# Monday July 14. Capacitance demo slide 19 Capacitors in series and parallel slide 33 Elmo example

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1 Monday July 14 Lecture 5 Capacitance demo slide 19 Capacitors in series and parallel slide 33 Elmo example Lecture 6 Currents and esistance Lecture 9 Circuits Wear Microphone 1

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4 Lecture 6 Current and esistance Ch. 6 We are now leaving electrostatics. Cartoon -nvention of the battery and Voltaic Cell Topics What is current? Current density Conservation of Current esistance Temperature dependence Ohms Law Batteries, terminal voltage, impedance matching Power dissipation Combination of resistors Demos Ohms Law demo on overhead projector T dependence of resistance Three 100 Watt light bulbs Elmo Puzzle - esistor network figure out equivalent resistance 4

5 Loop of copper wire Nothing moving; electrostatic equilibrium E 0 E! 0 Now battery voltage forces charge through the conductor and we have a field in the wire. 5

6 What is Current? t is the amount of positive charge that moves past a certain point per unit time. A! Q Coulomb! t second ΔL v! t! L Amp Copper wire with voltage across it Drift velocity of charge Density of electrons!q charge per unit nq" Av! t! Q nqav! t Divide both sides by Δt. 1.6 x C volume " volume! Q! t nqav 6

7 What is the drift velocity v d? Example: What is the drift velocity for 1 Amp of current flowing through a 14 gauge copper wire of radius mm? v Drift velocity v d nqa d No n " 8.4x10 atoms/cm 3! 1amp atoms " 10 3 " 1.6 " 10 # C "!(.0815cm cm ) 1 Amp q 1.6x10-19 C A π(.0815 cm) ρ 8.9 grams/cm 3 N o 6x10 3 atoms/mole M 63.5 grams/mole v d 3.5 " 10! 5 m s The higher the density the smaller the drift velocity 7

8 What is the current density J? Directions of current i is defined as the direction of positive charge. is not a vector. (Note positive charge moves in direction of E) electron flow is opposite E. i naqvd! J nq! vd i! J! d! A J i A when! J and! A are parallel " 8

9 Currents: Steady motion of charge and conservation of current i 0 i 1 + i (Kirchoff's nd ule) Current is the same throughout all sections in the diagram below; it is continuous. Current density J does vary Higher J 9

10 Question: How does the drift speed compare to the instantaneous speed? v d 3.5 " 10! 5 m s v nstantaneous speed 10 6 m/s # 3.5 " 10! 11 d v ins tant (This tiny ratio is why Ohm s Law works so well for metals.) Question: At this drift speed 3.5x10-5 m/s, it would take an electron 8 hours to go 1 meter. So why does the light come on immediately when you turn on the light switch? t s like when the hose is full of water and you turn the faucet on, it immediately comes out the ends. The charge in the wire is like the water. A wave of electric field travels very rapidly down the wire, causing the free charges to begin drifting. 10

11 Example: ecall typical TV tube,or CT. The electron beam has a speed 5x10 7 m/s. f the current is 100 microamps, what is n? n n qav 10!4 A 1.6 " 10!19 C #10!6 m # 5 " 10 7 m s Take A 1 mm (10!3 m) 10!6 m For CT 13 n 1.! 10 1.! 3 For Copper electrons m 10 7 electrons 3 cm n 8.5! 10 electrons 3 cm The lower the density the higher the speed. 11

12 Ohm s Law V V Want to emphasize here that as long as we have current (charge moving) due to an applied potential, the electric field is no longer zero inside the conductor. A B ΔL Potential difference V " V E L, where E is constant. B A! current " E! L (Ohm' s law) True for many materials not all. Note that Ohms Law is an experimental observation and is not a true law. Constant of proportionality between V and is known as the resistance. The S unit for resistance is called the ohm. V V Volt Ohm amp Demo: Show Ohm s Law Best conductors Silver Copper oxidizes Gold pretty inert Non-ohmic materials Diodes Superconductors 1

13 A test of whether or not a material satisfies Ohm s Law V V 1 Slope constant Ohm' s law is satisfied Here the slope depends on the potential difference. Ohm's Law is violated for a pn junction diode. 13

14 What is esistance? The collisions between the electrons and the atoms is the cause of resistance and the cause for a very slow drift velocity of the electrons. The higher the density, the more collisions you have. field off field on extra distance electron traveled e - The dashed lines represent the straight line tracks of electrons in between collisions Electric field is off Electric field is on. When the field is on, the electron drifted further to B... 14

15 Depends on shape, material, temperature. Most metals: increases with increasing T Semi-conductors: decreases with increasing T Define a new constant which characterizes resistance of materials. esistivity esistance: More on esistance- Define esistivity A L! A L For materials ρ 10-8 to ohms-meters Demo: Show temperature dependence of resistance Example: What is the resistance of a 14 gauge Cu wire? Find the resistance per unit length. % A " 8 cu 1.7 # 10! m " 3 \$ 8 # 10! " 3 m L 3.14(.815 # 10 ) L A! Build circuits with copper wire. We can neglect the resistance of the wire. For short wires 1- m, this is a good approximation. Note Conductivity 1/esistivity σ 1/ρ 15

16 Example Temperature variation of resistivity.!! 0 [ 1 + "(T # 0) ] Demo: Show temperature dependence of resistance L A! can be positive or negative Consider two examples of materials at T 0 o C. ρ 0 (Ω-m) α(c -1 ) L Area (0 o C) Fe x10 6 m 1mm (10-6 m ) 0.1 Ω Si m 1 m 640 Ω Fe conductor - a long 6x10 6 m wire. Si insulator - a cube of Si 1 m on each side Question: You might ask is there a temperature where a conductor and insulator are one and the same? 16

17 Condition: Fe Si at what temperature? L A Use! 6 6" 10 m Fe 10-7 Ω-m [ (T-0)]! 6 10 m Si 640 Ω-m [ (T-0)] 1m 1m Now, set Fe Si and solve for T T 0 C 196 C! 0 [ 1 + "(T # 0 C) ] L A T 176 C or 97 K (pretty low temperature) 17

18 esistance at Different Temperatures T 93K T 77K (Liquid Nitrogen) Cu.1194 Ω.015 Ω conductor Nb.035 Ω.009 Ω impure C.0553 Ω.069 Ω semiconductor 18

19 Power dissipation resistors Potential energy decrease " U " Q(! V ) " U " Q (! V ) " t " t P V (drop the minus sign) ate of potential energy decreases equals rate of thermal energy increases in resistor. Called Joule heating good for stove and electric oven nuisance in a PC need a fan to cool computer Also since V, P V or All are equivalent. Example: How much power is dissipated when A flows through the Fe resistor of 10,000 Ω. P x10 4 Ω 40,000 Watts 19

20 Batteries A device that stores chemical energy and converts it to electrical energy. Emf of a battery is the amount of increase of electrical potential of the charge when it flows from negative to positive in the battery. (Emf stands for electromotive force.) Carbon-zinc Emf 1.5V Lead-acid in car Emf V per cell (large areas of cells give lots of current) Car battery has 6 cells or 1 volts. Power of a battery P P ε ε is the Emf Batteries are rated by their energy content. Normally they give an equivalent measure such as the charge content in ma-hrs milliamp-hours nternal esistance Charge (coulomb/seconds) x seconds As the battery runs out of chemical energy the internal resistance increases. What is terminal voltage? Terminal Voltage decreases quickly. How do you visualize this? 0

21 What is the relationship between Emf, resistance, current, and terminal voltage? Circuit model looks like this: r Terminal voltage V ε V (decrease in PE) " r + "! r V " ( r + ) " (r + ) The terminal voltage decrease ε - r as the internal resistance r increases or when increases. 1

22 Example: This is called impedance matching. The question is what value of load resistor do you want to maximize power transfer from the battery to the load. E r + P power dissipated in load E ( r + ) P current from the battery P dp d 0? Solve for r You get max. power when load resistor equals internal resistance of battery. (battery doesn t last long)

23 3 Combination of resistors esistors in series esistors in parallel Voltages are the same, currents add ) ( V eqiv V V V , So equiv + + Current is the same in both the resistors

24 Equivalent esistance eq ( + ) ( + ) eq 4 4 eq eq ( + eq eq 3 3 ) 4

25 esistance cube The figure above shows 1 identical resistors of value attached to form a cube. Find the equivalent resistance of this network as measured across the body diagonal---that is, between points A and B. (Hint: magine a voltage V is applied between A and B, causing a total current to flow. Use the symmetry arguments to determine the current that would flow in branches AD, DC, and CB.) 5

26 esistance Cube cont Because the resistors are identical, the current divides uniformly at each junction. V eq V V + V + eq eq eq AD DC 6 V + CB 6 3

27 Chapter 6 Problem 1 A wire with a resistance of 3.0 is drawn out through a die so that its new length is three times its original length. Find the resistance of the longer wire, assuming that the resistivity and density of the material are unchanged. 7

28 Chapter 6 Problem 3 Two conductors are made of the same material and have the same length. Conductor A is a solid wire of diameter 0.5 mm. Conductor B is a hollow tube of outside diameter 3.0 mm and inside diameter 1.5 mm. What is the resistance ratio A/B, measured between their ends? 8

29 Chapter 6 Problem 5 A common flashlight bulb is rated at 0.30 A and.9 V (the values of the current and voltage under operating conditions). f the resistance of the bulb filament at room temperature (0 C) is 1.8, what is the temperature of the filament when the bulb is on? The filament is made of tungsten. 9

30 Chapter 6 Problem 7 When 15 V is applied across a wire that is 1 m long and has a 0.30 mm radius, the current density is 1. multiplied by 104 A/m. Find the resistivity of the wire. 30

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