Lecture 12 CMOS Delay & Transient Response


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1 EE 471: Transport Phenomena in Solid State Devices Spring 2018 Lecture 12 CMOS Delay & Transient Response Bryan Ackland Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Stevens Institute of Technology Hoboken, NJ Adapted from Lecture Notes, David Mahoney Harris CMOS VLSI Design 1
2 Transient Response DC analysis tells us V out if V in is constant Transient analysis tells us V out (t) in response to a change in V in Requires solving differential equations Input is usually considered to be a step or ramp From GND to V DD or vice versa delay V DD GND V in V out 2
3 t pdr : rising propagation delay maximum time from input crossing V DD /2 to rising output crossing V DD /2 t pdf : falling propagation delay maximum time from input crossing V DD /2 to falling output crossing V DD /2 t pd : average propagation delay t pd = (t pdr + t pdf )/2 t r : rise time from output crossing 0.2 V DD to 0.8 V DD Delay Definitions t f : fall time from output crossing 0.8 V DD to 0.2 V DD 3
4 Delay Definitions (cont.) t cdf : falling contamination delay minimum time from input crossing V DD /2 to falling output crossing V DD /2 t cdr : rising contamination delay minimum time from input crossing V DD /2 to rising output crossing V DD /2 t pdf t cdf t cd : avg. contamination delay t pd = (t cdr + t cdf )/2 4
5 Delay in CMOS Circuits A switching CMOS gate generates output current in response to changing input voltages All nodes have some finite capacitance (to ground) gate capacitance parasitic source/drain (diode) capacitance parasitic wiring capacitance Transient waveforms found by solving: CC nnnnnnnn dddd nnnnnnnn dddd = II kk,nnnnnnnn I 2,node for each node in circuit kk I 1,node I3,node V node C node 5
6 Inverter Step Response Find step response of inverter driving C load V in (t) = u(t  t 0 ) V DD V out (t < t 0 ) = V DD dv out (t) dt =  I dsn (t) C load V in (t) I dsn (t) V in (t) V out (t) C load I dsn (t)= 0 for t < t 0 (β/2m) (V DD V t ) 2 for V out > V DD V t t 0 V out (t) β (V DD V t V out (t)/2m) V out (t) for Vout < V DD  V t 6
7 Simulated Inverter Delay Solving differential equations by hand is too hard SPICE simulator solves the equations numerically Uses more accurate IV models too! But simulations take time to write! (V) V in t pdf = 66ps t pdr = 83ps 0.5 V out p 400p 600p 800p 1n t(s) 7
8 Delay Estimation We would like to be able to easily estimate delay For exploration of design space, don t need to be as accurate as simulation Want a technique where its easier to ask What if? The step response usually looks like a 1 st order RC response with a decaying exponential. Can we model conducting transistor as effective resistance? 1.0 (V) A Shockley SPICE RC model p 40p 60p 80p 8
9 Effective Resistance Simplification: treat transistor as resistor Replace I ds (V ds, V gs ) with effective resistance R I ds = V ds /R or 0 depending on gate voltage Pick R to best model dynamic response of gate Too inaccurate to predict current at any given time But good enough to predict gate delay 9
10 Capacitance Input to CMOS gate presents effectively infinite input resistance The dominant load in CMOS circuits is capacitance Capacitance exists wherever there are two conductors separated by a thin insulator Gate to channel capacitor is very important Creates channel charge necessary for operation Source and drain have capacitance to body Parasitic capacitance across reversebiased diode depletion region Called diffusion capacitance because it is associated with source/drain diffusion Long interconnect wires also have parasitic capacitance to the substrate 10
11 Gate Capacitance Gate is top plate of capacitor Assume bottom plate is source In cutoff, bottom plate is actually the body In linear mode, bottom plate is channel which is connected to source and drain In saturation, bottom plate is channel connected to source C g ε ox.w.l/t oxe = C oxe.w.l = C permicron.w (for L = L min ) C permicron is typically about 12 ff/µm of width polysilicon gate W t ox n+ L n+ ptype body SiO2 gate oxide (good insulator, ε ox = 3.9ε 0 ) 11
12 Diffusion Capacitance C sb, C db Diffusion (source/drain) region is resistive and capacitive (to body) Capacitance depends on area and perimeter Use small as possible diffusion nodes Comparable to C g for min. contacted diffusion Use C g /2 for merged Varies with process Isolated Diffusion C g C node = 2.C g Shared Diffusion C g C node = C g Merged Diffusion C g /2 C node = C g /2 12
13 RC Delay Model Use equivalent circuits for MOS transistors Ideal switch + capacitance and ON resistance Unit nmos has resistance R, capacitance C Unit pmos has resistance 2R, capacitance C Capacitance (gate & diffusion) proportional to width Resistance inversely proportional to width 13
14 Capacitance RC Values C = C g = C s = C d = 2 ff/µm of gate width in 0.6 µm Gradually decline to 1 ff/µm in nanometer techs. Resistance R 510 KΩ µm in 0.6 µm process Improves with shorter channel lengths Unit transistors May refer to minimum contacted device (4 λ / 2 λ) Or maybe W=1 µm device (doesn t matter as long as you are consistent) AMI 0.6µm TSMC 250nm TSMC 180nm IBM 130nm IBM 65nm R n (kω.µm) R n (kω.4λ) R p (kω.µm) R p (kω.4λ)
15 RC Values Estimate the delay of a fanoutof1 inverter Set size (width) of PMOS to 2 x unit size to have equal pullup (rising) and pulldown (falling) drive resistance τ 6 RC 15
16 Example: 3input NAND Sketch a 3input NAND with transistor widths chosen to achieve effective (worst case) rise and fall resistances equal to a unit inverter (R)
17 3input NAND Capacitors Annotate the 3input NAND gate with gate and diffusion capacitance. 2C 2C 2C 2C 2C C 2C 2C 2C 3C 3C 3C C 3C 3C 3C 17
18 3input NAND Capacitors Annotate the 3input NAND gate with gate and diffusion capacitance C 5C 5C C 3C 3C 18
19 Rise & Fall Delay What are worstcase rise and fall delays? 2 5C 5C 5C C 3C 3C How can we estimate delay of these networks? 19
20 τ with multiple RC components HH ss = ssssss τ = RC HH ss = 1 τ =? 1 + ss RR 1 CC 1 + RR 1 + RR 2. CCC + ss 2 RR 1 CC 1 RR 2 CC 2 Second order response is too complicated defeats whole purpose of simplifying to an RC network Can approximate to: τ τ 1 + τ 2 = R 1 C 1 + (R 1 +R 2 ).C 2 20
21 Elmore Delay ON transistors modeled as resistors Pullup or pulldown network represented as an RC tree root of tree is driving voltage source (often VDD or GND) resistors are branches leaves are capacitors at ends of branches Elmore delay to any target (node j) in the branch: where: tt pppppp = RR ssssss. CC ii i represents all the nodes in the branch C i is the capacitance at node i R sij is the resistance of the shared path from the source to nnnnnnnn ii and from the source to the target nnnnnnnn jj Elmore delay is conservative overestimates the delay ii 21
22 Shared Path N delay to node N is: R 1 C 1 + (R 1 +R 2 ).C (R 1 +R 2 + +R n ).C N delay to node 2 is: R 1 C 1 + (R 1 +R 2 ).C 2 + (R 1 +R 2 ).(C 3 +C 4 + +C N ) 22
23 Example: Elmore Delay Calculate delay from source to all nodes in circuit: F 3R C G 2R E 2C R C H 3R 2R R R A B C D C C 2C 3R C 3C source 23
24 3input NAND: pulldown delay Estimate worstcase rising and falling delay of 3input NAND driving h identical gates. h copies A B C Worst case pulldown delay occurs when ABC goes from (110) to (111) tt pppppp = 3CC RR 3 + 3C RR 3 + RR h CC (RR 3 + RR 3 + RR 3 ) tt pppppp = h RRRR 24
25 3input NAND: pullup delay Estimate worstcase rising and falling delay of 3input NAND driving h identical gates. h copies A B C Worst case pullup delay occurs when ABC goes from (111) to (110) tt pppppp = 9 + 5h C (R) + 3C R + 3C R tt pppppp = h RRRR 25
26 Delay Components tt pppppp = h RRRR tt pppppp = h RRRR Delay has two parts Parasitic delay 15 or 12 RC Independent of load Effort delay 5h RC Proportional to load capacitance 26
27 Falling Contamination Delay Bestcase (contamination) delay can be substantially less than propagation delay: if top nmos is last to turn on: i.e. ABC goes from (011) to (111) A B C tt cccccc = 9 + 5h RRRR compare to: tt pppppp = h RRRR 27
28 Rising Contamination Delay Fastest response if all pmos turn on simultaneously: i.e. ABC goes from (111) to (000) A B C compare to: tt pppppp = h RRRR tt cccccc = h RRRR 28
29 Diffusion Capacitance We assumed contacted diffusion on every s / d. but shared on series nmos chain Good layout minimizes diffusion area Good NAND3 layout shares one diffusion contact Reduces output capacitance by 2C Merged uncontacted diffusion also helps 1.5C 1.5C 1.5C1.5C 29
30 Layout Comparison Which layout is better? V DD A B V DD A B Y Y GND GND 30
31 Example: Gate delays For the gate YY = AA. BB + CC. DD a) Draw the schematic b) Size the transistors to give pullup and pulldown strength equal to unit size inverter c) Annotate with effective R of each transistor and C of each node d) Calculate worst case rising & falling propagation delay while driving h similar gates e) Calculate best case rising & falling contamination delay while driving h similar gates 31
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