# If you're told the reaction is in basic solution: Exam 3 moved to Wednesday. More of Ch 18 today. Add OH to both sides to cancel H +

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1 Announcements Monday, May 03, 2010 Exam 3 moved to Wednesday. Balancing in basic solution 5. If you're told the reaction is in basic solution: More of Ch 18 today. Answer keys for Quiz 3 and the titration worksheet are posted. Please practice with them both. When to do what in titration curve problems: Start and equivalence point: One substance present Calculate its concentration and use ICE a. b. Add OH to both sides to cancel H + Combine H + + OH H 2 O Between start and equivalence point Conjugate acid/base pair present Use StAN to calculate moles of each Use H-H equation to calculate ph c. Cancel excess H 2 O After equivalence point Excess added substance present Use StAN to calculate moles excess Calc concentration and ph ch18b Page 1 ch18b Page 2

2 Practice balancing MnO 4 + SO 3 2 MnO 2 + SO 4 2 in acidic, and basic solns Voltaic cells Electrochemical cellsinvolve the use of electrical energy in the transfer of electrons between substances Voltaic cells(galvanic cells) contain a spontaneous reaction that produces electrical energy (like a battery) Electrolytic cellsuse electrical energy to drive a nonspontaneous reaction Most cells have two electrodes(conductive metal strips) in an electrolyte solution (soluble ionic compound) One half-reaction takes place at each electrode: 1. Anode: electrode where oxidation occurs (electrons are lostfrom the cell at the anode) 2. Cathode: electrode where reduction occurs (electrons enter the cell at the cathode) Zn(s) + Cu 2+ (aq) Zn 2+ (aq) + Cu(s) Oxidation half-reaction: Reduction half-reaction: ch18b Page 3 ch18b Page 4

3 Voltaic cells Reduction potentials Electrical current: rate of electron flow (amperes, A) related to stoichiometry of redox reactions -not covered in this course The anode is the electrode of the oxidation half-rxn The cathode is the electrode of the reduction half-rxn Salt bridge: completes circuit by keeping charges constant in each container Active electrode: metal is part of redox reaction Inactive electrode: metal conducts electricity but does not participate in redox reaction (graphite or Pt) Cell notation: shows two half reactions with phases separated by and half reactions separated by Electrical potential difference: the driving force for flow of electrons (volts, V) 1 V = 1 J/C (coulomb: unit of electrical charge) An energetic term, directly related to spontaneity and free energy Cell potential(e cell ): potential (in V) between two electrodes E cell > 0 for a spontaneous process Standard reduction potential(e ) potential for a reduction, relative to the standard hydrogen electrode 2 H + (aq) + 2 e H 2 (g) E red = 0.00 V (by definition) Reductions more spontaneous than this are positive, reductions less spontaneous than this are negative. ch18b Page 5 ch18b Page 6

4 Standard reduction potentials Calculating standard cell potentials For the zinc-copper cell, Zn(s) Zn 2+ (aq) + 2 e E Cu 2+ (aq) + 2e Cu(s) E E cell = From the table of reduction potentials: Cu 2+ (aq) + 2e Cu(s) E red = 0.34 V Zn 2+ (aq) + 2 e Zn(s) E red = 0.76 V Simply add the oxidation potential and the reduction potential. Don't forget to switch the sign of the oxidation. Since cell potentials are intensiveproperties, you only need to add the values -they do notdepend on number of electrons or any coefficients. Write the balanced equation and calculate the standard cell potential (E cell ) for Cr(s) Cr 3+ (aq) Cl 2 (g) Cl (aq). ch18b Page 7 ch18b Page 8

5 Predicting the direction of spontaneous change Cu 2+ (aq) + 2e Cu(s) E red = 0.34 V 2 H + (aq) + 2 e H 2 (g) E red = 0.00 V Zn 2+ (aq) + 2 e Zn(s) E red = 0.76 V Which of the reactions above has the strongest tendency to occur in the forward direction as written? That is the most favorable reaction. So, is the strongest agent. The reaction with the weakesttendency to occur as written is the most favorable reaction. So, is the strongest agent. What is the spontaneous reaction that will occur when a cell is constructed from Cd(s), Cd 2+ (aq), Pb(s), and Pb 2+ (aq) ch18b Page 9

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