, z)]) and [(x, w)] = ([R], [R/(x, z)]) in G 0 (R) R = R[R] F R. 2. Put R = k[x 1, x 2,..., x 6 ] (x1,x 2,...,x 6 )/(x 1 x 2 + x 3 x 4 + x 5 x 6 ), where k is a field. Then, F = Z[R/(x 1, x 3, x 5 )] Z. This ring has only three indecomposable MCM modules, R, M 1 and M 2, where M 1 and M 2 are MCM modules of rank 2. Then, the Cohen-Macaulay cone is spanned by [M 1 ] = (2[R], [R/(x 1, x 3, x 5 )]) and [M 2 ] = (2[R], [R/(x 1, x 3, x 5 )]) in G 0 (R) R = R[R] F R. The Cohen-Macaulay cone of this ring is not spanned by classes of MCM modules of rank one. 3. Put R = k[x, y, z, w] (x,y,z,w) /(xy f 1 f 2 f t ), where k is an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero. Here, we assume that f 1, f 2,..., f t are pairwise coprime linear forms in k[z, w]. In this case, we have F = ( i Z[R/(x, f i )]) /Z([R/(x, f 1 )] + + [R/(x, f t )]) Z t 1. We can prove that the Cohen-Macaulay cone is minimally spanned by the following 2 t 2 MCM s of rank one. {{(x, f i1 f i2 f is ) 1 s < t, 1 i 1 < i 2 < < i s t} This ring is of finite representation type if and only if t 3.

7 3 Maximal Cohen-Macaulay modules of rank one Let R be a Noetherian standard graded normal domain such that R 0 is a field of characteristic zero. Assume that R has at most isolated singularity, and [HR 2 + (R)] 0 = 0. Then, it is known that R has at most finitely many MCM modules of rank one. (Prof. Flenner kindly taught me this result.) If R is a Noetherian local ring with at most isolated singularity. Assume that R is a complete intersection and dim R 4. Then, R is factorial. In particular, R is only one MCM modules of rank one. Assume that R is a Noetherian local ring of dimension 2. Even if R is a hypersurface with at most isolated singularity, R may have infinitely many MCM modules of rank one. (For example, the affine cone of an elliptic curve actually has infinitely many MCM modules of rank one.) So, it is important to consider the case of dim R = 3. In this section (Theorem 9), we show that R has only finitely many MCM s of rank one if R is a 3-dimensional isolated hypersurface singularity with desingularization. By the following result, we know that C CM (R) is a strongly convex cone, that is, C CM (R) does not contain a line through the origin. Lemma 6 Let R be a d-dimensional Cohen-Macaulay local domain which satisfies (a) or (b) in the introduction. Then, (rk R ) 1 C CM (R) is a compact set. Corollary 7 Assume that R is a Cohen-Macaulay local domain. Then, for any positive integer r, {[M] G 0 (R) M is a MCM module of rank r } is a finite subset of G 0 (R). Further, assume that R is a normal domain. Then, we have the determinant map (or the first Chern class map) c 1 : G 0 (R) A d 1 (R). We can also define numerical equivalence on A d 1 (R). Then, we define the class group modulo numerical equivalence to be A d 1 (R) = A d 1 (R)/.

8 By Proposition 3.7 and Example 4.1 in [9], we know that it is also a finitely generated torsion-free abelian group. Here we can prove that there exists the map c 1 which makes the following diagram commutative: G 0 (R) G 0 (R) c 1 c 1 Ad 1 (R) Ad 1 (R) By the commutativity of the above diagram, we have the following: Corollary 8 Let R be a d-dimensional Cohen-Macaulay local normal domain. Assume that (*) the kernel of the natural map A d 1 (R) A d 1 (R) is a finite group. Then, for any positive integer r, {c 1 ([M]) A d 1 (R) M is a MCM module of rank r } is a finite subset of A d 1 (R). In particular, R has only finitely many MCM modules of rank one up to isomorphism. Theorem 9 (Dao-Kurano, [2]) Let R be a 3-dimensional isolated hypersurface singularity with desingularization. Then, the natural map A 2 (R) A 2 (R) is an isomorphism. In particular (*) in Corollary 8 is satisfied. Therefore R has only finitely many MCM s of rank one. Remark 10 Put B = n 0 B n = C[B 1 ] = C[y 0, y 1,..., y n ]/I, R = B B+, and X = Proj(B). Assume that X is smooth over C. (Since dim R = d, dim X = d 1.) CH 1 (X) CH 1 (X)/c 1 (O X (1))CH 0 (X) = A d 1 (R) f CH 1 num(x) CH 1 num(x)/c 1 (O X (1))CH 0 num(x) g A d 1 (R)

9 1. Assume that R is a Cohen-Macaulay local normal ring with d 3. Then, CH 1 (X) is finitely generated and f Q is an isomorphism. 2. Assume that the ideal I is generated by some elements in Q[y 0, y 1,..., y n ]. If some famous conjectures (the standard conjecture and Bloch-Beilinson conjecture) are true, then g Q is an isomorphism. (Roberts-Srinivas [15]) Therefore, if R is a Cohen-Macaulay local normal ring with d 3 such that X is defined over Q, and if some conjectures are true, then (*) is satisfied. It is also proved in the case of positive characteristic. If we remove the assumption that X is defined over Q, then there exists an example that g Q is not an isomorphism (Roberts-Srinivas [15]). However, remark that if R is a standard graded Cohen-Macaulay normal graded domain over C with dim R 3. Then, there exist only finitely many MCM modules of rank one. 4 The fundamental class of a Noetherian local ring We define the strictly nef cone SN(R), and the fundamental class µ R for a Noetherian local domain R. They satisfy the following: G 0 (R) R SN(R) C CM (R) {0} G 0 (R) Q µ R The fundamental class is deeply related to the homological conjectures as in Fact 15. We are mainly interested in the problem whether µ R is in such cones or not. Theorem 18 is the main result in this section, which states that if R is FFRT or F-rational, then µ R is in C CM (R). We shall give a corollary (Corollary 21). Definition 11 We define the strictly nef cone by SN(R) = {α χ L (α) > 0 for any L C R }.

10 By the depth sensitivity, χ L ([M]) = l R (H 0 (L M)) > 0 for any MCM module M ( 0) and L C R. Therefore, SN(R) C CM (R) {0}. We can also define SN(R) for non-cohen-macaulay local ring R using some perfect complexes instead of C R. Definition 12 We put µ R = τ 1 R ([Spec R]) G 0 (R) Q, where τ R : G 0 (R) Q A (R) Q is the singular Riemann-Roch map. G 0 (R) Q G 0 (R) Q µ R µ R We call the image µ R in G 0 (R) Q the fundamental class of R. Remark that µ R 0 since rank R µ R = 1. Put R = T/I, where T is a regular local ring. The map τ R is defined using not only R but also T. Therefore, µ R G 0 (R) Q may depend on the choice of T. 3 (Theorem 5.1 in [9]). However, we can prove that µ R G 0 (R) Q is independent of T We shall explain why we call µ R the fundamental class of R. Remark If X = Spec R is a d-dimensional affine variety over C, we have the cycle map cl G 0 (R) Q τ R A (R) Q cl H (X, Q) µ R [Spec R] µ X such that cl([spec R]) is the fundamental class µ X in H 2d (X, Q) in the usual sense, where H (X, Q) is the Borel-Moore homology. Here µ X is the generator of H 2d (X, Q) Z. Hence, we call µ R the fundamental class of R. 3 There is no example that the map τ R actually depend on the choice of T. For some excellent rings, it had been proved that τ R is independent of the choice of T (Proposition 1.2 in [8]).

11 2. Let R have a subring S such that S is a regular local ring and R is a localization of a finite extension of S. Let L be a finite-dimensional normal extension of Q(S) containing Q(R). closure of R in L. Then, we have In particular, µ R = µ R = 1 rank R B [B] in G 0(R) Q. [B] rank R B in G 0(R) Q. Let B be the integral 3. Assume that R is of characteristic p > 0 and F-finite. Assume that the residue class field is algebraically closed. By the singular Riemann- Roch theorem, we have [ e R] µ R = lim in G e p de 0 (R) R, where e R is the eth Frobenius direct image. Example If R is a complete intersection, then µ R is equal to [R] in G 0 (R) Q, therefore µ R = [R] in G 0 (R) Q. There exists a Gorenstein ring such that µ R [R]. However there exist many examples of rings satisfying µ R = [R]. Roberts ([12], [13]) proved the vanishing property of intersection multiplicity for rings satisfying µ R = [R]. 2. Let R be a normal domain. Then, we have G 0 (R) Q τ R A (R) Q = A d (R) Q A d 1 (R) Q [R] [Spec R] K R 2 + [ω R ] [Spec R] + K R 2 + If τ 1 R (K R) 0 in G 0 (R) Q, then [R] µ R. Sometimes µ R = 1 2 ([R] + [ω R]) is satisfied. But it is not true in general. 3. Let R = k[x ij ]/I 2 (x ij ), where (x ij ) is the generic (m + 1) (n + 1)- matrix, and k is a field. Suppose 0 < m n.

12 Then, we have G 0 (R) Q G 0 (R) Q Q[a]/(a m+1 ) [R] ( ) a m ( a ) n 1 e a 1 e a = (m n)a )a2 + [ω R ] ( ) a m ( ) a n 1 e a 1 e a µ R 1 τ 1 R (K R) (n m)a Here, we shall explain the relationship between the fundamental class µ R and homological conjectures. Fact 15 for any R. 1. The small Mac conjecture is true if and only if µ R C CM (R) Even if R is an equi-characteristic Gorenstein ring, it is not known whether µ R is in C CM (R) or not. If R is a complete intersection, then µ R = [R] C CM (R) as in 1) in Example If µ R = [R] in G 0 (R) Q, then the vanishing property of intersection multiplicity holds (Roberts [12], [13]). 3. Roberts [14] proved µ R SN(R) if ch(r) = p > 0. Using it, he proved the new intersection theorem in the mixed characteristic case. 4. µ R SN(R) if R contains a field (Kurano-Roberts [11]). Even if R is a Gorenstein ring (of mixed characteristic), we do not know whether µ R SN(R) or not. 5. If µ R SN(R) for any R, then Serre s positivity conjecture is true in the case where one of two modules is (not necessary maximal) Cohen- Macaulay. If µ R C CM (R) for any R, then small Mac conjecture is true, and so Serre conjecture is true in the case. Remark If R is Cohen-Macaulay of characteristic p > 0, then e R is a MCM module. Since µ R is the limit of [ e R]/p de in G 0 (R) R, µ R is contained in C CM (R). In the case where R is not of characteristic

13 p > 0, we do not know whether µ R is contained in C CM (R) even if R is Gorenstein. 2. As we have already seen, if R is Cohen-Macaulay, then [R] Int(C CM (R)) C CM (R). There is an example of non-cohen-macaulay ring R such that [R] SN(R). 4 On the other hand, it is expected that µ R SN(R) for any R. Therefore, for the non-cohen-macaulay local ring R, µ R behaves better than [R] in a sence. The fundamental class µ R is deeply related to homological conjectures. Therefore, we propose the following question. Question 17 Assume that R is a good Cohen-Macaulay local domain (for example, equi-characteristic, Gorenstein, etc). Is µ R in C CM (R)? We can prove the following: Theorem 18 (Kurano-Ohta [10]) Assume that R is an F-finite Cohen- Macaulay local domain of characteristic p > 0 with residue class field algebraically closed. 1. If R is FFRT, then µ R is contained in C CM (R). 2. If R is F-rational, then µ R is contained in Int(C CM (R)). The most important point in this proof is to use the dual F-signature defined by Sannai [16]. Remark 19 If the rank of G 0 (R) is one for a Cohen-Macaulay local domain R, then µ R C CM (R). If R is a toric ring (a normal semi-group ring over a field k), then we can prove µ R C CM (R) as in the case of FFRT without assuming that ch(k) is positive. 4 It was conjectured that [R] SN(R).

14 Problem As in the above proof, if there exists a MCM module in Int(C CM (R)) such that its generalized F-signature or its dual F- signature is positive, then µ R is in Int(C CM (R) ). Without assuming that R is F-rational, do there exist such a MCM module? 2. How do we make mod p reduction? (the case of rational singularity) 3. If R is Cohen-Macaulay, is µ R in C CM (R)? If R is a Cohen-Macaulay ring containing a field of positive characteristic, then µ R in C CM (R) as in 1) in Remark If R is of finite representation type, is µ R in C CM (R)? 5. Find more examples of C CM (R) and SN(R). In order to prove the following corollary, we use the fact µ R Int(C CM (R)) for some F-rational ring R. Corollary 21 (Chan-Kurano [1]) Let d be a positive integer and p a prime number. Let ϵ 0, ϵ 1,..., ϵ d be integers such that 1 i = d, ϵ i = 1, 0 or 1 d/2 < i < d, 0 i d/2. Then, there exists a d-dimensional Cohen-Macaulay local ring R of characteristic p, a maximal primary ideal I of R of finite projective dimension, and positive rational numbers α, β d 1, β d 2,..., β 0 such that for any n > 0. d 1 l R (R/I [pn] ) = ϵ d αp dn + ϵ i β i p in i=0

15 References [1] C-Y. J. Chan and K. Kurano, The cone spanned by maximal Cohen- Macaulay modules and an application, arxiv [2] H. Dao and K. Kurano, The Hochster s theta pairing and numerical equivalence, arxiv [3] H. Dao and K. Kurano, Boundary of a Cohen-Macaulay cone, in preparation. [4] W. Fulton, Intersection Theory, second edition, Springer, Berlin (1998). [5] M. Hochster, Topics in the homological theory of modules over local rings, C. B. M. S. Regional Conference Series in Math., 24. Amer. Math. Soc. Providence, R. I., [6] A. J. de Jong, Smoothness, semi-stability and alterations, Publ. Math. IHES 83 (1996), [7] N. Karroum, MCM-einfache Moduln, unpublished. [8] K. Kurano, On Roberts rings, J. Math. Soc. Japan 53 (2001), [9] K. Kurano, Numerical equivalence defined on Chow groups of Noetherian local rings, Invent. Math., 157 (2004), [10] K. Kurano and K. Ohta, On the limit of Frobenius in the Grothendieck group, to appear in Acta Math. Vietnam. [11] K. Kurano and P. C. Roberts, Adams operations, localized Chern characters, and the positivity of Dutta multiplicity in characteristic 0, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 352 (2000), [12] P. Roberts, The vanishing of intersection multiplicities and perfect complexes, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. 13 (1985), [13] P. Roberts, Local Chern characters and intersection multiplicities, Algebraic geometry, Bowdoin, 1985, , Proc. Sympos. Math. 46, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 1987.

16 [14] P. Roberts, Intersection theorems, Commutative algebra, , Math. Sci. Res. Inst. Publ., 15, Springer, New York, Berlin, [15] P. C. Roberts and V. Srinivas, Modules of finite length and finite projective dimension, Invent. Math., 151 (2003), 1 27 [16] A. Sannai, Dual F-signature, to appear in International Mathematical Research Notices. [17] Y. Yoshino, Cohen-Macaulay modules over Cohen-Macaulay rings, Lon. Math. Soc. Lect. Note 146, Cambridge University Press Kazuhiko Kurano Department of Mathematics, School of Science and Technology, Meiji University, Higashimita 1-1-1, Tama-ku, Kawasaki , Japan,

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