MATH 101: ALGEBRA I WORKSHEET, DAY #1. We review the prerequisites for the course in set theory and beginning a first pass on group. 1.


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1 MATH 101: ALGEBRA I WORKSHEET, DAY #1 We review the prerequisites for the course in set theory and beginning a first pass on group theory. Fill in the blanks as we go along. 1. Sets A set is a collection of objects. (Our set theory is naive, and we do not go into super important foundational issues. Please take a logic class, it is amazingly cool!) Basic sets:, the empty set containing no elements; Z = {..., 1, 0, 1,... }, the integers; Z 0 = {x Z : x 0}, the nonnegative integers; similarly, positive integers, etc.; N =, the natural numbers; Q, the rational numbers; R, the real numbers; C, the complex numbers. A set X is a subset of a set Y if x X implies x Y, and we write X Y. (Some write X Y.) Two sets are equal, and we write X = Y, if they contain precisely the same elements, which can also be written. Operations on two sets X, Y : X Y, union: we have x X Y if and only if x X or x Y ; Date: Monday, 12 September
2 X Y, intersection: we have x X Y if and only if ; X Y, set minus: we have x X Y if and only if ; X Y, disjoint union: we write disjoint union instead of union when. X Y = {(x, y) : x X, y Y }, the Cartesian product. A relation R on a set X is. For example, equality is a relation on any set, defined by. An equivalence relation is a relation that is: reflexive,,,, and,. An equivalence relation partitions X into a disjoint union of equivalence classes, where the equivalence class of x X is. The set of equivalence classes X/ is the quotient of X by, and we have a projection map π : X X/ x [x] Let n Z >0. We define an equivalence relation on Z by x y (mod n) if n (x y). The set of equivalence classes is denoted Z/nZ. 2
3 2. Functions A function or map from a set X to Y is denoted f : X Y : the precise definition is via its graph {(x, f(x)) : x X} X Y. The collection of all functions from X to Y is denoted Y X, and this is sensible notation because. Let f : X Y be a function. Then X is the domain and Y is the. We write f(x) = img f for the image of f. The identity map on X is denoted id X : X X and defined by. Given another function g : Y Z, we can compose to get g f : X Z defined by (g f)(x) = g(f(x)). Sometimes we will have more elaborate diagrams: X f h Y Z g We say a diagram like the above is commutative if we start from one set and travel to any other, we get the same answer regardless of the path chosen: in the above example, this reads. Similarly, the diagram X f Y g X f Y is commutative if and only if. We say that f factors through a map g : X Z if there exists a map h : Z Y such that g 3, i.e. the diagram
4 commutes. The function f is: injective (or onetoone) if, and if so we write X Y ; surjective (or onto) if, and if so we write X Y ; and bijective (or a onetoone correspondence), if f is both injective and surjective, and we write X Y. Lemma. Define the relation on X by x x if f(x) = f(x ). Then the following hold. (a) is an equivalence relation. (b) f factors uniquely through the projection π : X X/. If f is surjective, then the map (X/ ) Y is bijective. In a picture: Proof. First, part (a). Next, part (b). 4
5 Example. If I is a set, and for each i I we have a set X i, we can form the product X I = i I X i. The set X i has projection maps π i : X I X i for i I. The product X I is uniquely determined up to bijection by the following property: for any set Y and maps f i : Y X i, there is a unique map f : Y i I X i such that π i f = f i. In a diagram: A left inverse to f is a function g : Y X such that g f = id X, and similarly a right inverse. The function f has a left inverse if and only if. In a picture: Similarly, f has a right inverse if and only if. If y Y, we will write f 1 (y) = {x X : f(x) = y} for the fiber of y, and if this fiber consists of one element, we will abuse notation and also write this for the single element. An inverse to f is a common left and right inverse. The function f has an inverse if and only if in line with the above. ; if this inverse exists, it is unique, denoted f 1 : Y X 5
6 The cardinality of a set X is either: finite, if there is a bijection X {1,..., n} for some n Z 0, and in this case we write #X = n; countable, if there is a bijection X Z; or uncountable, otherwise. If X is finite, we sometimes write #X < and in the latter two cases, we write #X =. (This is just the beginning of a more advanced theory of cardinal numbers.) 6
7 3. Groups Let X be a set. A binary operation on X is. Let be a binary operation on X. The definition is still too general, and some binary operations are better than others! is associative if. has an identity if. Lemma. A binary operation can have at most one identity element. Proof. Definition. A monoid is a set X equipped with an associative binary operation that has an identity. (We will never use them, but a semigroup is a nonempty set with an associative binary operation.) Example. The set of positive integers Z >0 is a monoid under multiplication. The set of nonnegative integers Z 0 is a monoid under addition. Monoids exist everywhere in mathematics, but they are still too general to study: their structure theory combines all the complications of combinatorics with algebra. Let X be a monoid. An element x X is invertible if there exists y X such that ; the element y is unique if it exists because so it is denoted x 1 and is called the inverse of x. Definition. A group is a monoid in which every element is invertible. 7
8 The group axioms for a group G can be recovered from the requirement that a x = b has a unique solution x G for every a, b G. Example. The smallest group is, with the binary operation. Examples of groups include: Example. My favorite group is the quaternion group of order 8, defined by Example. Let n Z >0. The dihedral group of order 2n, denoted D 2n (or sometimes D n ) is In a group, the (left or right) cancellation law holds: A group is: abelian (or commutative) if. finite if. dihedral if. From now on, let G be a group. Lemma. If x 2 = 1 for all x G, then G is abelian. 8
9 Proof. The order of an element x G is., and is denoted. Example. Important examples are matrix groups. Let F be a field, a set with. We write F = F {0}. For n Z 1, let GL n (F ) = {A M n (F ) : det(a) 0} be the general linear group (of rank n) over F. Then GL n (F ) is a group. A homomorphism of groups φ : G G is a map such that. Let φ : G G be a group homomorphism. Then we say φ is a(n): isomorphism if ; automorphism if ; endomorphism if ; monomorphism if ; epimorphism if. A subgroup H G is a subset that is a group under the binary operation of G (closed under the binary operation and inverses). 9
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