# Solutions of exercise sheet 6

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1 D-MATH Algebra I HS 14 Prof. Emmanuel Kowalski Solutions of exercise sheet 6 1. (Irreducibility of the cyclotomic polynomial) Let n be a positive integer, and P Z[X] a monic irreducible factor of X n 1 Q[X]. Suppose that ξ is a root of P. 1. Show that for each k Z 0 there exists a unique polynomial R k Z[X] such that deg(r k ) < deg(p ) and P (ξ k ) = R k (ξ). Prove that {R k k Z 0 } is a finite set. We define a := sup{ u : u is a coefficient of some R k } 2. Show that for k = p a prime, p divides all coefficients of R p, and that when p > a one has R p = 0 [Hint: P (ξ p ) = P (ξ p ) P (ξ) p ]. 3. Deduce that if all primes dividing some positive integer m are strictly greater then a, then P (ξ m ) = Prove that if r and n are coprime, then P (ξ r ) = 0 [Hint: Consider the quantity m = r + n p a,p r p]. 5. Recall the definition of n-th cyclotomic polynomial Φ n for n Z >0 : we take W n C to be the set of primitive n-th roots of unity, and define Φ n (X) := x W n (X x). Prove the following equality for n Z >0 : Φ d (X) = X n 1, 0<d n and deduce that Φ n Z[X] for every n. 6. Prove that the n-th cyclotomic polynomial is irreducible. [Hint: Take ξ := exp(2πi/n) and P its minimal polynomial over Q. Check that P satisfies the required hypothesis to deduce that Φ n (X) P (using Points 1-4). Then irreducibility of P together with Point 5 allow you to conclude.] Solution: Recall that for a monic polynomial f Z[X] we know that f is irreducible in Z[X] if and only if it is irreducible in Q[X] (see the Gauss s Lemma, in the solution of Exercise Sheet 11 of Algebra I, HS 2014). 1. Since P is monic and irreducible in Z[X], it is also irreducible in Q[X], so that Q(ξ) = Q[X]/(P (X)) is an algebraic extension of Q of degree deg(p ), and the elements 1, ξ,..., ξ deg(p ) are linearly independent. Then P (ξ k ) Q(ξ) cannot be expressed in more then one way as P (ξ k ) = R k (ξ) with R k Z[X] of degree Please turn over!

2 < deg(p ), and we only have to check existence. This is a special case of proving that for each f Z[X] we have f(ξ) = b 0 + b 1 ξ + + b deg(p ) 1 ξ deg(p ) 1 for some b i Z, which is easily proven by induction on deg(f): the statement is trivial for all deg(f) < deg(p ); for bigger degree, we see that the degree of f can be lowered (up to equivalence modulo P ) by substituting the maximal power X deg(p )+a of X in f with X a (X deg(p ) P (X)), which has degree strictly smaller then deg(p ) + a as P is monic, so that the inductive hypothesis can be applied. [More simply, one can notice that Z[X] is a unique factorization domain, and that Euclidean division of f by P can be performed (as in Q[X]), so that R k (X) is nothing but the residue of the division of R(X k ) by P (X).] Since ξ k = ξ h for n k h, the set {ξ k : k Z 0 } is finite, and so is the set of the R k s. 2. Notice that for f Z[X] one has that f(x p ) f(x) p is divisible by p. Indeed, we write f = s j=0 λ jx j and consider the multinomial coefficient for a partition into positive integers t = i t i: ( ) ( )( )( ) ( ) t t! t t ( ) = t 1,..., t s t 1! t s! = t1 t t1 t 2 ts 1 + t s Z, t 1 which counts the number of partitions of a set of t elements into subsets of t 1, t 2,..., t s elements, and we have f(x p ) f(x) p = = s λ j X jp j=0 t 2 e 0 + +e j =p 0 e j p s (λ j λ p j )Xjp j=0 t 3 t s 1 ( ) s p (λ j ) e j X je j e 0,..., e s e 0 + +e j =p 0 e j <p j ( ) s p (λ j ) e j X je j. e 0,..., e s By Fermat s little theorem we have p λ j λ p j for each j. Moreover, each multinomial coefficient appearing in the second sum is divisible by p, because the definition in terms of factorials in ( ) makes it clear that none of the e j has p as a factor, so that p does not cancel out while simplifying the fraction, which belongs to Z. Hence p f(x p ) f(x) p. We can then write P (ξ p ) = P (ξ p ) P (ξ) p = pq(ξ) for some Q(X) Z[X], and by what we proved in the previous point we can write Q(ξ) = R Q (ξ) for some polynomial R Q Z[X] of degree strictly smaller than deg(p ). This gives R p (ξ) = P (ξ p ) = pr Q (ξ), and by uniqueness of R p we can conclude that R p = pr Q pz[x]. If p > a, then the absolute values of the coefficients of R p are non-negative multiples of p, and by definition of a they need to be zero, so that R p = 0 in this case. 3. This is an easy induction on the number s of primes (counted with multiplicity) dividing m. One can indeed write m = s i=1 p i for some primes p i > a. For s = 1 this is just the previous point, because R p1 = 0 means P (ξ p 1 ) = 0. More j=0 See next page!

3 in general, by inductive hypothesis we can assume that P (ξ p 1 p s 1 ) = 0, and apply the previous point with ξ p 1 p s 1 (which is a root of P ) instead of ξ to get P ((ξ p 1 p s 1 ) ps ) = Let m = r + n p a,p r p. For q a a prime, we see that q either divides r or n p a,p r p, so that q does not divide m and by previous point we get P (ξm ) = 0. But ξ n = 1 by hypothesis (because P X n 1), so that ξ m = ξ r and we get P (ξ r ) = Let γ n = 0<d n Φ d. Since a complex number belongs to W k if and only if it has multiplicative order k, all the W k s are disjoint. Then γ n has distinct roots, and its set of roots is 0<d n W d. On the other hand, the roots of X n 1 are also all distinct: they are indeed the n distinct complex numbers exp(2πik/n) for a = 0,..., n 1. It is then easy to see that the two polynomials have indeed the same roots, since a n-th root of unity has order d dividing n, and primitive d-th roots of unity are n-th roots of unity for d n. As both γ n and Φ n are monic, unique factorization in Q[X] gives γ n = Φ n as desired. We then prove that the coefficients of the Φ n are integer by induction on n. For n = 1 we have Φ n = X 1 Z[X]. For n > 1, suppose that Φ k Z[X] for all k < n. Then X n 1 Φ n = Φ d (X), 0<d n d n and since the denominator lies in Z[X] by inductive hypothesis, we can conclude that Φ n Z[X]. Indeed, Φ n needs necessarily to lie in Q[X] (else, for l the minimal degree of a coefficient of Φ n not lying in Q and m the minimal degree of a non-zero coefficients of the denominator, one would get that the coefficient of degree l + m in X n 1 would not lie in Q, contradiction). We can then write the monic polynomial Φ n as 1 µ Θ n for some primitive polynomial Θ n Z[X], but then Gauss s Lemma (see the solution of Exercise Sheet 11 of Algebra I, HS 2014) tells us that X n 1 equals 1 d times a primitive polynomial, and the only possibility is d = ±1, which implies that Φ n Z[X]. 6. ξ = exp(2πi/n) satisfies both its minimal polynomial P and X n 1, so that P X n 1. Being X n 1 and P monic we necessarily have P Z[X] by Gauss s lemma. Then W n = {ξ r : 0 < r < n, (r, n) = 1}, so that by point 4 we get P (x) = 0 for each x W n and by definition of Φ n we obtain Φ n P. This is a divisibility relation between two polynomials in Q[X], hence an equality as P is irreducible in Q[X]. In particular, the cyclotomic polynomial Φ n is itself irreducible. 2. Let f(x) = X 3 3X + 1 Q[X], and α Q be a root of f. Define K = Q(α). 1. Check that f is irreducible in Q[X]. 2. Prove that f splits over K, and deduce that K/Q is Galois with group Z/3Z. [Hint: Factor f over Q(α) as f = (X α)g, and solve g, observing that 12 3α 2 = ( 4 + α + 2α 2 ) 2 ] Please turn over!

4 3. Deduce, without computation, that the discriminant of f is a square in Q. Then check this by using the formula of the discriminant = 4a 3 27b 2 for a cubic polynomial of the form X 3 + ax + b. Solution: 1. f is irreducible in Q[X] if and only if it has no root in Q. By Gauss s lemma, such a root would actually lie in Z as f is monic, so that it would divide the constant term 1. But f(1) = = 1, while f( 1) = = 3, so that f has no integer root and is irreducible. 2. Let g(x) = X 2 + ax + b K(α) be such that f = (X α)g(x). Then equalizing the coefficients in degree 2 and 1 we get a = α and b = α 2 3, so that g(x) = X 2 + αx + (α 2 3). Then ( g(x) = X + α ) 2 1 ( 2 4 (12 3α2 ) = X + α ) ( ( 4 + α + 2α2 ) ( = X + α ) ( 2 ( 4 + α + 2α2 ) X + α 2 1 ) 2 ( 4 + α + 2α2 ), Then f splits in K which is its splitting field over Q and as such is Galois (the polynomial f is separable because the roots of g are distinct and they are different from α) of degree 3, so that its Galois group is Z/3Z (which is the only group with 3 elements up to isomorphism). 3. Via the action on the roots of f, the Galois group is embedded in S 3. Since the only subgroup of S 3 containing 3 elements is A 3, the image of Gal(K/Q) in S 3 via this embedding is A 3, and the discriminant of f is a square in Q as seen in class. Using the given formula we see indeed that = = 3 27 = 9 2 Q. ) 2 3. Let n be a positive integer. Prove that the symmetric group S n is generated by the cycle (1 2 n) and τ = (a b), if b a is coprime with n. Solution: Without loss of generality, assume that b > a. Then σ b a = σ by hypothesis, so that σ, (a b) = σ b a, (a b) and since σ b a (a) = b, up to renaming the elements permuted by S n we can assume without loss of generality that (a b) = (1 2). It is easily seen that for each transposition (α β) and permutation γ one has γ(α β)γ 1 = (γ(α) γ(β)). Then σ k (1 2)σ k = (k + 1 k + 2) for each 0 k n 2, so that σ, (1 2) contains all the transpositions (k k + 1) for 1 k n 1. We now prove that σ, (1 2) = σ, (1 2), (2 3),..., (n 1 n) contains all transpositions. Each permutation can be written as (α β) with β > α, and we work by induction on β α, the case β α = 1 being trivial. Suppose that we have proven that all permutations between two elements whose difference is strictly smaller then β α do lie in σ, (1 2). Then applying γ(α β)γ 1 = (γ(α) γ(β)) for γ = (β 1 β) we get (β 1 β)(αβ 1)(β 1 β) = (α β) σ, (1 2) by inductive hypothesis. See next page!

5 To conclude, we just have to notice that the set of all transpositions generates S n, since every permutation can be written as a product of disjoint cycles, and a cycle (a 1 a 2... a t ) can be written as (a 1 a t )(a 1 a t 1 ) (a 1 a 2 ) 4. Let f Q[X] be an irreducible polynomial of prime degree p, and suppose that it has precisely 2 non-real roots. Let L f be the splitting field of f, and G := Gal(L f /Q). Recall that the action of G on the roots of f gives an injective group homomorphism G S p, and call H the image of G via this injection. 1. Notice that the complex conjugation is a Q-automorphism of L f, and deduce that H contains a transposition. 2. Show that p divides the order of G, and that G contains an element of order p [Hint: Use First Sylow Theorem. See Exercise 7 from Exercise Sheet 5 of the HS14 course Algebra I]. 3. Conclude that H = S p [Hint: Previous exercise]. Use this to show that the Galois group of the splitting field of f(x) = X 5 4X + 2 Q[X] is S 5. [You have to check that f is irreducible and has precisely 2 non-real roots.] Solution: 1. Decomposing a complex number into real and imaginary part z = x+iy one easily checks that z z respects sum and multiplication, and fixes 0 and 1, so that it is a field automorphism of C (bijectivity is immediate from the fact that it is its own inverse). Moreover, conjugates of roots of f Q are still roots of f (since f(x) = f(x)), so that complex conjugation restricts to an automorphism of L f. Since it only interchanges the 2 non-real roots, its image in H is a transposition. 2. For x any root of f, we have that p = deg(f) = [Q(x) : Q] [L f : Q] = G by multiplicativity of the degree in towers of extensions, so that p divides the order of G. Then by the First Sylow Theorem G has a p-subgroup, and given a non-trivial element g of this subgroup has order p a for some positive a. Then g pa 1 G has order p. 3. The image of the element of order p via the embedding in S p is a p-cycle, and up to reordering the roots we can assume it is the cycle (1 2 p) H. The transposition in H from Point 1 can be written as (a b) for some a, b {1,..., p}, and clearly b a is coprime with p, so that we can apply the previous Exercise to get that H = S p. The polynomial f(x) = X 5 4X + 2 has prime degree p = 5, and is irreducible by Eisenstein s criterion. We have d dx f(x) = 5X4 4, and this derivative is positive when evaluated on x R if and only if x 4 4 5, so that f, viewed as a function R R, Please turn over!

6 has stationary points ± The negative is a maximum, the positive is a minimum. Evaluating the function there we get f( ) = 4 5 (4 5 4) + 2 > 0 4 f( 4 5 ) = 4 5 (4 4) + 2 < 0. 5 Then f is easily seen to have three real zeroes (two smaller than 4 5 and one bigger), so that it has precisely 2 non-real roots and we are in position to apply what we proved and conclude that the Galois group of L f is S 5.

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