# Homework 4 Algebra. Joshua Ruiter. February 21, 2018

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1 Homework 4 Algebra Joshua Ruiter February 21, 2018 Chapter V Proposition 0.1 (Exercise 20a). Let F L be a field extension and let x L be transcendental over F. Let K F be an intermediate field satisfying Then x is algebraic over K. F K F (x) Proof. Since K F, there exists α K \ F. We know that { } f(x) F (x) = : f, g F [y], g(x) 0 g(x) The requirement g(x) = 0 can be dropped, since x is transcendental over F. Since α K F (x), we can write α as α = f(x) = αg(x) f(x) = 0 g(x) for some f, g F [y]. Then define h(y) K[y] by h(y) = αg(y) f(y). By the above, h has x as a root. Also note that h cannot be the zero polynomial, since if it were, then αg = f, but f has coefficients in F and the coefficients of αg lie outside F, since α F. Thus x is a root of h K[y], so x is algebraic over K. Proposition 0.2 (Gauss s Lemma). Let R be a unique factorization domain with field of fractions F. A non-constant polynomial in R[x] is irreducible in R[x] if and only if it is both irreducible in F [x] and primitive (coefficients have gcd 1) in R[x]. Proposition 0.3 (Exercise 20b). Let F be a field and let x be transcendental over F. Let y = f(x) be a rational function with f, g F [x]. Let n = max(deg f, deg g) and assume g(x) n 1. Then [F (x) : F (y)] = n 1

2 Proof. We think of f, g as polynomials in F [x]. Then we can define h(t) = f(t) yg(t) F [y, t] Note that F [y][t] = F [t][y] = F [y, t] F (y)[t]. We claim that h is not the zero polynomial. Since n 1, y is not in F. If h were zero, then f(t) = yg(t) and the leading coefficient of f(t) is in F and the leading coefficient of yg(t) is not, which is a contradiction. Thus h is not the zero polynomial. By construction, x is a root of h, so the irreducible polynomial of x over F (y) divides h. Note that F (y) is the quotient field of F [y]. As a polynomial in the variable y with coefficients in F [t], h is linear, so it is irreducible. That is, h is irreducible in (F [t])[y], so it is irreducible in F [y][t]. Then by Gauss s Lemma (see above for statement), h is irreducible in F (y)[t]. Thus h is the irreducible polynomial of x over F (y). Finally, note that the degree of h as a polynomial in t with coefficients in F (y) is max(deg f, deg g) = n. Then by Proposition 1.6 (Lang pg 227), [F (y) : F (x)] = deg h = n Proposition 0.4 (Exercise 24a). Let k be a field of characteristic p, and let t, u be algebraically indepenent over k. Then k(t, u) has degree p 2 over k(t p, u p ). Symbolically, [k(t, u) : k(t p, u p )] = p 2. Proof. We have the tower of fields k(t p, u p ) k(t, u p ) k(t, u) Since t, u are algebraically independent over k, t p does not have a pth root in k(t p, u p ), so the polynomial f(x) = x p t p k(t p, u p )[x] is irreducible by Exercise 15 from previous homework (Lang pg 254). Also, f splits linearly as f(x) = x p t p = (x t) p so f is the irreducible polynomial of t over k(t p, u p ), and the splitting field of f is k(t, u p ). Thus by Proposition 1.4 (Lang pg 225), [k(t, u p ) : k(t p, u p )] = deg f = p Similarly, u p does not have a pth root in k(t, u p ), so the polynomial g(x) = x p u p k(t, u p )[x] is irreducible by Exercise 15. It splits linearly as g(x) = x p u p = (x u) p so g is the irreducible polynomial of u over k(t, u p ), and the splitting field of g is k(t, u). Thus by Proposition 1.4, [k(t, u) : k(t, u p )] = deg g = p Then by multiplicativity of degrees for towers, [k(t, u) : k(t p, u p )] = [k(t, u) : k(t, u p )][k(t, u p ) : k(t p, u p )] = p 2 2

3 Proposition 0.5 (Exercise 24b). Let k be a field of characteristic p, and let t, u be algebraically independent over k. Then there are infinitely many extensions E such that k(t p, u p ) E k(t, u) Proof. By part (a), k(t, u) is a finite extension of k(t p, u p ), so we can apply the Primitive Element Theorem. By the PET, there exists an element α k(t, u) such that k(t p, u p, α) = k(t, u) if and only if there are only a finite number of intermediate extensions E satisfying k(t p, u p ) E k(t, u) So in order to show that there are infinitely many extensions, we just need to show that such an α does not exist. Suppose such an α exists. Since α k(t, u), we can write α as α = f(t, u) g(t, u) where f, g are polynomials in t, u with coefficients in k. Then raising to the pth power, since char k = p, ( ) p f(t, u) α p = = f p (t p, u p ) g(t, u) g p (t p, u p ) k(tp, u p ) where f p, g p indicate raising the coefficients from k to the pth power. Thus α p k(t p, u p ). Thus the polynomial x p α p = (x α) p is in k(t p, u p )[x], with α as a root, so Irr(α, k(t p, u p )) divides x p α p. In particular, it has degree p. The degree of k(t p, u p )(α) over k(t p, u p ) is bounded above by the degree of the irreducible polynomial of α, so By assumption, k(t p, u p, α) = k(t, u), so [k(t p, u p )(α) : k(t p, u p )] p [k(t, u) : k(t p, u p )] p But we showed in part (a) that the degree above is precisely p 2, which is decidedly not less than p. Thus no such α exists, so by the reasoning at the beginning involving the PET, there are infinitely manyintermediate extensions k(t p, u p ) E k(t, u). Lemma 0.6 (for Exercise 25). Any finite field extension of a finite field is generated by a single element. Proof. Let k be finite and E/k a finite extension. Then E is finite, so E = E \ {0} is a cyclic multiplicative group. Let α be a generator. Then E = k(α). The next lemma is the same claim as for Exercise 25, with the extra hypothesis that E/k is purely inseparable. This is used for the proof of the more general statement. 3

4 Lemma 0.7 (for Exercise 25). Let k be a field of characteristic p > 0, and let E be a finite, purely inseparable extension of k. Let p r = [E : k] i. Suppose that there is no s < r so that E ps k is separable over k. (Equivalently, α ps is separable over k for each α E.) Then E can be generated by one element over k. Proof. By hypothesis, there is no s < r such that β pr is separable over k for every β E. Thus there exists α E such that α pr 1 is not separable over k. Note that [k(α) : k] 1 = 1 since E/k is purely inseparable. By Proposition 6.1 (Lang pg 251), [k(α) : k] = p µ [k(α) : k] 2 = p µ for some µ 0, and α pµ is separable over k. If r < µ, then α pr 1 is separable (using the hypotheses) but α pr 1 is not separable, so µ r. On the other hand, p µ = [k(α) : k] must divide [E : k] = [E : k] i = p r, so µ r. Thus µ = r. Thus p r = [E : k] = [E : k(α)][k(α) : k] = [E : k(α)]p µ = [E : k(α)]p r = [E : k(α)] = 1 which implies E = k(α). Proposition 0.8 (Exercise 25). Let k be a field of characteristic p > 0, and let E be a finite extension of k. Let p r = [E : k] i. Suppose that there is no s < r so that E ps k is separable over k. (Equivalently, α ps is separable over k for each α E.) Then E can be generated by one element over k. Proof. We may assume that k is infinite, since if k is finite we apply Lemma 0.6. By Proposition 6.6 (Lang pg 250), we can choose an intermediate field k E 0 E so that E/E 0 is purely inseparable and E 0 /k is separable. By the Primitive Element Theorem (Theorem 4.6 on pg 243 of Lang), E 0 = k(α) for some α E 0. By Lemma 0.7 above, E = E 0 (β) for some β E. Thus E = k(α, β). We will use α, β to construct a primitive element. E = E 0 (β) E 0 = k(α) k purely inseparable separable By hypothesis, there exists µ 0 so that β pµ is separable over k. Thus β pµ E 0, since E 0 is the maximal separable extension. Since E 0 = k(α), using the PET there are only finitely many subextensions k F E 0. For δ k, we have a subextension k k ( α pµ + δ pµ β pµ ) E0 since α, δ, β pµ E 0. By Exercise 15 of Chapter V (Lang pg 254) from previous homework, E 0 = k(α) = k ( ) α pn n 0 4

5 Combining this with the fact that β pµ E 0, E 0 = k(α) = k ( α pµ ) = k ( α p µ, β pµ ) Because k is infinite, k is infinite, so there are infinitely many distinct α pµ + δ pµ β pµ. Then by the pigeonhole principle, there exist δ 1, δ 2 with δ 1 δ 2 so that ( k := k α pµ + δ pµ 1 β pµ) ( = k α pµ + δ pµ 2 β pµ) (This defines k.) Then ( α pµ δ pµ 1 β pµ) ( α pµ δ pµ 2 β pµ) ( ) = δ pµ 1 δ pµ 2 β pµ = (δ 1 δ 2 ) pµ β pµ k Since δ 1 δ 2, we have δ 1 δ 2 0, so (δ 1 δ 2 ) pµ k, so β pµ k. This implies that α pµ k as well. Thus E 0 = k ( α pµ, β pµ ) k Since k E 0, this implies that E 0 = k. Finally, we claim that E = k(α + δβ). For convenience, define δ = δ 1. We already know that k(α + δβ) E. Recall that E = k(α, β), so to show the other inclusion we just need to show that α, β k(α + δβ). Note that (α + δβ) pµ = α pµ + δ pµ β pµ = E 0 = k ( α pµ + δ pµ β pµ ) k(α + δβ) Since α E 0, this implies α k(α + δβ). Since α + δβ is also in there, this gives us δβ k(α + δβ), and since δ k we get β k(α + δβ. Thus so E is generated by a single element over k. E = k(α, β) = k(α + δβ) Chapter VI Note: We use the notation D 8 for the dihedral group with eight elements, which has the presentation σ, τ τ 2 = 1, τστ 1 = σ 3 We often use the fact that any group with 8 elements satisfying the above relations is isomorphic to D 8. Lemma 0.9 (for Exercise 1). Let α be algebraic over Q. Then the quotient field of Z[α] is Q(α). Proof. By definition, Q(α) is the smallest subfield of C that contains Q and α, so it is also the smallest subfield of C that contains Z and α, which is by definition the quotient field of Z[α]. 5

6 Lemma 0.10 (for Exercise 1). Let k be a field, and let f(x) k[x] be irreducible and separable. Let K be the splitting field of f, and let G be the Galois group of K over k. Then G acts transitively on the roots of f. Proof. From class. Lemma 0.11 (for Exercise 1). Let k be a field and let f, g k[x] be irreducible. Let F, G be the splitting fields of f, g respectively. Then the compositum F G is the splitting field of fg. Proof. From class. Proposition 0.12 (Exercise 1ab).. a) The Galois group of x 3 x 1 over Q is S 3. b) The Galois group of x 3 10 over Q is S 3. Proof. As shown on page 270 of Lang, an irreducible cubic polynomial over a field with characteristic 2, 3 is S 3 if and only if the discriminant is not a square in k. If it is, then the Galois group is A 3. (a) By the integral root test, any root of x 3 x 1 in Q must be ±1, but neither is a solution, so f is irreducible. The discriminant is 4( 1) 3 27( 1) 2 = 4 27 = 23 which is not a square in Q, so the Galois group is S 3. (b) By Eisenstein s Criterion for the prime 2 (or 5), x 3 10 is irreducible over Q. The discriminant is 4(0) 3 27(10) 2 = 2700 which is not a square in Q, so the Galois group is S 3. Proposition 0.13 (Exercise 1f). Let f(x) = x 4 5. The Galois group of f is 1. D 8 (the dihedral group with 8 elements) over Q. 2. Z/2Z Z/2Z over Q( 5). 3. Z/2Z Z/2Z over Q( 5). 4. Z/4Z over Q(i). Proof. First we compute the Galois group over Q. Note that f is irreducible over Q by Eisenstein s criterion (at the prime 5). Let α be a real root of f. Then the set of roots is {±α, ±iα}, and [Q(α) : Q] = deg f = 4, so the splitting field of f is Q(α, i). We know that Q(α) Q(i) has degree 1 or 2 over Q, but the degree is not 2 since α is real. Thus [Q(α) Q(i) : Q] = 1 so Q(α) Q(i) = Q. Note that Q(i) is Galois over Q, so by Theorem 1.12 (Lang pg 266), Q(α, i) is Galois over Q(α). We also know that Q(α, i) is Galois over Q(i), since it is the splitting field of f over Q(i). Thus we can write the degrees in the following diagram, along with Gal for Galois extensions: 6

7 Q(α) 2 Gal Q(α, i) Q Gal Gal 4 2 Since the Galois group of Q(α, i) over Q(α) has order 2, so there exists an automorphism τ : Q(α, i) Q(α, i) over Q(α) mapping i to i. This implies that τ 2 = Id. Since Gal(Q(α, i)/q(i)) acts transitivly on the roots of f, there exists an automorphism σ over Q(i) such that σ(α) = iα. Then 4 Q(i) σ 2 (α) = α σ 3 (α) = iα so σ, σ 2, σ 3 are all distinct. Thus G = Gal(Q(α, i)/q) has an element τ of order 2 and an element σ of order 4, so these elements generate G. Further, τσ(α) = τ(iα) = iα τσ(i) = τ(i) = i σ 3 τ(α) = σ 3 (α) = iα σ 3 τ(i) = σ 3 ( i) = i so τσ = σ 3 τ. Thus G = σ, τ τστ 1 = σ 3 which is precisely the standard presentation of the dihedral group with 8 elements, D 8. Now consider f over Q( 5) = Q(α 2 ). Let G = Gal(Q(α, i)/q(α 2 )). We know that G has order 4 using the tower rule, since Q(α 2 ) has degree 2 over Q. An automorphism of Q(α, i) over Q(α 2 ) must permute the set of roots and fix α 2. So if σ G, then σ(α 2 ) = σ(α) 2 = α 2 = σ(α) = ±α Two such automorphisms are σ = (α α) and τ = (α α)(iα iα). We can see easily that τ, σ both square to the identity. Thus G is a group of order four with two elements of order 2, so G = Z/2Z Z/2Z. Now consider f over Q( 5) = Q(iα 2 ), and let G be the Galois group. G = 4 using the tower law. Elements of G must permute {±α, ±iα}, and fix iα 2. Two such permutations are (α α)(iα iα) and (α iα)( α iα) which both square to zero, so G has two elements of order 2, so it must be Z/2Z Z/2Z. Now consider f over Q(i). Once again, the Galois group has order 4, and the automorphism τ of Q(α, i) over Q(i) defined by the cycle (α iα α iα) is of order 4. Thus G is cyclic, so G = Z/4Z. Proposition 0.14 (Exercise 1g). Let f(x) = x 4 a where a Z and a 0, a ±1, and a is square free. Then the Galois group of f over Q is D 8. Proof. Let α be a root of f in some splitting field. Then we can factor f as x 4 a = (x 2 α 2 )(x 2 + α 2 ) = (x α)(x + α)(x iα)(x + iα) 7

8 Thus the splitting field of f is Q(i, α). let G = Gal(Q(i, α)/q). Q(α, i)/q(α) is Galois because it is degree 2, so there exists τ : Q(α, i) Q(α, i) fixing α and taking i to i. Since Q(α, i) is the splitting field of f over Q(i), this extension is also Galois, so there exists σ : Q(α, i) Q(α, i) fixing i and mapping α to iα. Then σ, σ 2, σ 3, σ 4 are all distinct, and live in a group of order 4, so σ has order 4. Since τ σ, G is generated by τ, σ. As always (see 1n), τστ 1 = σ 3, so G = D 8. Proposition 0.15 (Exercise 1h). Let a Z be square free and 2. Then the Galois group of x 3 a over Q is S 3. Proof. Since a is square free, it is not a cube, so x 3 a has no roots in Q, so it is irreducible. The discriminant is 27a 2, which is not a square in Q, so the Galois group is S 3. Proposition 0.16 (Exercise 1i). Let f(x) = x The Galois group of f over Q is D 8. The Galois group of f over Q(i) is Z/4Z. Proof. We can factor f linearly as x = (x 2 i 2)(x 2 + i 2) = (x α)(x + α)(x iα)(x + iα) where 2 α = 2 (1 + i) 4 2 = ( 4 2) 3 (1 + i) 2 Thus the splitting field of f over Q is Q(α, i). Q(α, i) is Galois over Q(α) because it is degree 2, so there exists an automorphism τ of Q(α, i) over Q(α) mapping i to i. Since Q(α, i) is Galois over Q(i) (because it is the splitting field of f over Q(i)), there exists an automorphism σ of Q(α, i) over Q(i) such that σ(α) = iα. Then σ, σ 2, σ 3, σ 4 are all distinct, and σ lives inside a group of order 4, so σ has order 4. Note that τ σ k for any k, so the Galois group G of Q(α, i) over Q is generated by σ, τ. We have the relation τστ 1 = σ 3 (see 1n for same reasoning), so G = D 8. Over Q(i), the Galois group of Q(α, i) still is generated by σ, so the Galois group is cyclic of order 4. Lemma 0.17 (for Exericse 1jk). Let p 1,..., p n be primes. For each i, let K i = Q( p i ) be the splitting field of x 2 p i over Q. Then K n (K 1... K n 1 ) = Q Proof. Suppose the intersection is not empty. Then p n lies in K 1... K n 1, so it can be written as a multivariate polynomial in the p j, pn = ( ) a i pj i j where a i Q. Taking the square of both sides, we see that p n can be written as ( ( )) 2 p n = a i pj i 8 j

9 Thus the RHS must be an integer. This implies that all of the p j terms are zero, so pn = i a i But now the RHS is rational, but this is a contradiction, since the square root of a prime is never rational. Proposition 0.18 (Exercise 1jk). Let p 1,... p n be distinct primes in N. Then the Galois group of f(x) = (x 2 p 1 )... (x 2 p n ) over Q is n Z/2Z i=1 (this is 1k). As a consequence, the Galois group of (x 2 2)(x 2 3)(x 2 5)(x 2 7) over Q is 4 i=1 Z/2Z (this is 1j). Proof. Let K i be the splitting field of x 2 p i. Then the splitting field of f is the compositum K 1... K n in Q. The Galois group of K i /Q is Z/2Z since it is a quadratic. By the previous lemma K i+1 (K 1... K i ) = Q for each i = 1,..., n 1. Then applying Corollary 1.1t (Lang pg 267), the Galois group of the compositum K 1... K n is the product of the Galois groups K 1,..., K n. Gal(f) = n Z/2Z i=1 To get the Galois group of (x 2 2)(x 2 3)(x 2 5)(x 2 7), just take p 1 = 2, p 2 = 3, p 3 = 5, p 4 = 7. Proposition 0.19 (Exercise 1l). The Galois group of f(x) = (x 3 2)(x 3 3)(x 2 2) over Q( 3) is A 3 A 3 Z/2Z. (Another way to write this group is Z 3 Z 3 Z 2.) Proof. Note that each of x 3 2, x 3 3, and x 2 2 are irreducible over Q( 3), since they have no roots. The Galois group of x 2 2 is Z/2Z, as for all quadratics. The Galois group of x 3 2 is A 3 since the discriminant is 108 = (6 3) 2. The Galois group of x 3 3 is A 3, since the discriminant is 3 5 = (9 3) 2, which is a square in Q( 3). The Galois group of f embeds into the product of these groups, by Corollary By the same kind of logic as in Lemma 0.17, the intersection of the splitting fields of these polynomials over Q( 3) is just Q( 3), so this embedding is an isomorphism. Proposition 0.20 (Exercise 1m). Let t be transcendental over C and n N, and let f(x) = x n t. Then the Galois group of f over C(t) is Z/nZ. 9

10 Proof. Let ω be a root of f in some splitting field, and let β be a primitive nth root of unity. Then {ω, βω,..., β n 1 ω} are all roots of f, since (β k ω) n = β nk ω n = ω n = t. Thus these are all the roots of f, since f can t have more than n roots. Thus the splitting field of f is C(ω). Elements of G = Gal(C(ω)/C(t)) permute the roots and fix C. In particular, they fix β, so an element of G is determined by how it acts on ω, so G = {σ i : 0 i n 1} where σ i (ω) = β i ω. We can see that σ 1 generates G, so G = Z/nZ. Proposition 0.21 (Exercise 1n). Let t be transcendental over C. Let f(x) = x 4 t. The Galois group of f over R is D 8. Proof. Let ω be a root of f is some splitting field. Then we can factor f as x 4 t = (x 2 ω 2 )(x 2 + ω 2 ) = (x ω)(x + ω)(x iω)(x + iω) Thus R(ω, i) is the splitting field for f. Note that [R(i) : R] = 2 since deg Irr(i, R) = deg(x 2 + 1) = 2. Also note that R(ω, i) is the splitting field of f over R(i), and [R(ω, i) : R(i)] = 4 since deg(irr(ω, R(i)) = deg f = 4, so R(ω, i)/r(i) is Galois. So we have the following diagram of field extensions, with degrees. R(ω, i) 2 4 R(ω) R(i) 4 2 R Since R(ω, i)/r(ω) is degree 2, it is Galois, so there exists an automorphism τ over R(ω) such that τ(i) = i, and τ 2 = Id. Since R(ω, i)/r(i) is Galois, there exists an automorphism σ of R(ω, i) over R(i) sending ω to iω. Then σ, σ 2, σ 3, σ 4 are all distinct, so σ = 4. Let G = Gal(R(ω, i)/r). Note that τ σ, and that G = 8. Thus we have τ, σ in G of order 2 and 4 generating disjoint subgroups, so G = τ, σ. We can check that τστ 1 = σ 3, so G = D 8. We just have to check that they agree on ω and i. τστ 1 (i) = τσ( i) = τ( i) = i τστ 1 (ω) = τσ(ω) = τ(iω) = iω σ 3 (i) = i σ 3 (ω) = i 3 ω = iω Proposition 0.22 (Exercise 2). For each of the following polynomials, we compute the Galois group over Q. a) x 3 + x + 1, G = S 3 10

11 b) x 3 x + 1, G = S 3 c) x 3 + 2x + 1, G = S 3 d) x 3 2x + 1, G = Z/2Z e) x 3 x 1, G = S 3 f) x 3 12x + 8, G = A 3 g) x 3 + x 2 2x 1, G = A 3 Proof. (a) By the integral root test, the only possible rational roots are ±1, and we check that these are not roots, so x 3 + x + 1 is irreducible. The discriminant is 31, which is not a square, so the Galois group is S 3. (b) By the integral root test, the only possible rational roots are ±1, which we can check are not roots, so x 3 x + 1 is irreducible. The discriminant is 23, which is not a square, so the Galois group is S 3. (c) By the integral root test, the only possible rational roots are ±1, which are not roots, so x 3 + 2x + 1 is irreducible over Q. The discriminant is 59, which is not a square, so the Galois group is S 3. (d) We can factor x 3 2x + 1 as (x 1)(x 2 + x 1), so the splitting field of x 3 2x + 1 over Q is the splitting field of x 2 + x 1. This is a quadratic extension, so the Galois group is Z/2Z. (e) By the integral root test, the only possible rational roots are ±1, which are not roots, so x 3 x 1 is irreducible. The discriminant is 23, which is not a square, so the Galois group is S 3. (f) By the integral root test, the only possible rational roots are ±1, ±2, ±4, ±8, which we check tediously are not roots of x 3 12x + 8, so it is irreducible over Q. The discriminant is 5184, which is a square (5184 = 72 2 ), so the Galois group is A 3. (g) By substituting x = y + 1, we get 3 x 3 + x 2 2x 1 = y y 7 27 So the Galois group of the polynomial in x is the same as the Galois group of the polynomial in y. By the integral root test, it is irreducible over Q. The discriminant is 49, which is a square, so the Galois group is A 3. Proposition 0.23 (Exercise 5a). Let k be a field of characteristic 2, 3. Let f k[x] be an irreducible cubic with discriminant D k and let g = x 2 c k[x] be irreducible. Suppose that [k( D) : k] = 2 k( D) k( c) Let L be the splitting field of fg. Then [L : k] = 12. Proof. Let K f be the splitting field of f and let K g = k( c) be the splitting field of g. Then L = K g K f (in some algebraic closure), and we can draw the following diagram of field extensions: 11

12 K g K f = L K g = k( c) K f Since char k 2, 3, f and g can t have repeated roots, so all the above extensions are separable. The extensions K g /k, K f /k, and K g K f /k are all normal, as they are splitting fields. Then by Theorem 3.4 (Lang pg 238), K g K f /K g and K g K f /K f are normal. Thus all the extensions in the diagram are Galois. Because g is irreducible, c k, so [k( c) : k] = 2. Note that k( D) is the splitting field of x 2 D k[x], since [k( D) : k] = 2, this implies that D is not a square in k. Thus by the theorem on page 270 of Lang, the Galois group of K f /k is S 3. Since K f is a splitting field of a cubic, by Exercise 8 (last homework), [K f : k] divides 6. But the size of the Galois group cannot exceed the degree of the extension, so [K f : k] = 6. We claim that K g K f = k. Since k( c) k( D), c cannot be a root of f, so c Kf. Thus K f K g = k. Then applying Theorem 1.12 (Lang pg 266), we get that [K g K f : K f ] = 2 and [K g K f : K g ] = 6. K g K f k 6 2 K g K f 2 6 k Then by the multiplicative tower law, [K g K f : k] = 12. Proposition 0.24 (Exercise 5b). Let k be a field of characteristic 2, 3. Let f k[x] be an irreducible cubic with discriminant D and a root α (in an algebraic closure). Let g = x 2 c k[x] be irreducible with a root β. Suppose that [k( D) : k] = 2 k( D) k( c) Let γ = α + β. Then [k(γ) : k] = 6 Proof. We have k(γ) k(α, β), and [k(α) : k] = deg f = 3 and [k(β) : k] = deg g = 2. Then using Corollary 1.13 and the tower law and the fact that 2 and 3 are coprime, we can conclude that [k(α, β) : k(α)] = 2 and [k(α, β) : k(β)] = 3, so [k(α, β) : k] = 3. 12

13 k(α, β) 2 3 k(α) k(γ) = k(α + β) k(β) 3 2 k Thus [k(γ) : k] 6. Since k(α, β)/k is a separable extension with degree 6, there are 6 distinct embeddings of k(α, β) over k into k (algebraic closure of k). Let α 1, α 2, α 3 k be the roots of f. Then the 6 embeddings of k(α, β) over k into k are determined by sending α to some α i and sending β to ±β. So we have σ ± i where σ ± i (α) = α i and σ ± i (β) = ±β. σ 1 + (α) = α 1 σ 2 + (α) = α 2 σ 3 + (α) = α 3 σ1 (α) = α 1 σ2 (α) = α 2 σ3 (α) = α 3 σ 1 + (β) = β σ 2 + (β) = β σ 3 + (β) = β σ1 (β) = β σ2 (β) = β σ3 (β) = β Then we restrict each σ ± i to an embedding of k(γ) over k into k. Restricted to k(γ), they are determined by σ ± i (γ) = σ± i (α) + σ± i (β) = α i ± β. We claim that the six elements α i ± β for i = 1, 2, 3 are all distinct. Since each α i is distinct, α 1 + β, α 2 + β, α 3 + β are distinct, and likewise for α i β. Suppose α i + β = α j β for some i j. This implies α j α i = 2β, which would imply that the splitting field of f contains k(β). But by hypothesis, D is not a square in k so the Galois group of f over k is S 3, which has a unique index two subgroup. Using the Galois correspondence, there is a unique degree 2 subextension between f and its splitting field, which is k( D), which is not k(β) by hypothesis. Thus the splitting field of f cannot contain k(β), so we can conclude that all the α i ± β are distinct. Thus there are six distinct embeddings of k(γ) over k into k, so [k(γ) : k] [k(γ) : k] s = 6. Combining this with the opposite inequality, we get [k(γ) : k] = 6. Proposition 0.25 (Exercise 7a). Let K = Q( a) where a Z, a < 0. Then K cannot be embedded in a cyclic extension whose degree over Q is divisible by 4. Proof. Suppose that there exists a field L such that Q K L such that L/Q is cyclic of degree divisible by 4. We may assume all these fields lie in an algebraic closure of Q which is contained in C. Let G = Gal(L/Q), so G is cyclic of order 4n. Let σ be a generator. Since L/Q is Galois, it is separable, so L/K is separable. Then by the Primitive Element Theorem there exists α L such that L = K(α) = Q( a, α). Note that K = Q( a) is the splitting field of x 2 a over Q, which is irreducible as it has no roots in Q, so [K : Q] = 2. Then by the Galois correspondence, Gal(L/K) is an index-2 subgroup of Gal(L/Q) = σ. The only index-2 subgroup is σ 2, so Gal(L/K) = σ 2. (A finite cyclic group of order m has a unique subgroup of order d for each divisor d of m.) Hence σ 2, σ 4,..., σ 4n are all automorphisms of L over K. In particular, σ 2n fixes K. 13

14 L = K(α) 2n Q(α) K Q(α) K 2 By the tower law, Q [K : Q(α) K][Q(α) K : Q] = 2 so one of them must be 1 and the other must be 2. We consider these in two separate cases. We reach a contradiction in both cases. Case 1: First suppose [Q(α) K : Q] = 2. Then Q(α) K = K, which implies K Q(α), which implies L = Q(α). L = Q(α) K = Q( a) Q Let τ : C C be complex conjugation (x + iy x iy). It restricts to an automorphism of L over Q, so τ G = Gal(L/Q). Since a < 0, we can think of a as i a, and then τ( a) = τ(i a) = i a = a Thus τ does not fix K, so τ is not the identity. Since τ 2 = Id, it has order 2. But there is a unique element of order 2 in G = σ, namely σ 2n. As previously shown, σ 2n is an automorphism over K, so we reach a contradiction. This rules out Case 1 as a possibility. Case 2: Now suppose [Q(α) K : Q] = 1, which immediately implies Q(α) K = Q. Applying Theorem 1.12 (Lang pg 266), we can fill in the degrees on the following diagram. 2n 2 L = K(α) 2 2n Q(α) K 2n 2 Then by the Galois correspondence, Gal(L(Q(α)) is a subgroup of G = Gal(L/Q) of index 2, so it must be σ 2. In particular, σ 2n Gal(L/Q(α)), so σ 2n fixes Q(α). Since σ 2n also Q 14

15 fixes K, this implies that σ 2n fixes all of L. Thus σ 2n = Id L, but this is a contradiction since σ has order 4n. We reached a contradiction in both Case 1 and Case 2, so we conclude that no such field extension L exists. Lemma 0.26 (for Exercise 7c). Let k be a field of characteristic 2, and let f(x) = x 4 + ax 2 + b k[x] be irreducible with roots ±α, ±β in an algebraic closure. Let G be the Galois group of f. Then 1. If b is a square in k, then G = Z/2Z Z/2Z. 2. If b is not a square in k and b(a 2 4b) is a square in k, then G = Z/4Z. Proof. We know that G is a transitive subgroup on the symmetric group on the set {±α, ±β}. Any σ G must also satisfy σ( α) = σ(α) and σ( β) = σ(β) since it must fix k. The subgroup of S 4 on these letters that satisfies these two relations is (using cycle notation) H = {id,(α α), (β β), (α β)( α β), (α β)( α β), (α β α β), (α β α β), (α α)(β β)} This H has three transitive subgroups: all of H, and H 1 = {id(α α)(β β), (α β)( α β), (α β)( α β)} = Z/2Z Z/2Z H 2 = {id, (α α)(β β), (α β α β), (α β α β)} = Z/4Z Note that f factors as f(x) = x 4 + ax 2 + b = (x 2 α 2 )(x 2 β 2 ) = b = (αβ) 2 and a = α 2 β 2 Now we can prove (1). If b is a square in k, since b = (αβ) 2, we get αβ k. Then applying τ 1 = (α β α β) H 2 to αβ, τ 1 (αβ) = τ 1 (α)τ 1 (β) = βα thus τ 1 does not fix αβ, which is an element of k, so τ 1 G. Thus in this case, G = H 1 = Z/2Z = Z/2Z. Now we prove (2). Suppose b(a 2 4b) is a square in k. We can rewrite it as b(a 2 4b) = α 2 β 2 (( α 2 β) 2 4α 2 β 2 ) = α 2 β 2 (α 4 + 2α 2 β 2 + β 4 4α 2 β 2 ) ( ) 2 = α 2 β 2 (α 4 2α 2 β 2 + β 4 ) = α 2 β 2 (α 2 β 2 ) 2 = αβ(α 2 β 2 ) so if b(a 2 4b) is a square in k, then αβ(α 2 β 2 ) k. Then applying τ 2 = (α β)( α β) H 1 to αβ(α 2 β 2 ), we get ) ) ) τ 2 (αβ(α 2 β 2 ) = τ 2 (α)τ 2 (β) (τ 2 (α) 2 τ 2 (β) 2 = βα (β 2 α 2 = αβ(α 2 β 2 ) Thus τ 2 does not fix αβ(α 2 β 2 ), which lies in k, so τ 2 G. Since τ 2 H 1, this implies that G = H 2 = Z/4Z. 15

16 Proposition 0.27 (Exercise 7b). Let f(x) = x x Let α be a root of f in an algebraic closure of Q. Then Q(α) is cyclic of degree 4 over Q. Proof. Note that f is irreducible by Eisenstien s Criterion with p = 5. Let K f be the splitting field of f in an algebraic closure of Q. The roots of f are ±η, ±β K f where η = i β = i We notice that η 2 = and β 2 = , so Q( 5) Q(η), Q(β). So we have the following diagram, K f Q(η) Q(β) 2 2 Q( 5) 2 Q We know that [Q( 5) : Q] = 2 since it is the splitting field of x 2 5. We also know [Q(η) : Q( 5)] = [Q(β) : Q( 5)] = 2 since they are the respective splitting fields of x 2 ( ) x 2 ( ) over Q( 5). Using the previous lemma, we check that b(a 2 4b) = 45(30 2 4(45)) = = Since this is a square, the Galois group of K f /Q is Z/4Z, so [K f : Q] = 4. But by the tower law, [K f : Q] = [K f : Q(η)][Q(η) : Q( 5)][Q( 5) : Q] = 4[K f : Q(η)] 4 [K f : Q] = [K f : Q(β)][Q(β) : Q( 5)][Q( 5) : Q] = 4[K f : Q(β)] 4 which implies [K f : Q(β)] = [K f : Q(η)] = 1 which implies Q(η) = Q(β) = Q( η) = Q( β) = K f. Since the Galois group of K f /Q is Z/4Z, this says that Q(α)/Q is cyclic of degree 4 for any root (±η, ±β) of f. Proposition 0.28 (Exercise 7c). Let f(x) = x 4 + 4x Then f is irreducible over Q and the Galois group of f is cyclic. Proof. By Eisenstein s Criterion at the prime 2, f is irreducible. The constant coefficient is not one, and b(a 2 4b) = 2(4 2 4(2)) = 2(16 8) = 16 = 4 2 so by the previous lemma, the Galois group is Z/4Z. 16

17 For convenience, for Exercise 13, we list some low degree monic irreducible polynomials mod 2 and 3. F 2 [x] Degree Irreducibles Reducibles 0 1 none 1 x, x + 1 none 2 x 2 + x + 1 x x 3 + x + 1, x 3 + x x 3 + 1, x 3 + x 2 + x x 4 + x + 1, x 4 + x 3 + 1, x 4 + x 3 + x 2 + x + 1 (everything else of degree 4) F 3 [x] Degree Irreducibles Reducibles 0 1, 2 none 1 x, x + 1, x + 2 none 2 x 2 + 1,... x 2 + 2,... 3 x 3 + 2x + 1, I give a statement of the following theorem because Lang doesn t label it and doesn t state it in the way I want to frequently apply it, so that I can easily refer to it. Theorem 0.29 (Dedekind). Let f Z[x] be monic, irreducible, and separable. Let p Z be prime and let f p F p [x] be the reduction of the coefficients of f mod p. Let K be the splitting field of f. If f p factors as a product f p (x) = r q i (x) i=1 where each q i is irredubile (in F p [x]) with d i = deg q i, then Gal(K/Q) contains an element of cycle type (d 1,..., d r ). In particular, if f p (x) is irreducible in F p [x], then the Galois group of f contains a cycle of length deg f p = deg f. Lemma 0.30 (for Exercise 13). A subgroup of S 4 containing a 4-cycle and a 3-cycle is S 4. Proof. The 3-cycle and 4-cycle together generate a subgroup of size at least 12, so the subgroup must be either S 4 or A 4. But A 4 has no elements of order 4, so it must be S 4. Proposition 0.31 (Exercise 13a). Let f(x) = x 4 + 2x 2 + x + 3. The Galois group of f over Q is S 4. Proof. First note that f is separable (using a computer to check that it has 4 distinct roots in C). Let G be the Galois group of f. Reducing f mod 2 we get x 4 + x + 1, which is irreducible (see table). Then by Theorem 0.29 above, G contains a 4-cycle. Reducing f mod 3, we get x 4 + 2x 2 + x = x(x 3 + 2x + 1) This cubic is irreducible over F 3 because it has no roots (just check 0, 1, 2). Then by Theorem 0.29, G contains a 3-cycle. We know that G is (isomorphic to) a subgroup of S 4, so by Lemma 0.30, G = S 4. 17

18 Proposition 0.32 (Exercise 13b). The Galois group of f(x) = x 4 + 3x 3 3x 2 over Q is S 4. Proof. First note that f is separable (use a computer to check that f has 4 distinct roots in C). Let G be the Galois group of f. We know that G embeds in S 4, since f has degree 4. Reducing f mod 2 we get x 4 + x 3 + x = x(x 3 + x 2 + 1), which has an irreducible cubic (see table). Thus G contains a 3-cycle. Reducing f mod 5 we get x 4 + 3x 3 + 2x + 3, which is irreducible (checked via computer). Thus G contains a 4-cycle. Since G has a 4-cycle and a 3-cycle, it is S 4. 18

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