2 Product Manual for ACCLAIM Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 Page 1 of 17 Product Manual for ACCLAIM Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 Column 5µm, 4.6 x 250mm, P/N µm, 4.6 x 150mm, P/N µm, 2.1 x 150mm, P/N µm, 3.0 x 150mm, P/N µm, 3.0 x 50mm, P/N µm, 2.1 x 150mm, P/N ACCLAIM Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 Guard 4.3 x 10mm (set of 2), P/N x 10mm (set of 2), P/N x 10mm (set of 2), P/N x 10mm (set of 2), P/N Dionex Corporation Document No Revision 02 July 2009
3 Product Manual for ACCLAIM Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 Page 2 of 17 TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 1 Introduction Specifications and Recommended Operating Conditions Physical Acclaim Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 Products...4 SECTION 2 INSTALLATION: Step-by-Step User Guide... 5 SECTION 3 Considerations in Method Development HILIC Mode vs. Reversed-Phase Mode Selection of Organic Solvents Buffer Types Mobile Phase ph Isocratic or Gradient Method...7 SECTION 4 Column Care Column storage Operating ph range: ph 2.5 to Operating temperature limit: 50 ºC Pressure limit < 4000 psi Flow rate Column washing procedure...8 SECTION 5 Frequent Asked Questions... 9 SECTION 6 Applications Dual Operation Modes: Reversed-phase and HILIC Analysis of Urea Complementary Selectivity: Reversed-phase and HILIC Dependency of Retention on Mobile Phase Organic Content: Comparison between the Acclaim HILIC and LiChrosorb Diol Analysis of NEODOL Analysis of Alkylphenol Ethoxylate Separation of Polyethylene Glycols...16 SECTION 7 Troubleshooting Guide High Backpressure Finding the Source of High System Pressure Contaminated guard or analytical column High Background or noise Preparation of Mobile Phases Poor Peak Resolution Loss of column Efficiency...17
4 Product Manual for ACCLAIM Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 Page 3 of 17 SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION The Acclaim Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 column is a silica-based packing material that incorporates both Reversed-Phase (RP) and Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography (HILIC) properties. Unlike either traditional RP or HILIC stationary phases, the packing features an alkyl long chain with a hydrophilic polar terminus, and demonstrates great potentials for separating a wide range of both highly polar and non-polar molecules, in either RP mode or HILIC mode. The Acclaim Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 columns consist of 5-µm or 3-µm high-purity, porous, spherical silica particles with 120Å diameter pores bonded with proprietary functional groups, which provide unsurpassed resolution and peak symmetry for a variety of polar and non-polar molecules. The main features of the Acclaim HILIC-1 column include 1. Operates in both reversed-phase and normal phase modes. 2. Retains highly polar molecules that would be un-retained by reversed-phase chromatography. 3. Unique selectivity, complementary to reversed-phase columns. 4. Higher hydrophobic retention compared to the conventional Diol columns. 5. Broader application range than conventional Diol columns Specifications and Recommended Operating Conditions Shipping Solution Storage Solution: Buffer ph Range: ph Temperature Range < 50 C 60 / 40 Acetonitrile / 100mM Ammonium Acetate 60 / 40 Acetonitrile / 100mM Ammonium Acetate or HILIC mobile phase Stationary Phase Particle size Column Dimensions P/N Max Recommended Pressure Typical Flow Rate Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 3 µm 5 µm 2.1x150 mm psi ml/min 3.0x50 mm psi ml/min 3.0x150 mm psi ml/min 2.1x150 mm psi ml/min 4.6x150 mm psi ml/min 4.6x250 mm psi ml/min
5 Product Manual for ACCLAIM Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 Page 4 of Physical Bonding Chemistry: Proprietary alkyl diol Silica Substrate: Spherical, high-purity Particle size 5 µm and 3µm Surface area 300 m2/g Pore size 120 Å 1.3. Acclaim Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 Products Acclaim Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 Analytical Particle size 3 µm 5 µm Guard 5µm Column P/N Dimensions 2.1x150 mm x50 mm x150 mm x150 mm x150 mm x250 mm x 10mm Requires Holder p/n x 10mm Requires Holder V-2 p/n x 10mm Requires Holder V-2 p/n x 10mm Requires Holder V-2 p/n
6 Product Manual for ACCLAIM Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 Page 5 of 17 SECTION 2 INSTALLATION: STEP-BY-STEP USER GUIDE Step 1 - Validating column performance Dionex recommends that you perform an efficiency test on your Acclaim Mixed-Mode HILIC column before use. The purpose of column performance validation is to ensure no damage has occurred during shipping. Test the column using the conditions described on the Quality Assurance (QA) Report enclosed in the column box. Repeat the test periodically to track the column performance over time. Note that slight variations may be obtained on tow different HPLC systems due to system electronic, plumbing, operating environment, reagent quality, column conditioning, and operator technique. Step 2 - Mobile phase preparation Obtaining reliable, consistent and accurate results require mobile phases that are free of ionic and spectrophotometric impurities. Chemicals, solvents and de-ionized water used to prepare mobile phase should be of the highest purity available. Maintaining low trace impurities and low particle levels in mobile phases helps to protect your columns and system components. DIONEX cannot guarantee proper column performance when the quality of the chemicals, solvents and water used to prepare the mobile phase has been compromised. De-ionized Water The de-ionized water used to prepare the mobile phase should be Type 1 Reagent Grade Water, or HPLC Grade Water. The de-ionized water should be free of ionized impurities, organics, microorganisms and particulate matter larger than 0.2 µm. Many commercial water purifiers are designed for HPLC applications and are suitable for these applications.! NOTE Degas the aqueous component of the mobile phase and then add the solvent component. Avoid excessive purging or degassing of mobile phases containing solvents, if possible, since the volatile solvent can be 'boiled' off from the solution. Solvents The solvents used must be free from ionic and UV-absorbing impurities. Use of ultrahigh purity solvents, HPLC grade, will usually ensure that your chromatography is not affected by impurities in the solvent. Depending on specific application, the mobile phase system consists of an organic modifier (e.g. acetonitrile or methanol) and an aqueous portion (e.g. D.I. water, or ammonium acetate or phosphate buffer). Both pre-mixed and proportioning valve generated mobile phases give satisfactory results. The use of proportioning valve provides better flexibility in method optimization, while the pre-mixed mobile phase provides more reproducible results. Mobile Phase for Column Performance Test: Pre-mixed mobile phase: mix 400 g of D.I. water and 468 g of acetonitrile. Proportioning valve generated: set up the gradient pump as 40/60 v/v D.I. water/ acetonitrile.! These two mobile phases could give slightly different results due to the ways they are prepared. NOTE Step 3 - Set up the LC system Use a standard LC system equipped with a LC pump, a column oven, a UV detector, and an injector (or an autosampler). The system should be thoroughly primed before use.
7 Product Manual for ACCLAIM Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 Page 6 of 17 Step 4 - Condition the column Each new column is shipped in the mobile phase used for the column performance test. Depending on different separation modes, the column should be conditioned differently. For HILIC mode (>70% acetonitrile in the mobile phase) applications, the column should be purged with 50% acetonitrile in D.I. water (v/v) for approximately 10 column volumes, followed by equilibration with the desirable mobile phase thoroughly (~20 to 50 column volumes depending on the aqueous content in the mobile phase) before any injection is made. For RP mode (<70% acetonitrile in the mobile phase) applications, the column should be purged with 50% acetonitrile in D.I. water (v/v) for approximately 10 column volumes, followed by equilibration with the desirable mobile phase thoroughly (~20 column volumes) before any injection is made. When switching to a different mobile phase, make sure that the new mobile phase is compatible with the existing mobile phase in the column to avoid column clogging due to precipitation. A good practice is to purge the column with 50% acetonitrile in D.I. water (v/v) for approximately 10 column volumes before switching to the new mobile phase. Step 5 - Reproduce the chromatogram in the Lot Validation Report Perform the column QA test using the conditions described in the QAR (Appendix), and compare the result with the reported values. The column should be fully equilibrated before any injection. At least three injections should be made until reproducible result is obtained.! Due to various reasons, such as difference of LC systems, mobile phases, oven temperature control, etc, you may observe somewhat different separation from that in the report. NOTE Once you are satisfied with the column performance report result, the column is ready for real applications.
8 Product Manual for ACCLAIM Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 Page 7 of 17 SECTION 3 CONSIDERATIONS IN METHOD DEVELOPMENT 3.1. HILIC Mode vs. Reversed-Phase Mode The selection of separation mode depends on the type of the analyte molecules and requirement of the specific application. In general, if a highly polar molecule is the analyte of interest, HILIC mode (high organic in the mobile phase) should be considered. In addition, HILIC mode can be used to determine the degree of ethoxylation (EO) of a nonionic surfactant. For other applications, RP separation may be considered. However, it is recommended that a conventional RP column (C18, C8, or polar-embedded phase) be tried first for regular RP applications. The Acclaim HILIC column has lower hydrophobicity than C8 columns but much higher hydrophobic retention than conventional Diol columns because of its unique surface chemistry, so that selectivity different from RP columns is possible Selection of Organic Solvents For HILIC applications, acetonitrile is preferred as the organic modifier. For RP applications, both acetonitrile and methanol can be used depending on the application. In addition, this column is compatible with traditional normal-phase solvent, such as ethanol, iso-propanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, heptane, etc Buffer Types The selection of buffer depends on the detection method and ph requirement. Ammonium acetate (or formate) buffer is the preferred buffer system because of its applicability to both RP and HILIC separation modes, compatibility with UV (> 230 nm), ELS detector and MS, high solubility in organic solvent, familiarity to most chromatographers. Volatile organic acids, such as acetic acid, formic acid, and TFA, can also be used to control the mobile phase ph, and share the similar benefits of ammonium acetate (formate) buffer. Phosphate buffers are ideal for applications that require low UV background, and it usually provides somewhat better peak shapes for charged molecules, compared to acetate buffer. Although there is no problem in RP application (organic content < 70%), phosphate buffers tend to precipitate in high organic condition Mobile Phase ph Mobile phase ph needs to be controlled to adjust selectivity and obtain reproducible results of charged molecules Isocratic or Gradient Method Isocratic methods are suitable for simple and/or well-defined application. When dealing with unknown samples, or a sample consisting of molecules with dramatically different hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity, a gradient method is often advantageous.
9 Product Manual for ACCLAIM Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 Page 8 of 17 SECTION 4 COLUMN CARE 4.1. Column storage The column can be stored in the mobile phase for short period of time (e.g. overnight). If not in use for longer than one week, it is recommended to store the column in a solution with higher organic content, such as 70/30 v/v acetonitrile (or methanol)/ mm ammonium acetate or D.I. water at a ph between 3.5 and Operating ph range: ph 2.5 to 7.5 The column lifetime depends heavily on the chromatographic condition. To obtain better column lifetime, it is highly recommended to use "silica friendlily" mobile phases, such as a buffer at a ph between ph 3 to 7. Although compatible with 100% aqueous mobile phase, it is not recommended to use this column extensively in such condition. The mobile phase ph should be controlled between 3.5 and 6 if more than 80% buffer is present in the mobile phase. If used in HILIC conditions, the column can be used in ph 2 to 8 range Operating temperature limit: 50 ºC Although our experimental results indicate that the column can be used at 50 C, a lower operating temperature (20-40 C) is recommended for routine separations Pressure limit It is extremely important not to impose sudden column pressure surge. The maximum recommended pressures are listed in section 1.1, the use of lower operating pressures will extend column lifetime Flow rate The typical operating flow rates are listed in section 1.1, higher flow rate can be used for faster analysis as long as the pressure limit is not exceeded Column washing procedure All samples should be pre-treated and filtered before being injected on the column. In the event of column washing practice is needed, the following procedure can be used as a guideline: For a 4.6 mm i.d. column: 1. Wash the column with D.I water /acetonitrile v/v 50/50 for 10 column volumes at a flow rate between 0.5 to 1 ml/min. 2. Wash the column with 0.1 M ammonium acetate ph 4 to 5 /acetonitrile v/v 50/50 for 20 column volumes at a flow rate between 0.5 to 1 ml/min. 3. Wash the column with 0.1 M ammonium acetate ph 4 to 5 /acetonitrile v/v 10/90 for 20 column volumes at a flow rate between 0.5 to 1 ml/min. 4. Wash the column with 0.1 M ammonium acetate ph 4 to 5 /acetonitrile v/v 50/50 for 20 column volumes at a flow rate between 0.5 to 1 ml/min. 5. Before any injection is made, the column should be equilibrated with the mobile phase thoroughly.! For a 2.1 mm i.d. column, the flow rate should be reduced to 20% of that for 4.6 mm i.d column. NOTE! If above treatment fails to revive the column, the column should be replaced. NOTE
10 Product Manual for ACCLAIM Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 Page 9 of 17 SECTION 5 FREQUENT ASKED QUESTIONS 1. What is the difference between the Acclaim Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 column and conventional HILIC (Diol) column? The Acclaim HILIC-1 column is based on a new silica-based mixed-mode stationary phase that incorporates both RP and HILIC properties. Unlike either traditional RP or HILIC stationary phases, the new packing features an alkyl long chain with a hydrophilic polar terminus, and demonstrates broader applications for separating a wide range of both highly polar and nonpolar molecules, in either RP mode or HILIC mode (Figure 1). By comparison, conventional Diol columns have significantly decreased hydrophobicity (Figure 2), and have much narrower application range. 2. Why do I need an Acclaim Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 column? The Acclaim HILIC-1 column combines both RP and HILIC characteristics. It can be used in either HILIC conditions or RP conditions the same way as conventional Diol columns or RP columns, without special requirements. More importantly, the optimal balance between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic portions on the column surface leads to unique selectivity that neither conventional Diol columns nor RP columns can provide. 3. When do I need an Acclaim Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 column? You should consider using an Acclaim HILIC-1 column when 1) Regular RP (e.g. C18, C8, polar-embedded phase, etc) and HILIC (e.g. Diol, CN, amino, silica) columns fail to provide satisfactory results; 2) You are dealing with highly polar molecules, or very hydrophobic molecules; 3) You need orthogonal selectivity to complement the primary method; 4) You are analyzing ethoxylated surfactants (Figures 6-8). 4. What factors should I consider for method development using this column? During method development, the following factors should be considered: 1) Separation mode 2) Type of organic modifier 3) Aqueous content in the mobile phase 4) Mobile phase ph control 5) Temperature 5. What mobile phases should I use with this column? The new column is compatible with any mobile phases for HILIC or Normal-Phase separations provided that the ph requirement is met. The new column is compatible with any mobile phases for Revered-Phase separations provided that the ph requirement is met. However, for typical RP applications, a RP column (C18 or C8) should be tried first. Please refer to "Section 3 Considerations in Method Development" for more details. 6. What should I do before starting using Acclaim Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 column? Read this User Guide carefully, and contact Dionex Technical Support if you have any questions regarding using this column. 7. Can I use this column in normal-phase mode? Yes. The column is compatible with traditional normal-phase solvent, such as ethanol, iso-propanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, heptane, etc. 8. How to store the column? The column can be stored in the mobile phase for short period of time (e.g. overnight). If not in use for longer than one week, it is recommended to store the column in a solution with higher organic content, such as 70/30 v/v acetonitrile (or methanol)/ mm ammonium acetate or D.I. water at a ph between 3.5 and 5.5.
11 Product Manual for ACCLAIM Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 Page 10 of 17 SECTION 6 APPLICATIONS 6.1. Dual Operation Modes: Reversed-phase and HILIC 1 Reversed Phase Mode 2 AU 2 1 HILIC Mode Minutes Column: Acclaim Mixed-Mode HILIC-1, 5 µm Dimensions: 4.6 x 150 mm Mobile Phase: CH 3 CN/0.1 NH 4 OAc, ph5.2 v/v 52/48 for RP mode; v/v 92/8 for HILIC mode Temperature: 30 C Flow Rate: 1 ml/min Inj. Volume: 10 µl Detection: 254 nm Peaks: (100 ppm each) 1. Cytosine 2. Naphthalene
12 Product Manual for ACCLAIM Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 Page 11 of Analysis of Urea 95/5 v/v CH 3 CN/0.1 M NH 4 OAc, ph4.5 mv 97/3 v/v CH 3 CN/0.1 M NH 4 OAc, ph /2.5 v/v CH 3 CN/0.1 M NH 4 OAc, ph Minutes Column: Acclaim Mixed-Mode HILIC-1, 5 µm Dimensions: 4.6 x 150 mm Mobile Phase: See chromatograms for details Temperature: 30 C Flow Rate: 1 ml/min Inj. Volume: 10 µl Detection: Sedex 85 ELS detector (gain - 9, 50ºC) Sample: Urea (0.1% in 90% CH 3 CN)
14 Product Manual for ACCLAIM Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 Page 13 of Dependency of Retention on Mobile Phase Organic Content: Comparison between the Acclaim HILIC and LiChrosorb Diol Benzoic Acid Caffeine Toluene Retention (minutes) Retention (minutes) Retention (minutes) %CH 3 CN %CH 3 CN %CH 3 CN Column: Acclaim Mixed-Mode HILIC-1, LiChrosorb Diol, 5 μm Mobile Phase: CH 3 CN/0.1 NH 4 OAc, ph5.2 Flow Rate: 1 ml/min Detection: 254 nm Dimensions: 4.6 x 150 mm Temperature: 30 C Inj. Volume: 5 µl
15 Product Manual for ACCLAIM Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 Page 14 of Analysis of NEODOL Acclai m HILIC C12 C13 C14 C15 Acclaim 120 C8 C12 C13 C14 C R(OCH 2 CH 2 ) n OH R = C 12 to C 15 n ~ NEODOL Minutes Column: 5 µm Dimensions: 4.6 x 150 mm Mobile Phase: A - CH 3 CN, B - D.I. H 2 O Gradient: 30% to 80% A in 15 min,then hold for 5 min Temperature: 30 C Flow Rate: 1.5 ml/min Inj. Volume: 10 µl Detection: ELS Detector Sample: NEODOL (0.2%)
16 Product Manual for ACCLAIM Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 Page 15 of Analysis of Alkylphenol Ethoxylate Acclaim 120 C8 AU LiChrosorb Diol C 8 H 17 (OCH 2 CH 2 ) n OH Acclaim HILIC Minutes n~9 IGEPAL CA-630 Column: See chromatograms for details, 5 µm Dimensions: 4.6 x 150 mm Mobile Phase: 99/1 v/v CH 3 CN/0.1 M NH 4 OAc, ph5.2 Temperature: 30 C Flow Rate: 1.0 ml/min Inj. Volume: 10 µl Detection: 225 nm Sample: IGEPAL CA-630 (0.1%)
17 Product Manual for ACCLAIM Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 Page 16 of Separation of Polyethylene Glycols PEG-6000 mv PEG-3400 PEG-2000 PEG-400 PEG Minutes Column: Acclaim HILIC, 5 µm Dimensions: 4.6 x 150 mm Mobile Phase: A - MeOH, B - D.I. H 2 O Gradient: 20% to 95% A in 20 min Temperature: 30 C Flow Rate: 1 ml/min Inj. Volume: 25 µl Detection: ELSD Samples: Various PEGs (0.04% each)
18 Product Manual for ACCLAIM Mixed-Mode HILIC-1 Page 17 of 17 SECTION 7 TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE The following instruction should help you to locate and eliminate problems traceable to hardware and chemistry issues. Please keep in mind that some problems may be due to other reasons, such as sample contamination, poor water quality, etc. If you cannot solve your problems with the help of this manual, please contact you local Dionex customer support specialist High Backpressure Finding the Source of High System Pressure If the system pressure is excessively high, determine the cause of the high pressure. The system should be used with a highpressure in-line filter for mobile phases. The filter should be positioned between the gradient pump pressure transducer and the injection valve. Make sure you have a high-pressure in-line filter in place and that it is not contaminated. A. Make sure that the pump is set to the correct flow rate. Higher than recommended mobile phase flow rates will cause higher pressure. Measure the pump flow rate if necessary with a stop watch and graduated cylinder. B. Determine which part of the system is causing the high pressure. It could be a piece of tubing that has plugged, collapsed tubing walls from over tightening, an injection valve with a plugged port, a column with particulates plugging the bed support, a plugged High-pressure In-line filter, or detector cell. To identify which part of the chromatographic system is causing the problem, disconnect the pump fluid line from the injection valve and turn the pump on. Watch the pressure; it should not exceed 50psi (0.34MPa). Continue adding the system components back into the fluid path, one by one, while watching the system pressure Contaminated guard or analytical column If the column is the cause of the back pressure, replace the guard column High Background or noise Preparation of Mobile Phases A. Ensure the mobile phase is made correctly. B. Ensure the eluents are made from chemicals with the recommended purity Poor Peak Resolution Poor peak resolution can be due to any or all of the following factors Loss of column Efficiency A. Extra-column system effects can result in sample band dispersion, decreasing peak efficiencies. Make sure you are using tubing with an i.d. of no greater than 0.010" (0.007" for 2.1mm) to make all liquid line connections between the injection valve and the detector cell inlet on standard bore (4-mm) systems. Check for leaks. B. Guard column / column needs to be replaced.
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Guide to Choosing and Using Polymer Reversed Phase Columns! Choosing the best RP Column to use: Silica is normally used as the packing material for HPLC columns for a number of reasons. It is very strong,
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Page 1 of 13 CIPAC/4105/R GUIDELINES FOR THE DESIGN OF CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYTICAL METHODS INTENDED FOR CIPAC COLLABORATIVE STUDY Prepared for CIPAC by Dr M J Tandy*, P M Clarke and B White (UK) The rapid
Fast Separation of Vastly Different Compounds by Isocratic HPLC Aimee N. Heyrman and Yury Zelechonok Resolution Systems, Inc. 590 E. 32nd St. Holland. MI, 49423 SIELC Technologies, 15 E. Palatine Rd, Suite
FENITROTHION 35 H 3 CO P H 3 CO S O CH 3 NO 2 ISO common name Chemical name Fenitrothion O,O-Dimethyl O-4-nitro-m-tolyl phosphorothioate (IUPAC) O,O-Dimethyl O-(3-methyl-4-nitrophenyl)- phosphorothioate
Application Note 8 Determination of Trace Cations in Power Plant Waters Containing Morpholine INTRODUCTION Morpholine and ammonium are used as additives in power plant waters. Morpholine acts as a corrosion
Si Si Si Si Si Si Si C Si Si Si Si Si Gemini-NX Performance paired with Axia Technology Gemini -NX Axia Packed Technology Improves Yield, Throughput, and Column Lifetime Ideal Purification Platform While
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UPLC Method Development and Validation Rev. 2 2008 Waters Corporation Challenges of Method Development Methods are developed throughout the drug development process Samples vary in complexity Redundancy
Chemistry 3200 High Performance Liquid Chromatography: Quantitative Determination of Headache Tablets Liquid chromatography was developed by Tswett in early 1900 s and was shown to be a powerful separation
"Theory and Practice of High Speed Chromatography for Bioanalysis" Stuart Coleman March 20, 2007 General Observations about HPLC Separations A good separation is necessary for good bioanalytical quantitation.
WHO/IS/TC/715/2001 TECHNICAL TECHNICAL 1. Specification 1.1 Description Interim specification WHO/IS/TC/715/2001 The material shall consist of pyriproxyfen together with related manufacturing impurities.
MassHunter METLIN Metabolite PCD/PCDL Quick Start Guide What is the MassHunter METLIN Metabolite PCD/PCDL? 2 Where to find more information 2 Kit Content 3 Installation 5 Before you start 5 Install MassHunter
A C18 lica Column With Exceptional Temperature and ph Stability Brian A. Jones 1, Stephanie J. Marin 1, Jody Clark 1, Nathan L. Porter 1, J. Andreas Lippert 2, and Todd M. Johnson 2 1. Selerity Technologies,
Packed by Phenomenex High efficiency Guaranteed quality Phenomenex columns packed with 7 μm materials offer the advantages of lower cost as well as lower operating backpressures, which result in long column
Method Development in HPLC Dr. Amitha Hewavitharana School of Pharmacy University of Queensland Method Development in HPLC References: D A Skoog Principles of instrumental analysis, 3 rd Edition Chapters
HPLC COLUMNS Theory, Technology, and Practice Uwe D. Neue with a contribution from M. Zoubair El Fallah WILEY-VCH New York Chichester Weinheim Brisbane Singapore Toronto CONTENTS Preface ix 1 Introduction