# 214A HOMEWORK KIM, SUNGJIN

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1 214A HOMEWORK KIM, SUNGJIN 1.1 Let A = k[[t ]] be the ring of formal power series with coefficients in a field k. Determine SpecA. Proof. We begin with a claim that A = { a i T i A : a i k, and a 0 k }. Let a i T i A, then there exists b i T i A such that ( a i T i )( b i T i ) = 1. The constant term in both side should agree, so we have a 0 b 0 = 1, giving that a 0 k. Conversely, let a 0 k. By multiplying a 1 0, we can assume that a 0 = 1. Let g = i 1 a it i, then we have a i T i = 1 g. The formal power series for i 0 gi is the desired inverse for a i T i. Thus, our claim is proved. Let P A be a nonzero prime ideal in A. Denote the number min{n N : T n P } by n(p ). By our previous claim, we have n(p ) 1, and we also have T n(p ) P. n(p ) 2 cannot happen because P is a prime ideal. Thus, we must have n(p ) = 1, i.e. T P. It follows that P = (T ). Hence SpecA = {(0), (T )}. 1.2 Let φ : A B be a homomorphism of finitely generated algebras over a field k. Show that the image of a closed point under Specφ is a closed point. Proof. Let m be a maximal ideal in B, it suffices to show that Specφ(m) = φ 1 (m) is a maximal ideal in A. By 1st isomorphism theorem, φ induces an embedding A/φ 1 (m) B/m. Then Weak Nullstellensatz shows that B/m is a finite field extension of k. It follows that A/φ 1 (m) is an integral domain which is finite dimensional k-vector space. For any a (A/φ 1 (m)) {0}, the set {1, a, a 2, } is linearly dependent over k. Thus, a satisfies a polynomial equation i N c ia i = 0 with c i k and c 0 = 0. This implies that a 1 i N c ia i 1 = c 0 k. Hence a is invertible in A/φ 1 (m), giving that A/φ 1 (m) is a field. 1.3 Let k = R be the field of real numbers. Let A = k[x, Y ]/(X 2 + Y 2 + 1). We wish to describe SpecA. Let x, y be the respective images of X, Y in A. (a) Let m be a maximal ideal of A. Show that there exist a, b, c, d k such that x 2 + ax + b, y 2 + cy + d m. Using the relation x 2 + y = 0, show that m contains an element f = αx + βy + γ with (α, β) = (0, 0). Deduce from this that m = fa. Proof. Note that A/m = C. This is because it is a finite extension of k by Weak Nullstellensatz, and it contain x, y with x 2 + y = 0. Thus, it is clear that x, y satisfy some quadratic equation over k. We add up those quadratic equations to obtain ax + cy + b + d 1 = 0 A/m. (Case1) (a, c) = (0, 0): We may take f = ax + cy + b + d 1 m. (Case2) a = c = 0, and hence b+d = 1: Either x, y A/m are both pure imaginary, or one of them is real. Note that x, y are not both 0. Thus, we can find α, β, γ such that αx + βy + γ = 0 A/m. 1

2 2 KIM, SUNGJIN We now consider A/fA, assume that f = αx + βy + γ with α = 0. Then A/fA becomes k[x, Y ]/(X 2 + Y 2 + 1, f) = k[x]/(x 2 + (( β/α)x γ/α) 2 + 1) = C. Therefore, fa is a maximal ideal in A, and combined with fa m, we have m = fa. (b) Show that the map (α, β, γ) (αx+βy+γ)a establishes a bijection between the subset P(k 3 ) {(0, 0, 1)} of the projective space P(k 3 ) and the set of maximal ideals of A. Proof. The same argument that we showed m = fa in part (a), shows that the map is well-defined. Moreover, part (a) itself shows surjectivity. Suppose that two distinct members (α, β, γ) and (α, β, γ ) in P(k 3 ) {(0, 0, 1)} map to the same maximal ideal m in A. We may consider the following cases without loss of generality, (Case1) α = α = 1, β = β, γ = γ : This gives a contradiction, since γ γ k m cannot hold. (Case2) α = α = 1, β = β : By subtraction, we obtain a real number y 0 such that y 0 A/m. Plugging in y = y 0, we obtain a real number x 0 such that x 0 A/m. Furthermore, x y = 0 must hold, which is a contradiction. (Case3) α = 1, β = 0, α = 0, β = 1: This also give two real numbers x 0, y 0 A/m with x y = 0, which is a contradiction. Hence, the map is injective. (c) Let p be a non-maximal prime ideal of A. Show that the canonical homomorphism k[x] A is finite and injective. Deduce from this that p k[x] = 0. Let g p, and let g n + a n 1 g n a 0 = 0 be an integral equation with a i k[x]. Show that a 0 = 0. Conclude that p = 0. Proof. The homomorphism k[x] A is injective, since its kernel is k[x] (X 2 + Y 2 + 1) = 0. It is clear that A is an integral extension of k[x]. It is also true that A/p is an integral extension of k[x]/p k[x]. They are both integral domains. Since A/p is not a field, k[x]/p k[x] is not a field. In k[x], only non-maximal prime ideal is (0). Thus, p k[x] = 0. Suppose p contains a nonzero member g. Choose the integral equation for g with minimal degree n. From the integral equation, we have a 0 p k[x]. Thus a 0 = 0. Dividing g gives another integral equation for g with degree n 1. This contradicts minimality of n. Hence, p must be Let φ : A B be an integral homomorphism. (a) Show that Specφ : SpecB SpecA maps a closed point to a closed point, and that any preimage of a closed point is a closed point. Proof. We use a lemma: A B is integral extension, A and B are integral domains. Then A is a field if and only if B is a field. Let p B be a prime ideal. Then φ induces an embedding A/φ 1 (p) B/p. Since A/φ 1 (p) and B/p are both integral domains, the lemma applies. Thus, A/φ 1 (p) is a field if and only if B/p is a field. Equivalently, φ 1 (p) is a closed point(i.e. maximal ideal) if and only if p is a closed point. (b) Let p SpecA. Show that the canonical homomorphism A p B A A p is integral.

3 214A HOMEWORK 3 Proof. It is enough to show that any simple tensor b A a is integral over A p. Consider an integral equation for b, namely i n a ib i = 0 with a i A, a 0 = 0, and a n = 1. Then clearly, ( i n a ib i ) A a = 0. This implies i n a i(b A a) i = 0. Hence b A a is integral over A p. (c) Let T = φ(a p). Let us suppose that φ is injective. Show that T is a multiplicative subset of B, and that B A A p = T 1 B = 0. Deduce from this that Specφ is surjective if φ is integral and injective. Proof. Let φ be the canonical homomorphism in part (b). Note that if q MaxT 1 B, then φ 1 (q ) is a maximal ideal in A p. In fact, φ 1 (q ) = pa p, since A p is a local ring. Consider the diagram, A φ B ε A p Apply Spec( ) to this diagram, SpecT 1 B = φ Spec φ ε T 1 B SpecAp Specε By commutativity, we have Hence, Specφ is surjective. SpecB = Specφ Specε SpecA Specε Spec φ(q ) = Specφ Specε(q ) = p. 1.9 Let A be a finitely generated algebra over a field k. (a) Let us suppose that A is finite over k. Show that SpecA is a finite set, of cardinality bounded from above by the dimension dim k A of A as a vector space. Show that every prime ideal of A is maximal. Proof. Suppose that we could find r = dim k A+1 distinct maximal ideals m 1,, m r. Then, m i + m j = A for i = j. We can construct a strictly descending chain of ideals m 1 m 1 m 2 m 1 m 2 m r. This makes a strictly increasing chain of kvector spaces A/m 1 A/m 1 m 2 A/m 1 m 2 m r. However, this implies that r dim k A/m 1 m 2 m r dim k A = r 1, which leads to a contradiction. Hence, the number of distinct maximal ideals in A is bounded above by dim k A. Now, we show that every prime ideal p in A is indeed maximal. A/p is an integral domain which is finite dimensional k-vector space. For any a (A/p) {0}, the set {1, a, a 2, } is linearly dependent over k. Thus, a satisfies a polynomial equation i N c ia i = 0 with c i k and c 0 = 0(This is possible, since A/p is an integral domain). This implies that a 1 i N c ia i 1 = c 0 k. Hence a is invertible in A/p, giving that A/p is a field. (b) Show that Speck[T 1,, T d ] is infinite if d 1.

4 4 KIM, SUNGJIN Proof. We begin with proving that Speck[T ] is infinite. If k is infinite, then (T a) is maximal ideal for any a k, thus Speck[T ] is infinite. If k is finite, still we have k is infinite. This implies that there are infinitely many irreducible polynomials in k[t ], thus Speck[T ] is infinite in this case too. For the case d 2, we define an injective function given by Speck[T 1 ] Speck[T 1,, T d ] (p(t 1 )) (p(t 1 ), T 2,, T d ) Hence, Speck[T 1,, T d ] is infinite if d 1. (c) Show that SpecA is finite if and only if A is finite over k. Proof. ( ) This is done in part (a). ( ) Suppose that A is infinite over k. Then A is transcendental over k. Noether Normalization Theorem applies to obtain T 1,, T d which are algebraically independent over k, and an integral extension k[t 1,, T d ] k[t 1,, T d, t d+1,, t r ] = A. Similarly as in (b), we can form an injective map Speck[T 1,, T d ] Speck[T 1,, T d, t d+1,, t r ] P P + (t d+1,, t r ). By part (b), it follows that SpecA is infinite. 2.2 Let F be a sheaf on X. Let s, t F(X). Show that the set of x X such that s x = t x is open in X. Proof. Let x X, and s x = t x. Then there exists an open neighborhood U x of x such that s Ux = t Ux. For any y U x, consider the natural map F(X) F y. Since this natural map is given by a F(X) [X, a] where [X, a] denotes the equivalence class represented by (X, a). But, s Ux = t Ux implies that s y = [X, s] = [U x, s Ux ] = [U x, t Ux ] = [X, t] = t y. Hence, the set of x X such that s x = t x is open in X. 2.7 Let B be a base of open subsets on a topological space X. Let F, G be two sheaves on X. Suppose that for every u B there exists a homomorphism α(u) : F(U) G(U) which is compatible with restrictions. Show that this extends in a unique way to a homomorphism of sheaves α : F G. Show that if α(u) is surjective(resp. injective) for every U B, then α is surjective (resp. injective). Proof. Note that every open set U X is a union of members in B, say U = i U i, where U i B. Let β i F(U i ), and β j F(U j ), and β i Ui U j = β j Ui U j for all i, j, which data uniquely determine β F(U)( F is a sheaf). We know that g i = α(u i )(β i ) G(U i ), g j = α(u j )(β j ) G(U j ), and α(u i U j )(β i Ui U j ) = α(u i U j )(β j Ui U j ) G(U i U j ). Since the homomorphism α is compatible with restrictions on members of B, we have g i Ui U j = α(u i U j )(β i Ui U j ) = α(u i U j )(β j Ui U j ) = g j Ui U j. Thus, this data uniquely determine g G(U)( G is a sheaf). Define α(u)(β) = g, then this is the unique extension to a homomorphism of sheaves α : F G. We use the fact that sequence of sheaves F G H is exact if and only if F x G x H x is exact for each x X. In fact, α(u) is surjective(resp. injective) for every U B imply F x G x 0(resp. 0 F x G x ) is exact

5 214A HOMEWORK 5 for each x X. This in turn, implies that F G 0(resp. 0 F G) is an exact sequence in sheaves. Hence α is surjective(resp. injective) Let X, Y be two ringed topological spaces. We suppose given an open covering {U i } i of X and morphisms f i : U i Y such that f i Ui U j = f j Ui U j (as morphisms) for every i, j. Show that there exists a unique morphism f : X Y such that f Ui = f i. This is the glueing of the morphisms f i. Proof. We define f : X Y by f(x) = f i (x) where x U i for some i. The glueing data f i Ui U j = f j Ui U j gives that f : X Y is a continuous function. Moreover, continuous function with this property has to be unique. The morphism of sheaves f # i : O Y f i O Ui gives the ring homomorphism f # i (V ) : O Y (V ) O Ui (f 1 i (V )) = O X (f 1 (V ) U i ). The glueing data gives that f i # U i U j (V ) : O Y (V ) O X (f 1 (V ) U i U j ) = f j # U i U j (V ) : O Y (V ) O X (f 1 (V ) U i U j ). Together with the compatibility of restriction, α O Y (V ) a i O X (f 1 (V ) U i ) has the glueing data a i Ui U j = a j Ui U j. Since O X (f 1 (V ) ) is a sheaf, we obtain a unique a O X (f 1 (V )) such that a Ui = a i for each i. Define f # : O Y f O X by α O Y (V ) a O X (f 1 (V )). Then (f, f # ) : (X, O X ) (Y, O Y ) is the desired morphism of ringed topological spaces Let K be a number field. Let O K be the ring of integers of K. Using the finiteness theorem of the class group cl(k), show that every open subset of SpecO K is principal. Deduce from this that every open subscheme of SpecO K is affine. Proof. Let U be an open subset of SpecO K, then (SpecO K ) U = V (I) for some ideal I O K. This ideal I belongs to an ideal class [Q] cl(k). Thus, there are a, b O K {0} such that ai = bq. This implies that I = (b/a)q, and there is some n 0 such that I n = (b/a) n Q n = γo K for some γ K (In particular, we can take n = #cl(k)). Since I n O K, we have γo K O K. This proves that γ O K, and that I n is a principal ideal. Hence, V (I) = V (I n ) = V (γo K ) is a principal closed subset, or equivalently, U = D(γ) is a principal open set. Therefore, every open subscheme U = D(γ) of SpecO K is isomorphic to SpecO K [1/γ], which is affine. 4.1 Let k be a field and P k[t 1,, T n ]. Show that Spec(k[T 1,, T n ]/(P )) is reduced (resp. irreducible; resp. integral) if and only if P has no square factor (resp. admits only one irreducible factor; resp. is irreducible). Proof. Let A = k[t 1,, T n ]/(P ), and q SpecA. Then the following are equivalent: (1) O A,q = A q is reduced for all q SpecA. (2) Only nilpotent element in A q is 0. (3) {q Speck[T 1,, T n ] : (P ) q q} = (P ). (4) P has no square factor. Equivalence of (1),(2), and (3) is direct from definition. We show the equivalence of (3), and (4). This follows from {q Speck[T 1,, T n ] : (P ) q q} = (P 0 ), where P 0 is the product of all irreducible factors of P.

6 6 KIM, SUNGJIN Remark that SpecA = is irreducible if and only if (0) is prime. Equivalently, {q Speck[T 1,, T n ] : (P ) q } = (P 0 ) is prime. Similarly as before, P 0 is the product of all irreducible factors of P. Now, (P 0 ) is prime if and only if there is only one irreducible factor in P. A is integral if and only if A is both reduced and irreducible. Therefore, A is integral if and only if P has no square factor and admits only one irreducible factor, i.e. P is irreducible.

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