# Physical Design of Digital Integrated Circuits (EN0291 S40) Sherief Reda Division of Engineering, Brown University Fall 2006

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1 Physical Design of Digital Integrated Circuits (EN0291 S40) Sherief Reda Division of Engineering, Brown University Fall

2 Lecture 04: Timing Analysis Static timing analysis STA for sequential circuits Delay modeling: devices and interconnects Statistical static timing analysis 2

3 Propagation delay definition voltage a y Logic block V max (10)% 50% propagation delay time 10% 90% Definitions: rise/fall propagation delay transition time rise/fall transition delay (slew (slope): ΔV/transition delay) 3

4 Problem: Given a circuit, find the path(s) with the largest delay (critical paths) Solution: run SPICE and report the results of the simulation Problem: SPICE is computationally expensive to run except for small-size circuits WANTED: We need a fast method that produces relatively accurate timing results compared to SPICE 4

5 Static timing analysis simplified analysis I 1 I 2 I 3 I 4 I 5 I 6 C17 from ISCAS 85 benchmarks 1/2 2/4 1/2 1/2 2/4 1/2 3/5 1/2 All inputs are arrive at time 0 7/7 6/4 2/3 2/4 O 1 Assuming all interconnects have 0 delay 9/10 O 2 9/11 In reality, each input pin has its own rise/fall delay critical and wires have delays path Each gate has rise/fall delay slack = arrival time required arrival time paths with negative slacks need to be eliminated! 5

6 Finding the critical path through breadth first search I 1 I 2 2/1 3/2 O 1 I 3 4/2 1/1 I 4 I 5 3/2 2/2 4/3 O 2 I 6 Initialize queue Q to empty for all vertices i in V: nvisit[i]=0; Add all primary input vertices to queue Q While (Q 0) i = top of Q; remove i from Q; computer delay of i for every edge (i, j): nvisit[j]++; if(nvisit[j] == fanin[j]) add j to Q 6

7 STA can lead to false critical paths STA assumes a signal would propagate from a gate input to its output regardless of the values of other inputs a b delay = 5 delay = MUX delay = 5 delay 1 1 = MUX out What is critical path delay according to STA? Is this path realizable? No, actual delay is less than estimated by STA 7

8 Lecture 04: Timing Analysis Static timing analysis STA for sequential circuits Delay modeling: devices and interconnects Statistical static timing analysis 8

9 Timing analysis of sequential circuits Δ FF input [d min.. d max ] combinational circuit output Δ FF cycle time P hold time T h clock clock setup time T s 9

10 Timing analysis of sequential circuits under presence of clock skew Δ FF i clock input [d min.. d max ] combinational circuit output Δ FF j clock T=0 s i s j cycle time P 10

11 Sometimes introducing skew can be helpful FF k dmax =8ns FF i d max =10ns FF j s i s j Zero clock skew (s i =0 & s j = 0) clock period = 10ns, f max = 100MHz S i = -1 s j = 0 clock period = 9ns, f max = 111MHz (no timing violations) S i = -2 s j = 0 clock period = 8ns, f max = 125MHz (no timing violations) Introducing skew also helps minimize the simultaneous switching of FFs less load on the P/G network STA is relatively easy once we figure out how to calculate gate and interconnect delay 11

12 Lecture 04: Timing Analysis Static timing analysis STA for sequential circuits Delay modeling: devices and interconnects Statistical static timing analysis 12

13 Elmore delay model: An upper bound to actual delay in RC trees any tree structure R 1 R 2 R 3 R N step input C 1 C 2 C 3 C N Sum the result of multiplying each resistance by the capacitance down stream from it What is the runtime complexity? [see Gupta/Pileggi 97 for more info] 13

14 Switch-level device RC delay models NMOS model PMOS model [source: Weste/Harris] 14

15 Modeling the delay of an inverter loading affects gate delay Holes have half the mobility of electrons PMOS width = 2 of the NMOS device to get the same current (or resistance) during output rise equal rise and fall delays for CMOS inverter 15

16 Gate delay: rise delay step input A B x 6C 2C Y 4hC A B Y h copies R Y t = ( 6+ 4 ) (6+4h)C rise propagation delay pdr h RC Assumption: interconnect delay is ignored (for the moment) 16

17 Gate delay: fall delay step input (1) A B x 6C 2C Y 4hC A B Y h copies R/2 x R/2 2C Y (6+4h)C pdf ( 2 R R R )( 2) ( 6 4 ) ( 2 2) ( 7 4h) RC t = C + + h C + = + fall propagation delay fall delay is worse than rise delay in this case 17

18 Gate delay is input pattern dependant step input (1) A B x 6C 2C Y 4hC A B Y h copies fall propagation delay Connect the latest arriving signal closest to the output node whenever feasible 18

19 Impact of transition time on gate delay Input gate Output Δ time τ i Δ time In addition to capacitive load, input transition time affects delay: τ i > 0 Δ > Δ output transition time: 19

20 Why does transition time affect delay? During transition, gate current < saturation current higher effective output resistance larger delay Input transition time affects gate delay (and output transition time too!) stored in a lookup table for fast calculation t i τ i Gate Δ r/f (C, τ i ) total capacitance (intrinsic + loading + interconnects) T i +Δ r/f τ o 20

21 Interconnect delay: the lumped case V m V out 0V Upper bound on delays in RC trees [Pileggi 97] 21

22 Interconnect delay: lumped vs. distributed R 1 R 2 R 3 R N C 1 C 2 C 3 C N r = resistance per unit length c = capacitance per unit length lumped overestimates delay 22

23 Carryout STA after annotating your circuit with gate/interconnect delays Annotate your circuit with gate/interconnect delay, and carry out STA Don t ignore interconnect delay because it is currently responsible for ~80% of total path delays! 23

24 Lecture 04: Timing Analysis Static timing analysis STA for sequential circuits Delay modeling: devices and interconnects Statistical static timing analysis 24

25 In Statistical STA (SSTA), delay is no longer deterministic I 1 I 2 x pdf pdf delay z? delay O 1 I 3 I 4 pdf delay y I 5 O 2 I 6 Replace deterministic gate delay by a random delay variable that has a normal pdf What is the pdf of z = max(x, y), where x and y are two random normal variables? z is not normal, but can be approximated reasonable using random variables [Jacobs/Berkelaar 00] 25

26 Gate variations impact critical path(s) delay leading to an increase in the average delay Intra-chip (within-die) variations: arises within devices in the same die Inter-chip (die-to-die) variations: arises between different chips 26

27 Assignments for next lecture Reading assignments: Statistical Timing Analysis for Intra-Die Process Variations with Spatial Correlations, ICCAD'03 (Kundan + (Yiwen) (judge)) Incremental timing analysis, US Patent (Cesare) Industrial products: Cadence SignalStorm (Elif) Synopsys PrimeTime (Brendan) Projects overview: mins presentation on previous work + proposal 1½ 2 page report 27

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