# Chapter 2 - Lessons 1 & 2 Studying Geography, Economics

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1 Chapter 2 - Lessons 1 & 2 Studying Geography, Economics How does geography influence the way people live? Why do people trade? Why do people form governments?

2 Lesson 1 - How Does Geography Influence the Way People Live? Geography helps us understand our place in the world. What methods do geographers use to show the Earth s surface? A globe is a spherical scale model of the Earth and is the most accurate way to show the Earth. A globe best shows the sizes of continents and the shapes of landmasses and bodies of water. Globes also show true distance and

3 HOWEVER - Globes are Not as Easy to Carry as Maps Both Maps & Globes are marked with imaginary lines used to locate places on the Earth s surface and divide the Earth into halves called hemispheres MAPS Maps are flat drawings of all of part of the Earth s surface Maps can show small areas in great detail Maps can show political borders, populations densities and many other specific details Maps can be folded and easily carried in a pocket or in a car HOWEVER Maps cannot show true size, shape, distance and direction at the same time

4 HEMISPHERE - a half sphere used to refer to one-half of the globe when divided into NOrth and South or East and West Everything north of the Equator is in the NORTHERN Hemisphere. Everything south of the Equator is in the SOUTHERN Hemisphere. Everything east of the Prime Meridian is in the EASTERN Hemisphere Everything west of the Prime Meridian is in the WESTERN hemisphere

5 Latitude & Longitude Latitude - imaginary lines that circle the Earth parallel to the Equator Longitude - imaginary lines that circle the Earth from Pole to Pole measuring distance east or west of the Prime Meridian Latitude and Longitude lines cross one another forming a pattern called a grid system The grid system makes it possible to find the ABSOLUTE LOCATION of a place. This is the exact spot where the lines cross. An Absolute Location is written in degrees and minutes The Equator is at 0 degrees latitude The North Pole is at latitude 90 degrees North The Prime Meridian is located at 0 degrees longitude

6 Map Projection - a way of showing the round Earth on a flat map Distort - to twist out of shape or change the size of PROGRESS CHECK QUESTION Mapmakers have found ways of using map projections to show the Earth s spherical surface on a flat sheet of paper. Each kind of map projection shows the Earth s surface in a slightly different way Maps can EITHER show the correct shapes of places OR the correct sizes. Mapmakers use different types of map projections depending on the goal of the map What are an advantage and a disadvantage to using a map rather than a globe to study the Earth s geography?

7 Six Essential Elements of Geography How do geographers use the 6 Essential Elements of Geography? The World in Spatial Terms Places & Regions Geographers first take a look at where a place is located. Location is a useful starting point to develop an awareness of the world around you Describes what a place is like including physical & human characteristics. Geographers group places into Regions that are united by common characteristics Physical Systems How things such as hurricanes, volcanoes and glaciers shape the Earth s surface and how plants and animals depend on one another for survival

8 Six Essential Elements of Geography How do geographers use the 6 Essential Elements of Geography? Human Systems Environment & Society The Uses of Geography How people have shaped our world. How borders are decided Why people settle in certain areas How the relationship between people and their natural surroundings influence the way we live - how people use the environment and how their actions affect the environment Helps us understand the relationships among people, places and environments PROGRESS CHECK QUESTION Which Essential Elements of Geography might be involved in the study of an area s landforms and how they affect people living there?

9 Five Themes of Geography 1. Location 2. Place 3. Human-Environment Interaction 4. Movement 5. Regions

10 Types of Maps Maps are often collected into one book called an ATLAS PROGRESS CHECK QUESTION Why is reading the map key Important when looking at a special-purpose map? Physical Map Political Map Special - Purpose Map Scale Cardinal Directions Symbol A map that shows land and water features; may show elevation A map that shows the names and borders of countries; they also may show the location of cities and other human-made features of a place and physical features of a land area A map that shows themes or patterns such as climate, natural resources or population. A road map is another example of a special-purpose map A measuring line that shows the distances on a map North, south, east and west A sign or image that stands for something else

11 Using Charts, Graphs, & Diagrams Charts, graphs & diagrams are tools for showing information The title will tell you the subject Charts show facts in an organized way in rows and columns Labels explain what the chart is showing There are different types of graphs: bar graphs with wide thick lines to compare data line graphs show changes over a particular period of time climate graph shows the long-term weather patterns in a place Pie graphs are circular graphs that show who the whole is divided into parts

12 Using Charts, Graphs, & Diagrams Diagrams are special drawings that show steps in a process, or point out parts of an object or explain how something works

13 Population & Culture Historians study population, culture and the movement of people, ideas and goods and how these things change over time Population refers to how many people live in a specific area or place Geographers study how fast a population grows or shrinks over time and measure the population density (average number of people living in an area) Choropleth A special-purpose map that uses color to show population density Migration Culture The movement of people from one place to settle in another place The set of beliefs, behaviors and traits shared by a group of people

14 Study of Cultures The study of culture looks at: Language Religion Government Customs of different groups Cultural Diffusion - each group shares part of its culture with the other and sometimes completely new cultures are formed PROGRESS CHECK QUESTION Why are geographers interested in contact between cultures?

15 Assignments & Homework Complete Lesson 1 Review on page 37 # 1-7 (Write Q&A in binder) HW - Vocabulary Builder Activity HW - Previous Quiz Corrections -- Write correct answers and the REASON why the answer is correct for each incorrect question

16 Lesson 2 - Exploring Economics Why do people trade? Most people in our society buy or sell goods and services every day. Trade has also shaped the course of history in major ways 3 Key Questions to Ask About Any Economy 1. What goods and services should we offer 2. How should we create and distribute the goods and services? 3. Who will use these goods and services

17 Resources & Production...and TECHNOLOGY - which is using knowledge in a practical way to accomplish a task. Technology can make it easier and cheaper to create goods In order to make goods and offer services, people need RESOURCES. There are 4 major kinds of resources Land Labor Capital Surface of the Earth and its natural resources The ability of people to do work Money and goods used to help people make or do things - you need capital to run a business Entrepreneurship The act of running a business and taking on the risks of that business

18 Importance of Resources & Production Good land and freshwater were very important to farmers Early rulers needed many workers for large projects Rulers gathered the capital they needed by collecting taxes Merchants showed entrepreneurship by trading goods and earning a profit in the value of what they owned

19 Supply & Demand Supply Demand The amount of a good or service that a producer wants to sell The amount of something that a consumer wants to buy Law of Supply says that the higher the price you can charge for a good or service, the more of it you will want to sell Law of Demand says that the lower the price of a good or service, the more of it people will want to buy

20 Supply & Demand There are other things that affect supply and demand. Scarcity The lack of a resource - when not much of a needed resource is available - the demand will grow - the higher the demand - the higher the price Opportunity Cost What is given up, such as time or money, to make or buy something

21 Example of Opportunity Cost A farmer has to decide to grow EITHER wheat or beans in his fields -- he cannot grow both together in the fields. The farmer decides to grow wheat. He spends his time and resources to grow the wheat. While he is growing the wheat he is giving up the opportunity to make a profit from beans. This is the OPPORTUNITY COST. People are always weighing the opportunity costs of their choices about what to make or buy

22 Managing & Measuring Economies Today - Cuba & North Korea have this type of economy There are two (2) main types of economic systems used in societies: Traditional Economy Command Economy Based on custom Members of a family or tribe make goods for the rest of the group to meet everyone s needs. (Hunter-gatherer groups had this type of economy) A central government decides what types of goods will be made and who receives them (Ancient Egypt & Mesopotamia had this type of economy)

23 Market & Mixed Economies In a Market Economy, each person or individual makes choices about what to make, sell and buy. They sell the goods and services in an open market. The United States has a MARKET ECONOMY In a Mixed Economy, the government has some control over what and how much is made. Individuals make the rest of the economic choices. Some countries in Europe are Mixed Economies.

24 Measuring Economies Economies grow and shrink over time. Recession - a period of slow economic growth or decline (when the economy shrinks). Companies often close and people lose their jobs. Inflation - A continued rise in prices or the supply of money. Governments watch prices to see a sign of rising prices to signal a period of inflation. High inflation means that money buys less and raises the cost of living. Governments want to avoid having too much inflation

25 Trade in World History Two countries can trade with one another to benefit both countries in the exchange. Exports - a good sent from one country to another in trade. Countries want to export goods in which they have a large supply. Imports - a good brought into a country from another country. Countries want to import goods that are hard to find in their own land. For Example: In Ancient years, Europeans traded wool, gold and silver with Asians for rare goods such as silk and spices

26 Bartering Bartering - to trade by exchanging one good or service for another. Early civilizations often traded by bartering. For Example: A merchant might trade fish for furs. Eventually, ancient peoples invented money with a set value and could be traded for anything and was easier to carry

27 Barriers to Trade Conflict between countries can stop trade Geography can make it hard to travel between two places A country may choose to cut off contact with other people to limit the influence on their society and culture Nations may try to limit or ban trade that hurts producers in their own country

28 Global Trade Globalization - the growth in free trade between countries Countries like the US have numerous trade partners The goal of free trade is a world market where people are free to choose what to buy and sell Pros - it boosts trade and cuts the prices of goods and helps economies to grow Cons - It makes imports and foreign labor costs too cheap and fears that a country will lose companies and jobs to other countries

29 Assignment Lesson 2 Review Questions 1-6 on page 43 (Write Q & A in binder)

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