Due Next Class. Work on QSC using today s notes

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1 DO NOW - APES 1. Grab a chromebook. 2. Remember, if your Albert.io grade is below 70, you have until Thursday at 8am to complete all 100 Q s for a maximum grade of Log on to Albert.io & work on Your weakest topics; the CA will be cumulative! (10min) Due Next Class Work on QSC using today s notes

2 TEST CORRECTIONS These are due by THURSDAY at 5:30 pm. I will not accept any late corrections. Tests and corrections must STAY IN MY ROOM. They may not at any time be removed from these four walls. You may come before school (let me know what time), after school, or during lunch to work on them.

3 PART TWO Geologic Processes Plate tectonics Earthquakes Volcanoes Geologic Time Scale

4 LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS: SPHERES Different spheres on earth: Atmosphere- thin membrane of air Troposphere- closest to earth, 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen Stratosphere- closer to the sun- contains ozone (O 3 ) which filters out UV radiation. Allows for life to exist on land and in water Hydrosphere- contains earth s water (liquid, ice and vapor) Lithosphere- crust and upper mantle- contains fossil fuels, minerals and nutrients Biosphere- the global ecosystem where all life is interconnected

5 Atmosphere Oceanic Crust Continental Crust Vegetation and animals Soil Rock Biosphere Crust Lithosphere Upper mantle Asthenosphere Lower mantle Core Mantle Hydrosphere (water) Fig. 3-6, p. 54

6 GEOLOGIC PROCESSES The earth is made up of a core, mantle, and crust and is constantly changing as a result of processes taking place on and below its surface. The earth s interior consists of: Crust Mantle Core

7 Crust Underlies the continents Thinnest layer Oceanic (heavy) or continental (light) Top 8 elements in the earths crust in order: O, Si, Al, Fe (iron), Ca, Na (sodium), P, Mg Only silly apes in college study past midnight. *Lithosphere (the crust and the top part of mantle) - floats on the asthenosphere Mantle- 70% of Earth s interior Asthenosphere (melted rock- like hot wax) Mesosphere- lower mantle fluid Convection (constantly moving) Contains Mg, Oxygen and Silicon Core- Inner portion- solid w/ iron and nickel Outer- liquid iron

8 EARTH S LAYERS 5 layers defined by Pressure and Temperature

9 GEOLOGIC PROCESSES Major features of the earth s crust and upper mantle.

10 EARTH S LAYERS Lithosphere contains two types of crust: Oceanic- thin but dense, contains Iron, Magnesium and Silicon Continental- thick but light, contains calcium, sodium, potassium and aluminum Lithosphere is broken into tectonic plates 8-10 major plates Create plate boundaries

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12 GEOLOGIC PROCESSES Tectonic plates: huge rigid plates that are moved with convection cells or currents by floating on magma or molten rock. In The Mantle Convection Cells or Currents- move large volumes of rock and heat in loops within the mantle like giant conveyer belts

13 Collision between two continents Spreading center Ocean trench Continental crust Subduction zone Oceanic crust Material cools as it reaches the outer mantle Oceanic crust Cold dense material falls back through mantle Continental crust Mantle convection cell Hot material rising through the mantle Two plates move towards each other. One is subducted back into the mantle on a falling convection current. Hot outer core Inner core Mantle Fig. 15-3, p. 337

14 PLATE TECTONICS Plate tectonics is the theory explaining the movement of the plates and the processes that occur at their boundaries. Types of Tectonic plates- Divergent- away from Convergent- toward Transform- slide past Triple Junction- three way split it in crust

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16 Divergent Found mostly in the ocean Magma surging upward to the surface divides plates and pushes them apart creating new crust as it cools and spreads Mid Atlantic Ridge N. American Plate is moving away from Eurasian Plate in the N. Atlantic Ocean

17 Convergent Ocean to ocean Volcanic islands = Island Arc of Japan Continent to continent Mountains = Himalayan Mountains Ocean to continent Ocean trenches, mountains/volcanoes = part of the Pacific Ring of Fire

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19 Transform Strike-slip fault Fault gets stuck, builds pressure and snaps Causes Earthquakes San Andreas Fault= Pacific Plate vs. North American Plate The Pacific plate is off the coast of California. Lots of volcanoes and earthquakes occur here. California will fall into the ocean idea. It is the largest plate and the location of the ring of fire.

20 Transform plates slide next or past each other in opposite directions along a fracture. California will not fall into the ocean!

21 NORTH AMERICAN PLATE ANATOLIAN PLATE EURASIAN PLATE JUAN DE FUCA PLATE CARIBBEAN PLATE ARABIAN PLATE AFRICAN PLATE CHINA SUBPLATE PHILIPPINE PLATE PACIFIC PLATE SOUTH AMERICAN PLATE NAZCA PLATE SOMALIAN SUBPLATE INDIA-AUSTRALIAN PLATE ANTARCTIC PLATE Divergent plate boundaries Convergent plate boundaries Transform faults Fig. 15-4a, p. 338

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23 EARTHQUAKES Movement due to large fractures (faults) associated with plate boundaries Faults- store energy as they are bent and slippage occurs at weakest point Release of energy in the form of vibration Focus- source of energy release Epicenter- point on earth directly above focus Magnitude- measure of released energy determined by seismograph Amplitude- the earthquake waves recorded on equipment

24 Richter scale measure magnitude Insignificant: <4.0 Minor: Damaging: Destructive: Major: Great: >8.0

25 EARTHQUAKES Seismic Waves: P: primary, compress and expand, travel through solids, liquids and gases Faster than S waves S: shake, cannot travel through liquid and gases

26 VOLCANOES Magma release Extrusion of lava on the surface Release of solid rock, gas and ash Occur near plate boundaries or hot spots Classified by type and form of ejecta Climate change- Suspended volcanic material will filter out a portion of incoming solar radiation which in turn will reduce air temperatures in the lower atmosphere

27 GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE Each unit is defined based on geo and fossil records with divisions based on appearance or extinction of living things Phases shorter as we move to present day

28 GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE Precambrian Era Oldest and largest division of geologic time (87%) 4600 to 544 million years ago Single celled prokaryotic organisms shell-less invertebrates Paleozoic Time Frame 544 to 245 million years ago Periods (from oldest) Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian Explosion of life Invertebrates vertebrates land plants amphibian insects reptiles

29 Mesozoic Time Frame 245 to 66 million years ago Periods Triassic- first mammals & dinosaurs appeared Jurassic- dinosaurs become dominant Cretaceous- mammals began to spread out and flowering plants appeared & the dinosaurs became extinct

30 Cenozoic- Time Frame 66 million years ago to the present. Mammals flourished. Periods Tertiary Paleocene, Iocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pilocene Quaternary Pleistocene, Recent

31 FOSSIL EVIDENCE Relative Dating The age of a fossil in terms of other fossils around it. Fossils in layers of sedimentary rocks, younger are on top & older are in the lower layers. Index Fossils are used to coordinate the fossils at one location with those at another. For ex. One island with another

32 RELATIVE DATING General Rules: Older beds lie below younger beds Intruding rock is younger than the layers it intrudes into Faults are younger than the beds they cut Volcanic intrusion is younger than layers it penetrates So, what s the order? (oldest to youngest)

33 Oldest- O H B L J A F M D G N E I C K Youngest

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