Practice Test  Chapter 2


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1 Graph and analyze each function. Describe the domain, range, intercepts, end behavior, continuity, and where the function is increasing or decreasing. 1. f (x) = 0.25x 3 Evaluate the function for several xvalues in its domain Evaluate the function for several xvalues in its domain Use these points to construct a graph. Use these points to construct a graph. Since the power is negative, the function will be undefined at x = 0, and D = (, 0) (0, ). All values of y are included in the graph except 0, so R = (, 0) (0, ). The graph never intersects either axis, so there are no x and yintercepts. The yvalues approach zero as x approaches negative or positive infinity, so. The graph has an infinite discontinuity at x = 0. and As you read the graph from left to right, it is going up from negative infinity to 0, and again going up from 0 to positive infinity, so the graph is increasing on (, 0) (0, ). Since it is an odddegree radical function, there is no restriction on the domain and D = (, ). The values of y that are included in the graph are zero through infinity, so R = [0, ). The only time the graph intersects the axes is when it goes through the origin, so the x and yintercepts are both 0. The yvalues approach positive infinity as x approaches negative or positive infinity, so and. There are no breaks, holes, or gaps in the graph, so it is continuous for all real numbers. As you read the graph from left to right, it is going down from negative infinity to 0, and then going up from 0 to positive infinity, so the graph is decreasing on (, 0) and increasing on (0, ). esolutions Manual  Powered by Cognero Page 1
2 3. Solve each equation. 4. x = 12 or x = 5 Since the each side of the equation was raised to a power, check the solutions in the original equation. x = 12 x = or x = 9 x = 5 Since the each side of the equation was raised to a power, check the solutions in the original equation. x = One solution checks and the other solution does not. Therefore, the solution is x = 5. x = 9 One solution checks and the other solution does not. Therefore, the solution is x = 9. esolutions Manual  Powered by Cognero Page 2
3 = x 6. The equation has no real solutions. Since the each side of the equation was raised to a power, check the solutions in the original equation. x = 6 x = 6 The solutions are x = 6 and x = x 4 5x 3 14x 2 = 0 Factor. x 2 (x 2 5x 14) = 0 x 2 (x 7)(x + 2) = 0. The solutions are 0, 7, and 2. esolutions Manual  Powered by Cognero Page 3
4 8. x 3 3x 2 10x = 24 The equation can be written as x 3 3x 2 10x + 24= 0. Apply the Rational Zeros Theorem to find possible rational zeros of the equation. Because the leading coefficient is 1, the possible rational zeros are the integer factors of the constant term 24. Therefore, the possible rational zeros are ±1, ±2, ±3, ±4, ±6, ±8, ±12, and ±24. By using synthetic division, it can be determined that 2 is a rational zero. State the number of possible real zeros and turning points of each function. Then find all of the real zeros by factoring. 11. f (x) = 4x 3 + 8x 2 60x The degree of f (x) is 3, so it will have at most three real zeros and two turning points. So, the zeros are 5, 0, and 3. Because (x 2) is a factor of the equation, we can use the final quotient to write a factored form as 0 = (x 2)(x 2 x 12). Factoring the quadratic expression yields 0 = (x 2)(x 4)(x + 3). Thus, the solutions are 2, 4, and f (x) = x 5 16x The degree of f (x) is 5, so it will have at most five real zeros and four turning points. Describe the end behavior of the graph of each polynomial function using limits. Explain your reasoning using the leading term test. 9. f (x) = 5x 4 3x 3 7x x 8 the leading coefficient is positive. The degree is even and x yields no real zeros. So, the zeros are 2, 0, and f (x) = 3x 5 8x 4 + 7x The degree is odd and the leading coefficient is negative. esolutions Manual  Powered by Cognero Page 4
5 13. MULTIPLE CHOICE Which function has 3 turning points? A f (x) = x 4 4 B f (x) = x 4 11x 3 C f (x) = x 3 + 9x x D f (x) = x 4 5x In order for a function to have 3 turning points, the function has to have a degree of at least 4. This eliminates choice C. Use a graphing calculator to graph the remaining functions. A 14. BASEBALL The height h in feet of a baseball after being struck by a batter is given by h(t) = 32t t + 4, where t is the time in seconds after the ball is hit. Describe the end behavior of the graph of the function using limits. Explain using the leading term test. The degree is 2, and the leading coefficient is 32. Because the degree is even and the leading coefficient is negative, B D The correct answer is D. esolutions Manual  Powered by Cognero Page 5
6 For each function, (a) apply the leading term test, (b) find the zeros and state the multiplicity of any repeated zeros, (c) find a few additional points, and then (d) graph the function. 15. f (x) = x(x 1)(x + 3) a. The degree is 3, and the leading coefficient is 1. Because the degree is odd and the leading coefficient is positive, 16. f (x) = x 4 9x 2 a. The degree is 4, and the leading coefficient is 1. Because the degree is even and the leading coefficient is positive, b. b. The zeros are 0, 1, 3. c. Sample answer: Evaluate the function for a few x values in its domain d. Evaluate the function for several xvalues in its domain Use these points to construct a graph. The zeros are 0, 3, and 3. The zero 0 has multiplicity 2 since x is a factor of the polynomial twice. c. Sample answer: Evaluate the function for a few x values in its domain d. Evaluate the function for several xvalues in its domain Use these points to construct a graph. esolutions Manual  Powered by Cognero Page 6
7 Use the Factor Theorem to determine if the binomials given are factors of f (x). Use the binomials that are factors to write a factored form of f (x). 17. f (x) = x 3 3x 2 13x + 15; (x + 3) Use synthetic division to test the factor (x + 3). Because the remainder when the polynomial is divided by (x + 3) is 0, (x + 3) is a factor of f (x). Because (x + 3) is a factor of f (x), we can use the final quotient to write a factored form of f (x) as f (x) = (x + 3)(x 2 6x + 5). Factoring the quadratic expression yields f (x) = (x + 3)(x 1)(x 5). temperature in Bay Town each month. a. Make a scatter plot for the data. b. Use a graphing calculator to model the data using a polynomial function with a degree of 3. Use x = 1 for January and round each coefficient to the nearest thousandth. c. Use the model to predict the average high temperature for the following January. Let x = 13. a. Create a scatter plot for the data. 18. f (x) = x 4 x 3 34x 2 + 4x + 120; (x + 5), (x 2) Use synthetic division to test each factor, (x + 5) and (x 2). Because the remainder when f (x) is divided by (x + 5) is 0, (x + 5) is a factor. Test the second factor, (x 2), with the depressed polynomial x 3 6x 2 4x b. Use the cubic regression function on the graphing calculator. Because the remainder when the depressed polynomial is divided by (x 2) is 0, (x 2) is a factor of f (x). Because (x + 5) and (x 2) are factors of f (x), we can use the final quotient to write a factored form of f(x) as f (x) = (x + 5)(x 2)(x 2 4x 12). Factoring the quadratic expression yields f (x) = (x + 5)(x 2) (x 6)(x + 2). f(x) = 0.071x x x c. Find f (x) for x = 13. Graph the regression equation using a graphing calculator. Use the value function from the CALC menu on the calculator to find f (13). 19. WEATHER The table shows the average high temperature in Bay Town each month. The average high temperature for the following January is esolutions Manual  Powered by Cognero Page 7
8 Write a polynomial function of least degree with real coefficients in standard form that has the given zeros , 4,, Using the Linear Factorization Theorem and the zeros 1, 4,, and, write f (x) as follows. f(x) = a[x ( 1)][x (4)][x ( )][x ( )] F G Let a = 1. Then write the function in standard form. H Therefore, a function of least degree that has 1, 4,, and as zeros is f (x) = x 4 3x 3 7x 2 + 9x + 12 or any nonzero multiple of f (x) , 5, 1 i Because 1 i is a zero and the polynomial is to have real coefficients, you know that 1 + i must also be a zero. Using the Linear Factorization Theorem and the zeros 5, 5, 1 i, and 1 + i, write f (x) as follows. f(x) = a[x (5)][x ( 5)][x (1 i)][x (1 + i)] Let a = 1. Then write the function in standard form. Therefore, a function of least degree that has 5, 5, 1 i, and 1 + i as zeros is f (x) = x 4 2x 3 23x x 50 or any nonzero multiple of f (x). 22. MULTIPLE CHOICE Which function graphed below must have imaginary zeros? F J Analyze the turning points and real zeros of each graph. The graph for choice F has two turning points. Therefore, it must have at least 3 zeros. It appears to have two zeros, one of which having a multiplicity 2. Thus, the graph for choice F does not need to have any imaginary zeros. The graph for choice G has two turning points. Therefore, it must have at least 3 zeros. The graph appears to have three zeros. Thus, the graph for choice G does not need to have any imaginary zeros. The graph for choice H has zero turning points. It also has one zero. Thus, the graph for choice H does not need to have any imaginary zeros. The graph for choice J has two turning points. Therefore, it must have at least 3 zeros. The graph appears to only have one zero. Thus, the graph for esolutions Manual  Powered by Cognero Page 8
9 choice J must have at least two imaginary zeros. The correct answer is J. Divide using synthetic division. 23. f (x) = (x 3 7x ) (x 2) Because x 2, c = 2. Set up the synthetic division as follows. Then follow the synthetic division procedure. The quotient is. 24. f (x) = (x 4 + x 3 2x 2 + 3x + 8) (x + 3) Determine any asymptotes and intercepts. Then graph the function and state its domain. 25. The function is undefined at b(x) = 0, so D = {x x 5, x }. There are vertical asymptotes at x = 5. There is a horizontal asymptote at y = 2, the ratio of the leading coefficients of the numerator and denominator, because the degrees of the polynomials are equal. The xintercept is 3, the zero of the numerator. The yintercept is because. Graph the asymptotes and intercepts. Then find and plot points. Because x + 3, c = 3. Set up the synthetic division as follows. Then follow the synthetic division procedure. The quotient is x 3 2x 2 + 4x 9 +. esolutions Manual  Powered by Cognero Page 9
10 26. f (x) = f(x) can be written as f (x) =. The function is undefined at b(x) = 0, so D = {x x 4, x }. There are vertical asymptotes at x = 4. Since the degree of the numerator is one larger than the degree of the denominator, the graph will have an oblique asymptote. Perform synthetic division to find the equation for the oblique asymptote. Because x 4, c = 4. Set up the synthetic division as follows. Then follow the synthetic division procedure. The equation for the oblique asymptote is y = x + 5. The xintercepts are 2 and 3, the zeros of the numerator. The yintercept is because. Graph the asymptotes and intercepts. Then find and plot points. esolutions Manual  Powered by Cognero Page 10
Practice Test  Chapter 2
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