# Galois theory (Part II)( ) Example Sheet 1

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1 Galois theory (Part II)( ) Example Sheet 1 (1) Find the minimal polynomial of over Q. (2) Let K L be a finite field extension such that [L : K] is prime. Show that any intermediate field K F L is equal to K or equal to L. (3) Let K L be a field extension of degree 2. Show that if the characteristic of K is not 2, then L = K(α) for some α L with α 2 K. Show that if the characteristic is 2, then either L = K(α) with α 2 K, or L = K(α) with α 2 + α K. (4) Let K L be a field extension and α L an element with [K(α) : K] an odd number. Show that K(α) = K(α 2 ). (5) Let K L be a field extension and α, β L. Show that α + β and αβ are algebraic over K if and only if α and β are algebraic over K. (6) Let K be a field and K(s) the field of rational functions in s over K, i.e. the fraction field of the polynomial ring K[s]. Determine all the elements of K(s) which are algebraic over K. (7) Let L be the set of all the numbers in C which are algebraic over Q. Show that L is a subfield of C and that [L : Q] is infinite. (8) Let K L be a field extension and ϕ: L L a K-homomorphism. Show that ϕ is a K-isomorphism if L is algebraic over K. (9) Show that the angle π 6 cannot be divided into three equal angles using ruler and compass. Hint: make use of the formula sin(3θ) = 3 sin(θ) 4 sin(θ) 3. (10) Let L = Q( 2, 3). Calculate [L : Q] and Aut Q (L). Is Q L a Galois extension? (11) Let n N and assume f = t n 1 + t n t + 1 is irreducible in Q[t]. Let µ = exp(2πi/n) where i = 1. Show that f is the minimal polynomial of µ over Q. Next show that Q Q(µ) is a Galois extension.

2 (12) We use the notation and assumptions of the previous problem. Show that there is a natural group isomorphism Gal(Q(µ)/Q) G where G is the multiplicative group of the unit elements of the ring Z/ n. (13) Find a splitting field L over Q for each of the following polynomials, and then calculate [L : Q] in each case: t 4 5t 2 + 6, t 8 1 (14) Let K L be a field extension and f K[t] an irreducible polynomial of degree 2. Show that if f has a root in L, then L contains a splitting field of f over K. (15) Let K be a field and f K[t] a polynomial of degree n. Show that if L is a splitting field of f over K, then [L : K] n!. (16) Let K L be a finite field extension inside C. Show that if K L, then Hom K (L, C) 2. (17) Let K be a finite field. Write down a non-constant polynomial over K which does not have a root in K. Deduce that K cannot be algebraically closed. (18) Let K be field and K its algebraic closure. Assume K L is a finite field extension. Show that L is K-isomorphic to some subfield of K. (19) Let K 1 and K 2 be algebraically closed fields of the same characteristic. Show that either K 1 is isomorphic to a subfield of K 2 or K 2 is isomorphic to a subfield of K 1. (Hint: use Zorn s lemma)

3 Galois theory (Part II)( ) Example Sheet 2 (1) Let K be a field of characteristic p > 0 such that every element of K is a p-th power, i.e. for each a K there is b K with a = b p. Show that every polynomial in K[t] is separable. (2) Let K be a finite field. Show that every polynomial in K[t] is separable. Deduce that an extension of finite fields is separable. (3) Let K L be an extension of fields of characteristic p > 0, and let α L be algebraic over K. Show that α is not separable over K if and only if K(α) K(α p ), and that if this is the case, then p divides [K(α) : K]. (4) Let K L be a finite extension of fields of characteristic p > 0 which is not separable. Show that p divides [L : K]. (5) Let K L be a finite field extension. Show that there is a unique intermediate field K F L such that K F is separable but F L is purely inseparable, i.e. no element α L \ F is separable over F. We call F the separable closure of K in L. Show that Hom F (L, E) 1 for every extension F E. (6) Find an example of a field extension K L which is normal but not separable. (7) Let K L be a field extension with [L : K] = 2. Show that the extension is normal. (8) Find finite field extensions K F L such that K F and F L are normal but K L is not normal. (9) Show that Q L = Q( 2, 1) is a Galois extension and determine its Galois group. Write down all the subgroups of Gal(L/Q) and the corresponding subfields of L. (10) Show that Q L = Q( 4 2, 1) is a Galois extension and that its Galois group is generated by two elements ϕ and ψ satisfying ϕ( 4 2) = 4 2 1, ϕ( 1) = 1, ψ( 4 2) = 4 2, ψ( 1) = 1 What is the subgroup of Gal(L/Q) corresponding to Q( 4 2)? Is it a normal subgroup?

4 (11) Let L be the splitting field of t 3 2 over Q. Find a subgroup of Gal(L/Q) which is not a normal subgroup. (12) Let K L be a finite Galois extension, and F, M intermediate fields. What is the subgroup of Gal(L/K) corresponding to the subfield F M? Show that if there is a K-isomorphism F M, then the subgroups Gal(L/F ) and Gal(L/M) are conjugate in Gal(L/K). (13) Show that for any natural number n there exists a Galois extension K L with Gal(L/K) isomorphic to S n, the symmetric group of degree n. Show that for any finite group G there exists a Galois extension whose Galois group is isomorphic to G. (Hint: to prove the first claim, consider the field L = Q(s 1,..., s n ) of rational functions in s 1,..., s n, then consider an action of S n on L, etc.) (14) Let K be a field and f K[t] a polynomial of degree n with no repeated roots in a splitting field L of f over K. Show that K L is a Galois extension. Show that there is a (natural) injective homomorphism Gal(L/K) S n. (15) Let K be a field and f K[t] a polynomial with no repeated roots in a splitting field L of f over K. Show that f is irreducible iff Gal(L/K) acts transitively on Root f (L) (that is, for any two roots α, β there is ϕ Gal(L/K) such that ϕ(α) = β). (16) Suppose K L is a Galois extension with G = Gal(L/K) and let α L. Show that L = K(α) iff the images of α under the elements of G are distinct. (17) Show that there is at least one irreducible polynomial f F 5 [t] with deg f = 17. (18) Let p be a prime number and L = F p (s) be the field of rational functions in s. Let a F p be a non-zero element, and let ϕ Aut Fp (L) be the automorphism determined by ϕ(s) = as. Determine the subgroup G Aut Fp (L) generated by ϕ, and its fixed field L G. (19) Let L be the splitting field of t 4 + t over a field K. Compute the Galois group Gal(L/K) for each of the following cases: K = F 2, K = F 3, and K = F 4.

5 Galois theory (Part II)( ) Example Sheet 3 (1) Compute Φ 12 Z[t], the 12-th cyclotomic polynomial. (2) Let K L be an extension of finite fields. Show that L is the n-th cyclotomic extension of K for some n. (3) Let L be the 7-th cyclotomic extension of Q. Find all the intermediate fields Q F L and write each one as Q(α) for some α. Which one of these intermediate fields is Galois over Q? (4) Let Φ n Z[t] denote the n-th cyclotomic polynomial. Show that: (i) If n > 1 is odd, then Φ 2n (t) = Φ n ( t). (ii) If p is a prime dividing n, then Φ np (t) = Φ n (t p ). (iii) If p and q are distinct primes, then the non-zero coefficients of Φ pq are alternately +1 and 1. ([Hint: First show that if 1/(1 t p )(1 t q ) is expanded as a power series in t, then the coefficients of t m with m < pq are either 0 or 1.) (iv) If n is not divisible by at least three distinct odd primes, then the coefficients of Φ n are 1, 0 or 1. (v) Φ 105 has at least one coefficient which is not 1, 0 or 1. (5) Let µ = exp(2πi/n) where i = 1, and let L = Q(µ) be the n-th cyclotomic extension of Q. Show that the isomorphism Gal(L/Q) (Z/ n ) sends the automorphism given by complex conjugation to the class of 1. Deduce that if n 3, then [L : L R] = 2 and show that L R = Q(µ+µ 1 ) = Q(cos 2π/n). (6) An unsolved problem asks whether for an arbitrary finite group G there exists a Galois extension Q L whose Galois group is isomorphic to G. We want to show that this holds for abelian groups. (i) Let p be an odd prime. Show that for every n 2, (1+p) pn 2 1+p n 1 (mod p n ). Deduce that 1 + p has order p n 1 in (Z/ p n ). (ii) If b Z with (p, b) = 1 and b has order p 1 in (Z/ p ) and n 1, show that b pn 1 has order p 1 in (Z/ p n ). Deduce that for n 1, (Z/ p n ) is cyclic. (iii) Show that for every n 3, we have 5 2n n 1 (mod 2 n ). Deduce that (Z/ 2 n ) is generated by the classes of 5 and 1, and is isomorphic to (Z/ 2 n 2 ) (Z/ 2 ) for any n 2. (iv) Use the Chinese Remainder Theorem to deduce the structure of (Z/ m ) in general. (v) Dirichlet s theorem on primes in arithmetic progressions states that if a and b are coprime positive integers, then the set {an + b n N} contains infinitely many primes. Use this, the structure theorem for finite abelian groups, and part (iv) to show that every finite abelian group is isomorphic to a quotient of (Z/ m ) for suitable m. Deduce that every finite abelian group

6 is the Galois group of some Galois extension Q L. (7) Let K be a field containing an n-th primitive root of unity for some n > 1. Let a, b K such that the polynomials f(t) = t n a and g(t) = t n b are irreducible. Show that f and g have the same splitting field if and only if b = c n a r for some c K and r N with gcd(r, n) = 1. (8) Let p be a prime, K be a field with char K p, and L the p-th cyclotomic extension of K. For a K, show that t p a is irreducible over K if and only if it is irreducible over L. Is the result true if p is not assumed to be prime? (9) Let K be a field containing an n-th primitive root of unity. Show that t n a is reducible over K if and only if a is a d-th power in K for some divisor d > 1 of n. Show that this need not be true if K does not contain an n-th primitive root of unity. (10) Let K be a field of char K = 0 and L the n-th cyclotomic extension of K. Show that there is a sequence of Kummer extensions E 0 = K E 1 E r such that L is contained in E r. (Hint: consider F = splitting field of (t n 1)(t n 1 1) (t 1) and apply induction on n) (11) Write cos(2π/17) explicitly in terms of radicals. (12) Let L be the splitting field of t 3 t 1 over Q. Show that the Galois group of Q L is isomorphic to S 3. (13) Let f Q be irreducible of degree 4 and let L be its splitting field over Q. Show that the extension Q L is radical. Now assume the Galois group Gal(L/Q) is isomorphic to A 4. Show that L can be written in the form F ( a, b) where Q F is a Galois extension of degree 3 and a, b F. (14) Consider the quartic f = t 4 4t + 2 and let L be its splitting field over Q( 1). Find the Galois group Gal(L/Q( 1). (15) Let L be the splitting field of t 5 2 over Q. Investigate the Galois group Gal(L/Q). (16) Let f = t 5 9t + 3 Q[t] and let L be the splitting field of f over Q. Show that Gal(L/Q) is isomorphic to S 5. Let α be a root of f. Show that the extension Q Q(α) is not Galois by proving Aut Q (Q(α)) = 1. Next show that the mentioned extension is not radical nor solvable. (17) Let f Q[t] be irreducible of degree 4 and L its splitting field over Q. Consider the Galois group Gal(L/Q) as a subgroup G S 4. Let V = {1, (12)(34), (13)(24), (14)(23)}. Show that G V is either V or a subgroup of index 2 in V. In both cases, determine the various possibilities for G.

7 Galois theory (Part II)( ) Example Sheet 4 (1) Let K L be a Galois extension of degree 10 where Char K = 0. Is the extension necessarily a radical extension? (2) Express i j t3 i t j K(t 1,..., t n ) as a polynomial in the elementary symmetric polynomials. (3) Let L = Q(x 1,..., x n ) where x i are variables, and let e i be the i-th symmetric polynomial in these variables. Let F = Q(e 1,..., e n ), A = Z[e 1,..., e n ], B = Z[x 1,..., x n ]. Show that A = B F. (4) Let f = t 5 + 2t + 6 Q[t] and let L be a splitting field of f over Q. Considering the reduction f F 3 [t] show that Gal(L/Q) contains a transpose when considered as a subgroup of S 5. (5) Show that t is reducible over every finite field F q. Let p be an odd prime. By considering the splitting field of t 2 +1 over F p, show that 1 is a quadratic residue mod p iff p 1 mod 4. If ζ a root of t 4 + 1, show that (ζ + ζ 1 ) 2 = 2. Hence show that 2 is a quadratic residue mod p iff p ±1 mod 8. (6) Show that the minimal polynomial of over Q is reducible modulo p for all primes p. (7) Describe the function tr C/R, N C/R, tr Q( m)/q, and N Q( m)/q where m Z. (8) Let f = t 8 2 Q[t] and let L be a splitting field of f over Q. Let α = 8 2. Calculate tr L/Q (α), N L/Q (α), tr Q(α)/Q (α), and N Q(α)/Q (α). (9) Suppose p is an odd prime, µ = exp(2πi/p) where i = 1, and let L = Q(µ). If f denotes the corresponding cyclotomic polynomial Φ p, show that f (µ) = pµ p 1 /(µ 1). Prove that the norm N L/Q (f (µ)) = p p 2. (10) Let K F L be finite separable extensions. Show that the formula N L/K (α) = N F/K (N L/F (α)) holds for every α L. (11) Hilbert s theorem 90. Let K L be a cyclic extension and let ϕ be a generator of Gal(L/K). Show that for α L, we have: α = β ϕ(β) for some β L iff N L/K (α) = 1. (12) Let f be an irreducible cubic polynomial over a field K with char K 2, 3, and let α be a square root of the discriminant of f. Show that f remains irreducible over K(α).

8 (13) Assume f = t n + at + b K[t] is irreducible and separable. Calculate the discriminant D f in terms of the coefficients a, b. (14) Let f = t t + 16 Q[t] and let L be a splitting field of f over Q. Show that Gal(L/K) is isomorphic to A 5. [Hint: use discriminants, reduction mod primes, etc. Also you may assume that A 5 has no proper subgroup of index 2, 3, or 4.] (15) Show that Q( 2 + 2) is a Galois extension of Q and find its Galois group. (16) Optional: Let p 1, p 2,..., p n denote the first n primes, and let L = Q( p 1, p 2,..., p n ). Show that this is a Galois extension of degree 2 n with Galois group isomorphic to (Z/ 2 ) n.

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