# THE TRANSLATION PLANES OF ORDER 49 AND THEIR AUTOMORPHISM GROUPS

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1 MATHEMATICS OF COMPUTATION Volume 67, Number 223, July 1998, Pages S (98) THE TRANSLATION PLANES OF ORDER 49 AND THEIR AUTOMORPHISM GROUPS C. CHARNES AND U. DEMPWOLFF Abstract. Using isomorphism invariants, we enumerate the translation planes of order 49 and determine their automorphism groups. 1. Introduction We describe the enumeration of the translation planes of order 49 and the computation of their automorphism groups. We follow the same pattern of classification used by the second author in [10] to handle the translation planes of order 27, but we use slightly more refined methods. The classification of the translation planes of order 49 was also obtained previously by R. Mathon and G. Royle [15]. However, these authors use quite different methods. In particular our solution to the isomorphism problem, a significant component of any enumeration of projective planes of a fixed order, is entirely different. We systematically use isomorphism invariants to solve this problem. This permits a different search strategy than that used in [15], resulting in a significant reduction in the computational effort. As a consequence, the complete enumeration of isomorphism classes of the spread sets corresponding to the translation planes of order 49, can be repeated by anyone with standard computing resources. The isomorphism invariants we use originate from an invariant of general (finite) projective planes which was proposed by J. H. Conway and investigated by C. Charnes in [3]; see [4]. To distinguish the isomorphism classes of translation planes, we use the fingerprint, theleitzahl and Kennzahl, which are defined in [4] and [10], respectively. These invariants can be computed for the translation planes of order 49 without much overhead. Furthermore, our invariants can be used to determine the automorphism groups of the planes. Therefore, they are of independent interest, andwegivein 3 a self-contained description of the invariants and of our algorithm for generating the spread sets. We provide in 7 a detailed description of the automorphism groups of the translation planes of order 49. For each plane we give the following information: the order of the automorphism group; the order of the center; the order of the Fitting factor group; orders of the factors of the derived series; orders of the factors of the composition series; orders of the factors of the lower central series. Structural information of this kind is useful in the study of the geometrical properties of the planes and should suffice to identify each group. The orders of the groups were computed in two independent ways. First by U. Dempwolff, who determined the Received by the editor July 3, 1995 and, in revised form, April 23, Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary 51E15, 68R05, 05B c 1998 American Mathematical Society

2 1208 C. CHARNES AND U. DEMPWOLFF elements of GL 4 (7) which leave invariant each spread set. The group orders were computed from these generators with a program written by U. Dempwolff. Independently, GAP [16] routines were used to obtain the aforementioned data from the generating matrices. In [6] we announced the classification of the translation planes of order 49 whose automorphism groups contain involutory homologies. These planes were used as a check on the correctness of the complete enumeration each involutory homology plane had to occur in the final list of planes. Finally, the number of isomorphism classes of translation planes of order 49 we obtain, 973 up to polarity, agrees with the enumeration in [15]. In 5 we identify the involutory homology planes and some other planes which have appeared in the literature. 2. Definitions and notation We recall briefly the results and notation used in the enumeration of translation planes; details can be found in [10] and [13]. Let W = V V, V = GF (p n ), be a 2n-dimensional vector space over GF (p). A collection S = {V,V 0,...,V m }of mutually disjoint n-dimensional subspaces of W is called a partial spread. Ifm=p n 1, then S is a spread and describes a translation plane of order p n. By choosing a basis in W we can write V = {(0,v) v V}, V 0 = {(v, 0) v V } and V i = {(v, vt i ) v V }, wheret i G=GL n (p) and t 1 =1. WecallS={t 0,t 1,...,t m } a spread set with respect to the coordinate triple (, 0, 1). A basic property of spread sets is: ( ) det(t i t j ) 0for0 i<j m. Conversely, each set S G {0} satisfying ( ) defines a spread set. This description determines a spread set only up to conjugacy; see [10]. Replacing (V,V 0,V 1 )by some other triple (V i,v j,v k ) defines a spread set S ;thisisacoordinatization of S with respect to (i, j, k). The possible coordinatizations are obtained from each other by the successive application of the following operations: O 1 (x): S xsx 1 (x G), O 2 (i): S t 1 i S (1 i m), O 3 : S S 1, O 4 : S 1 S. Definition 2.1. Two (partial) spread sets S 1,S 2 are said to be equivalent if and only if S 1 can be obtained from S 2 by a successive application of operations O 1 (x),...,o 4. The problem of enumerating the isomorphism classes of translation planes of order p n reduces to the problem of determining a set of representatives of the equivalence classes induced by the above relation. These equivalence operations can also be used to determine the automorphisms of the translation planes. For suppose that t GL 2n (p) is an automorphism of S and that t maps (V,V 0,V 1 )to(v i,v j,v k ). To determine t amounts to finding a sequence of equivalence operations which take a spread set S (with respect to (, 0, 1)) onto a spread set S (with respect to (i, j, k)). To ease the computations, we also use the more crude weak equivalence, which is defined as:

3 TRANSLATION PLANES OF ORDER 49 AND THEIR AUTOMORPHISM GROUPS 1209 Definition 2.2. S is weakly equivalent to S if and only if S or S T is equivalent to S. 3. Invariants We describe some invariants of (weak) equivalence. They are a decisive tool for the practical computation of the equivalence classes of spread sets. Let {x 0 = 0,x 1,...,x m } be a spread set. Fingerprint [4], [10]. For x GF (p) n n set [x] =( det x p, the Legendre symbol, if det x 0and[x] = 0 otherwise. Define an (m +2) (m+ 2)-matrix Q =(q ij )by q ij = m [x i x k ][x j x k ]+1, 0 i, j m; k=0 q i = q i = m [x i x k ], 0 i m, q = m +1. k=0 Then the multiset of entries of Q = Q(S) is an invariant of equivalence. Fingerprints were used in [4] to determine the canonical forms of the ovoids which correspond (by the Klein correspondence) to translation planes of order p 2 ; see also [7]. The automorphism groups of translation planes can be determined in this way; see [4] and [5]. Leitzahl [6].For x GF (p) n n define x = 1 if det x =1and x =0 otherwise. Set l(s) = 0 i<j m m k i,j k=0 (x i x k )(x k x j ) 1. Then l(s) is invariant with respect to all equivalence operations except possibly O 3. Thus, if S 1 and S 2 are two coordinatizations of a spread set with respect to (a, b 1,c 1 )and(a, b 2,c 2 ), respectively, then l(s 1 )=l(s 2 ). Kennzahl [10].For x GF (p) n n define ((x)) = 1 if det x =0and((x)) = 0 otherwise. Set k(s) = ((x i + x j )). 1 i<j m Then k(s) is invariant with respect to all equivalence operations except possibly O 4. Thus, if S 1 and S 2 are two coordinatizations of a spread set with respect to (a 1,b 1,c 1 )and(a 2,b 2,c 2 ), respectively, then k(s 1 )=k(s 2 )if{a 1,b 1 }={a 2,b 2 }. Finally, we denote by c(s) the multiset of numbers S C, where Cranges over the conjugacy classes of G. Clearly, c(s) is a conjugacy invariant. Next, we give an algorithm which uses the above mentioned invariants to test the equivalence of two spread sets S, S.

4 1210 C. CHARNES AND U. DEMPWOLFF Algorithm Step 1: If Q(S) Q(S ), then stop. Otherwise: Step 2: For a {,0,...,m} compute one coordinatization S a with respect to (a,, ) (for an arbitrary admissible ). If always l(s a ) l(s ), then stop. Otherwise: Step 3: For b {,0,...,m}\{a} compute one coordinatization S ab with respect to (a, b, ). If always k(s ab ) k(s ), then repeat Step 2 with a := a + 1 if possible. If not, then stop. Otherwise: Step 4: For c {,0,...,m}\{a, b} compute a coordinatization S abc of S with respect to (a, b, c). If always c(s abc ) c(s ), then repeat Step 3 with b := b +1(or b:= b +2ifa:= b + 1) if possible. If not, then stop. Otherwise: Step 5: Attempt to find a x G such that xs abc x 1 = S. Stop. For more details regarding this algorithm see [10]. Precisely the same procedure (excluding Step 1), is used to determine the generators for the automorphism group of S (belonging to S). Again the details can be found in [10]. 4. The search and results The search for the representatives of the equivalence classes of spread sets of translation planes of order 49 routinely follows the search for the spread sets of the translation planes of order 27, described in [10]. In the order 49 case, we have used a similar classification of starter sets S = {t 0,t 1 =1,...,t m },where6 m 12. We choose t 2,...,t 6 which fixes a particular subspace of V,sayt i = ( 0 ). If k is the maximum number of scalar matrices in a coordinatization of S, we have to distinguish the six cases: k =1,...,6. In contrast to the search used by R. Mathon and G. Royle [15], we did not require a result like their Lemma 3.1. Instead we determined all completions in every case to gain extra control. (Distinguishing the isomorphism classes of completions is inexpensive with our methods.) Our final enumeration matches completely the enumeration described in [15]. There are precisely 973 representatives of spread sets up to weak equivalence. There are 374 spread sets which have the property that S is inequivalent to S T (i.e., represent pairs of mutually polar planes). Thus, there are 1347 representatives of spread sets up to equivalence. For each representative spread set we have computed a set of matrix generators elements of GL 4 (7), which leave the spread set invariant. From these generators we computed the data contained in Control. In such a large enumeration problem, it is important to first establish a control set. Therefore, we have independently determined the spread sets of the translation planes of order 49 which admit involutory homologies. There are precisely 154 such spread sets up to weak equivalence; see [6]. Heuristic reasons explained in [10] and [13] show that the identification of the 154 spread sets among the complete list of spread sets will provide a reasonable test of the correctness of the enumeration. 5. Identification of some known planes In this section we identify some planes of order 49 which have previously appeared in the literature with those occurring in our list. (For the notation see 7.) As in [10], we have checked our list of spread sets for possible symplectic spreads. It turns out that only the Desarguesian spread 9cu has this property.

5 TRANSLATION PLANES OF ORDER 49 AND THEIR AUTOMORPHISM GROUPS 1211 Planes with involutory homologies [6]: 0aa 0ab 0ac 0ad 0ae 0af 0ah 0ai 0ak 0am 0ao 0aq 0as 0av 0aw 0ax 0ay 0bb 0be 0bk 0bl 0br 0bs 0bx 0cc 0cg 0ch 0ck 0cl 0cm 0cs 0cz 0df 0dk 1ab 1ac 1af 1am 1an 1aq 1bd 1be 1bq 1br 1ck 1cm 1cs 1ct 1dl 1dm 2bt 2bu 2cv 2dc 2dd 3af 3an 3ao 3ap 3aq 3as 3db 3dp 4ad 4an 4bi 4bm 4cj 4db 4ds 5af 5an 5aw 5bq 5br 5bs 5bt 5cs 5cu 6am 6au 6cb 6ce 6cs 6dj 6dl 6dm 7ab 7am 7ao 7be 7bi 7bs 7bz 7cs 7cy 7dd 7df 7dp 7dq 7ds 8ag 8al 8as 8at 8bl 8ce 8ch 8co 8cw 8cx 8de 8dh 8dl 8dq 9aa 9aj 9ak 9at 9aw 9az 9bg 9bh 9bi 9bj 9bk 9bl 9bm 9bp 9bq 9br 9bt 9bv 9bw 9by 9bz 9ca 9cc 9cd 9ce 9cg 9ch 9cj 9ck 9cl 9cm 9cn 9co 9cp 9cq 9cr 9cs 9ct 9cu Heimbeck planes with quaternion group of homologies [11]: Name Name in [11] Order Orbits on l 9cq I df II ct III an IV af V ac VI ad VII ad VIII be IX cp X Heimbeck plane with a shear [12]: 8dl, 2016, Non-Desarguesian planes with nonsolvable group: Name Name in the literature Order Orbits on l 0ab Hall au Mason ba S 5 -Type [7] bn Mason cs S 5 -Type [7] (also Korchmaros) ct Mason-Ostrom

6 1212 C. CHARNES AND U. DEMPWOLFF Non-Desarguesian flag transitive planes [2]: Name Name in [2] Order Orbits on l 0an [L 1 ] [L 1], [L 1 ] [L 1] dr [L 3 ] [L 3 ] Planes as projections of 8-dimensional ovoids: Certain translation planes of order 49 arise (by the Klein correspondence) from 6-dimensional ovoids which are sections of ovoids in Ω + (8, 7). There are two ovoids in Ω + (8, 7) which are invariant under the Weyl groups W (D 7 ) [17], and W (E 7 ) [8]. These give 16 isomorphism classes of translation planes which are indexed by the orbits of W (D 7 )andw(e 7 ) acting on the isotropic vectors of Ω + (8, 7); see [8] and [3]. We identify these planes below. An entry in the ovoid column indicates that the plane corresponds to a section of the listed 8-dimensional ovoid. Name Ovoid Orbits on l Name Ovoid Orbits on l 0ad D 7 E ca D ae D 7 E aq D 7 D 7 D ag D 7 D 7 E cs D 7 D ak D bn D 7 D 7 E au E 7 E cn D 7 E ba D 7 D 7 E cq D 7 E be D 7 D 7 E cs D 7 E bl D ct D 7 E The structure of the automorphism groups To describe the structure of the automorphism groups of the 1347 translation planes of order 49, it suffices to consider only the 973 representatives up to polarity. Since a dual spread has the same abstract group in its contragradient representation, the two groups have the same orders. For each representative spread set we calculate the following: the order of the automorphism group; the order of the center; the order of the Fitting factor group; orders of the factors of the derived series; orders of the factors of a composition series; orders of the factors of the lower central series. We also indicate which spreads are self-polar (S isomorphic to S T ). This data was obtained with GAP [16] with the help of the generators obtained by U. Dempwolff. The GAP routines were prepared mechanically using AWK [1] from the generators to prevent errors from creeping in Non-Abelian composition factors. Tables I X, given in 7, show that the automorphism groups of the non-desarguesian planes of order 49 have only the following non-abelian composition factors: PSL 2 (5), PSL 2 (7) and PSL 2 (9). Here, PSL 2 (7) gives the Hall plane, see [9], while PSL 2 (9) is of a Mason type, see [7]. Planes with PSL 2 (5) relate to the ones we considered in [7]. By the automorphism group, we mean the subgroup of GL 4 (7) generated by the spread stabilizer and the kernel homologies.

7 TRANSLATION PLANES OF ORDER 49 AND THEIR AUTOMORPHISM GROUPS The tables We present the automorphism groups of the translation planes of order 49 as follows. The 973 groups are split into 10 tables: Table I X. The first 9 tables account for 900 groups, split into blocks of 100, the last table contains 73 groups. Each table contains the following information. The first five columns contain respectively: the name of the group a name with an asterisk indicates a polar pair; the order of group; the order of the center; the order of the derived subgroup; the order of the Fitting factor group. The last three columns contain respectively: orders of the factor groups of the composition series; orders of the factors of the derived subgroup series; orders of the factors of the lower central series. We omit a group from the tables if it is the group of central homologies (of order 6) and the corresponding plane is self-polar. For example, in Table I, 1at is omitted. (There are 246 such planes up to polarity.) In case that G = Z(G) has order 6 (example 1df ), we give no composition series and no derived series. If G = Z(G) has order greater than 6 (example 0as), we omit the derived series The spread sets. The complete list of spread sets of the translation planes of order 49 is available at the following ftp site: ftp:// planes Other information regarding these planes can also be found at this site. Table I. 0aa 0dv. 0aa [3, 2, 5, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [6, 5, 16, 2] [6] 0ab [2, 3, 2, 168, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 0ac [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 8, 16] [24, 4, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] 0ad [2, 3, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [12, 3, 16, 4] [12] 0ae [2, 3, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 3, 2] [24, 9, 4, 2] [24] 0af [2, 3, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [12, 3, 16, 4] [12] 0ag [3, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 3, 4, 2] [12] 0ah [2, 3, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 3, 4, 2] [12] 0ai [2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [24, 8] [24, 4, 2] 0aj [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3] [12, 4, 9] [12, 2, 2] 0ak [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 3, 2] [24, 4, 9] [24, 2, 2] 0al [2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 8] [12, 2, 2, 2] 0am [2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [48, 32] [48, 4, 4, 2] 0an [2, 3, 2, 2, 5, 5] [24, 25] [24] 0ao [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 8] [24, 4, 2] 0ap [2, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [12, 24] [12, 2, 2, 2] 0aq [2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [48, 4] [48, 2, 2] 0ar [2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 0as [2, 2, 3, 2] [] [24] 0at [2, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [12, 24] [12, 2, 2, 2] 0au [2, 360, 3, 2] [6] [6] 0av [2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 32] [24, 4, 4, 2] 0aw [2, 3, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 3, 4, 2] [12] 0ax [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 64] [24, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] 0ay [2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 16] [24, 2, 2, 2, 2] 0az [2, 3, 2, 2, 3] [12, 6] [12, 2] 0ba [2, 60, 2, 2, 3] [12] [12] 0bb [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3] [24, 4, 9] [24, 2, 2] 0bc [2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [24, 2] [24, 2] 0bd [2, 3, 2, 3, 2] [12, 6] [12, 2] 0be [3, 2, 3, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 9, 4, 2] [12] 0bf [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 0bg [2, 2, 3, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 24] [24, 2, 2, 2] 0bh [2, 3, 3, 2] [12, 3] [12] 0bi [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 0bj [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 2] [24, 2] 0bk [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 8] [24, 4, 2] 0bl [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 12, 4, 2] [12, 2, 2] 0bm [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 0bn [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 8] [24, 2, 2, 2] 0bo [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 0bp [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 0bq [3, 2, 2, 7, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 21, 4, 2] [12] 0br [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 0bs [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 0bt [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 0bu [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 0bv [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 0bw [2, 3, 2, 2, 3] [24, 3] [24] 0bx [2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 6, 4, 2] [12, 2] 0by [2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 0bz [2, 2, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 12] [24, 2, 2]

8 1214 C. CHARNES AND U. DEMPWOLFF Table I. (continued). 0ca [2,2,3, 2,2, 2,2, 3] [24, 24] [24, 2, 2, 2] 0cb [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 0cc [2, 3, 2, 2, 3] [24, 3] [24] 0cd [2, 2, 2, 3, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 0ce [3,2,2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 0cf [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 0cg [2, 2, 2, 3, 2] [24, 2] [24, 2] 0ch [2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [24, 2] [24, 2] 0ci [2, 2, 2, 3, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 0cj [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 0ck [2, 2, 3, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 3, 4, 2] [24] 0cl [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 0cm [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 8] [24, 4, 2] 0cn [3,2,2, 2,3] [12, 6] [12, 2] 0co [2,2,3, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 0cp [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 0cq [2,3,2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 0cr [2,3,2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 0cs [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 0ct [3,2,3, 2,2, 3] [12, 18] [12, 2] 0cu [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 0cv [3,2,2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 0cw [2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 0cx [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 0cy [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 7] [12, 28] [12, 2, 2] 0cz [2,2,2, 3,2, 2,2, 2] [48, 8] [48, 2, 2, 2] 0da [2,2,3, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 0db [2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 0dc [2,2,3, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 0dd [3, 2, 2, 2] [] [24] 0de [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 0df [2, 3, 2, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [12, 9, 16, 4] [12] 0dg [3, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 12] [12, 2, 2] 0dh [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 0di [2,3,2, 2,3] [12, 6] [12, 2] 0dj [2, 3, 2, 2] [] [24] 0dk [2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [24, 8] [24, 4, 2] 0dl [2,3,2, 2,3, 2] [6, 3, 4, 2] [6] 0dm [2, 2, 3, 2] [] [24] 0dn [2,2,3, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 0do [2,3,2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 0dp [2,3,2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 0dq [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 0dr [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 0dt [2,2,2, 2,3, 3,2, 2] [24, 24] [24, 2, 2, 2] 0du [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 0dv [2,3,2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2]

9 TRANSLATION PLANES OF ORDER 49 AND THEIR AUTOMORPHISM GROUPS 1215 Table II. 1aa 1dv. 1aa [2,2, 3,2, 2,3,3] [12, 4, 9] [12, 2, 2] 1ab [2, 3, 2, 2] [] [24] 1ac [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 1ad [2, 2, 3, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 1ae [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 1af [2,2, 2,3, 2,2,2, 2,2] [24, 32] [24, 4, 4, 2] 1ag [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 1ah [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 1ai [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 1aj [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 1ak [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 1al [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 1am [2, 3, 2, 2, 3] [24, 3] [24] 1an [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 1ao [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 1ap [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 1aq [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 6, 4, 2] [24, 2] 1ar [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 1as [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 1av [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 1aw [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 1ax [3,2, 2,3, 3] [12, 9] [12] 1ay [2, 3, 3, 2, 2] [12, 6] [12, 2] 1az [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 1ba [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 1bb [2, 3, 2, 2] [] [24] 1bc [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 1bd [2, 2, 3, 2] [] [24] 1be [2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 8, 8] [24, 4, 2, 2, 2, 2] 1bf [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 1bg [3,2, 3,2, 2,2] [6, 3, 4, 2] [6] 1bi [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 1bj [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 1bk [2, 2, 3, 2] [] [24] 1bl [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 1bn [2, 2, 2, 3, 2] [24, 2] [24, 2] 1bo [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 1bp [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 1bq [2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [24, 2] [24, 2] 1br [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [48, 4] [48, 2, 2] 1bs [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 1bt [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 1bu [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 1bv [2, 2, 3, 2] [] [24] 1bw [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [12, 8] [12, 2, 2, 2] 1bx [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 1bz [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 1ca [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 1cb [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 1cc [3, 2, 2, 2] [] [24] 1cd [2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 8] [12, 2, 2, 2] 1ce [2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [24, 2] [24, 2] 1cf [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 1cg [2, 2, 3, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 1ch [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 1ci [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 1cj [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 1ck [3, 2, 2, 2] [] [24] 1cl [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 1cm [2,3, 2,2, 2,2,2] [24, 8] [24, 2, 2, 2] 1cn [3, 2, 2, 3] [12, 3] [12] 1co [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 1cp [2, 2, 3, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 1cq [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 1cr [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 1cs [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 1ct [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 1cu [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 1cv [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 1cw [2, 2, 3, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 1cx [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 1cy [2,3, 2,2, 3,3] [24, 9] [24] 1cz [3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 1da [3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 1db [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 1dc [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 1dd [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 1de [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 1df [] [] [6] 1dg [3, 2, 2, 3] [12, 3] [12] 1dh [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 1di [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 1dj [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 1dk [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 1dl [3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 1dm [2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 128] [24, 4, 4, 4, 2] 1dn [2, 2, 3, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 1dp [3,2, 3,3, 2] [12, 9] [12] 1dq [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 1dr [3,2, 2,2, 5,5] [24, 25] [24] 1ds [3, 2, 2, 3] [12, 3] [12] 1dt [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 1du [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 1dv [2, 3, 2] [] [12]

10 1216 C. CHARNES AND U. DEMPWOLFF Table III. 2aa 2dv. 2aa [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 2ab [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 2ad [] [] [6] 2ae [3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 2af [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 2ag [2, 2, 3, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 2ah [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 2ai [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 2ak [2, 2, 3, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 2al [] [] [6] 2an [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 2ao [] [] [6] 2ap [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 8] [24, 2, 2, 2] 2aq [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 2ar [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 2as [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 2at [] [] [6] 2au [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 2av [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 2aw [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 2ax [] [] [6] 2ay [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 2az [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 2ba [2, 2, 3, 2] [] [24] 2bb [] [] [6] 2bc [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 2bd [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 2be [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 2bg [2, 2, 2, 3, 2] [24, 2] [24, 2] 2bh [] [] [6] 2bi [2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 2bj [] [] [6] 2bk [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 2bl [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 2bm [2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [24, 2] [24, 2] 2bn [3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 2bq [3, 2, 2, 3] [12, 3] [12] 2br [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 2bs [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 2bt [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3] [24, 6] [24, 2] 2bu [2, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 6] [24, 2] 2bv [2, 3, 2, 2] [] [24] 2bw [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 2bx [3, 2, 2, 2] [] [24] 2by [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 2bz [] [] [6] 2ca [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 2cb [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 2cd [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 2ce [2, 3, 2, 2] [] [24] 2cf [] [] [6] 2cg [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 2ch [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 2ci [3, 2, 2, 2] [] [24] 2cj [3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 2ck [3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 2cl [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 2cm [] [] [6] 2cn [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 2co [2, 2, 3, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 2cp [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 2cq [3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 2cr [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 2cs [] [] [6] 2ct [] [] [6] 2cu [2, 2, 3, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 2cv [2, 2, 3, 2] [] [24] 2cy [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [12, 8] [12, 2, 2, 2] 2cz [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 2da [3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 2db [] [] [6] 2dc [2, 3, 2, 3, 2, 2] [24, 6] [24, 2] 2dd [2, 3, 2, 2] [] [24] 2de [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 2df [] [] [6] 2dg [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 2dh [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 2di [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 2dj [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 2dk [3, 2, 2, 2] [] [24] 2dl [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 2dm [3, 2, 2, 3] [12, 3] [12] 2dn [3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 2do [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 2dq [] [] [6] 2dr [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 2ds [2, 2, 2, 3, 2] [24, 2] [24, 2] 2dt [] [] [6] 2du [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 2dv [2, 3, 2] [] [12]

11 TRANSLATION PLANES OF ORDER 49 AND THEIR AUTOMORPHISM GROUPS 1217 Table IV. 3aa 3dv. 3aa [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3ab [3,2, 2,3, 2,2,2] [12, 3, 4, 2] [12] 3ac [2,2, 3,2, 2,2,2] [24, 8] [24, 2, 2, 2] 3ad [3,2, 3,2, 2,2] [6, 3, 4, 2] [6] 3ae [] [] [6] 3af [2, 2, 3, 2] [] [24] 3ag [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 3ai [2, 2, 3, 2] [] [24] 3aj [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 3ak [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3al [] [] [6] 3an [2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 24, 16] [24, 4, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] 3ao [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3] [24, 12] [24, 2, 2] 3ap [2, 3, 2, 2] [] [24] 3aq [2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [24, 2] [24, 2] 3ar [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 3as [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 8] [24, 4, 2] 3at [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 3av [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3aw [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3ax [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3ay [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3az [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3ba [] [] [6] 3bb [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 3bc [] [] [6] 3bd [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 3be [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 3bg [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3bh [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3bi [] [] [6] 3bk [] [] [6] 3bn [3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 3bo [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 3bq [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3br [] [] [6] 3bt [] [] [6] 3bu [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 3bv [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3bw [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3bx [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3by [] [] [6] 3cb [] [] [6] 3cc [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 3cd [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3cf [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3cg [] [] [6] 3ch [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3ci [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 3cj [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 3ck [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3cm [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 3cn [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 3co [2, 3, 2, 2] [] [24] 3cr [3, 2, 2, 3] [12, 3] [12] 3cs [] [] [6] 3ct [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 3cu [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 3cv [] [] [6] 3cw [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3cx [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 3cy [] [] [6] 3cz [] [] [6] 3da [] [] [6] 3db [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 3dc [] [] [6] 3dd [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 3de [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3df [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3dh [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3di [] [] [6] 3dk [] [] [6] 3dl [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3dm [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 3dn [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 3do [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 3dp [2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [24, 2] [24, 2] 3dq [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 3dr [3, 2, 2, 2] [] [24] 3ds [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3dt [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 3du [3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 3dv [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2]

12 1218 C. CHARNES AND U. DEMPWOLFF Table V. 4aa 4dv. 4ab [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 4ac [3, 2, 2, 2] [] [24] 4ad [2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 8, 4] [24, 4, 2, 2, 2] 4af [] [] [6] 4ag [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 4ah [3, 2, 2, 3] [12, 3] [12] 4ai [] [] [6] 4ak [] [] [6] 4al [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4am [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4an [3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 2] [24, 2] 4ap [] [] [6] 4aq [] [] [6] 4ar [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 4as [] [] [6] 4at [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4au [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4av [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4aw [] [] [6] 4ax [] [] [6] 4ay [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4az [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4ba [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4bb [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4bc [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 4bd [] [] [6] 4be [] [] [6] 4bf [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4bg [] [] [6] 4bh [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4bi [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 3] [24, 18] [24, 2] 4bj [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 8] [24, 2, 2, 2] 4bk [3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 4bl [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4bm [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 4bn [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 4bo [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 4bp [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4bq [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 4br [2, 3, 2, 2, 3] [12, 6] [12, 2] 4bs [3, 2, 2, 3] [12, 3] [12] 4bt [] [] [6] 4bu [2, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2] [6, 3, 4, 2] [6] 4bv [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4bw [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4bx [3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 4by [] [] [6] 4bz [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 4ca [] [] [6] 4cb [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4cc [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 4ce [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 4cf [] [] [6] 4cg [] [] [6] 4ch [] [] [6] 4ci [3, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [6, 3, 4, 2] [6] 4cj [3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3] [24, 12] [24, 2, 2] 4ck [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4cl [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 4cm [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4cn [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4co [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4cp [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 4cq [] [] [6] 4cr [] [] [6] 4cs [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4ct [] [] [6] 4cu [] [] [6] 4cw [] [] [6] 4cy [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4cz [2, 3, 2, 2] [] [24] 4da [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 4db [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 8] [24, 4, 2] 4dd [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4de [] [] [6] 4df [] [] [6] 4dg [] [] [6] 4dh [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 4di [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 8] [12, 2, 2, 2] 4dk [] [] [6] 4dl [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 4dm [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4do [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 4dp [] [] [6] 4dq [3, 2, 2, 2] [] [24] 4dr [2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 4ds [3, 2, 2, 2] [] [24] 4dt [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 4dv [3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2]

13 TRANSLATION PLANES OF ORDER 49 AND THEIR AUTOMORPHISM GROUPS 1219 Table VI. 5aa 5dv. 5ab [] [] [6] 5ac [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 5ad [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 5ae [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 5af [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 2] [24, 2] 5ag [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 5ah [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 5ak [] [] [6] 5am [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 5an [2, 3, 2, 2] [] [24] 5ao [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 5ap [] [] [6] 5aq [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 5ar [] [] [6] 5as [] [] [6] 5at [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 5au [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 5av [2, 3, 2, 3] [12, 3] [12] 5aw [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 5ax [] [] [6] 5ay [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 5az [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3] [24, 6] [24, 2] 5ba [] [] [6] 5bb [3, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [6, 3, 4, 2] [6] 5bc [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 5bd [3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 5be [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 5bf [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 5bi [] [] [6] 5bj [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 5bl [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 5bm [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 5bn [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 5bo [] [] [6] 5bp [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 5bq [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 8] [24, 4, 2] 5br [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 5bs [2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 8] [24, 4, 2] 5bt [2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 2] [24, 4] [24, 4] 5bu [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 5bv [3, 2, 2, 5] [12, 5] [12] 5bx [] [] [6] 5by [] [] [6] 5bz [] [] [6] 5ca [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 5cb [] [] [6] 5cc [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 5cd [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 5ce [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 5cf [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 5cg [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 5ch [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 5ci [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 5cj [] [] [6] 5cm [] [] [6] 5cn [] [] [6] 5co [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 5cp [2, 3, 3, 2] [12, 3] [12] 5cq [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 5cs [2, 2, 3, 2] [] [24] 5cu [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 5cv [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 5cw [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 5cx [] [] [6] 5cy [] [] [6] 5cz [] [] [6] 5da [] [] [6] 5dc [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 5dd [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 5de [] [] [6] 5df [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 5dg [3, 2, 2, 3] [12, 3] [12] 5dh [] [] [6] 5di [] [] [6] 5dj [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 5dk [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 5dl [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 5dn [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 5do [] [] [6] 5dp [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 5dq [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 5dr [] [] [6] 5ds [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 5dt [2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2] [12, 12] [12, 2, 2] 5du [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 5dv [3, 2, 2] [] [12]

14 1220 C. CHARNES AND U. DEMPWOLFF Table VII. 6aa 6dv. 6aa [2,3,2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 6ab [] [] [6] 6ac [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 6ad [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 6af [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 6ag [] [] [6] 6ah [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 6ai [] [] [6] 6aj [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 6ak [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 6al [2,3,2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 6am [2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 6an [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 6ap [2,3,2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 6aq [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 6ar [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 6as [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 6at [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 6au [3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3] [24, 6] [24, 2] 6av [2,3,2, 2,2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 6aw [2,3,2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 6ax [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 6ay [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 6az [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 6bb [] [] [6] 6bc [] [] [6] 6bd [] [] [6] 6bf [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 6bg [] [] [6] 6bh [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 6bi [2,3,2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 6bj [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 6bk [2,3,2, 2,2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 6bl [2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 24] [12, 2, 2, 2] 6bm [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 6bo [] [] [6] 6bp [] [] [6] 6bq [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 6br [] [] [6] 6bs [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 6bt [2,3,2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 6bu [2,3,2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 6bv [] [] [6] 6bw [] [] [6] 6bx [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 6by [] [] [6] 6bz [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 6ca [] [] [6] 6cb [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 8] [24, 4, 2] 6cd [2,3,2, 2,3] [12, 6] [12, 2] 6ce [3, 2, 2, 2] [] [24] 6cf [2, 2, 2, 3, 2] [24, 2] [24, 2] 6ch [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 6ci [] [] [6] 6cj [] [] [6] 6ck [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 6cl [] [] [6] 6cm [] [] [6] 6cq [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 6cr [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 6cs [2, 2, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 3, 4, 2] [24] 6ct [2, 2, 2, 3, 2] [24, 2] [24, 2] 6cu [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 6cv [3, 2, 2, 2] [] [24] 6cw [2,3,2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 6cx [] [] [6] 6cz [2,2,3, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 6da [] [] [6] 6db [] [] [6] 6dd [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 6de [] [] [6] 6df [] [] [6] 6dg [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 6dh [2,2,3, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 6dj [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 3] [24, 6] [24, 2] 6dk [3, 3, 2] [] [18] 6dl [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 6dm [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [48, 4] [48, 2, 2] 6do [2,3,2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 6dp [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 6dq [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 6dr [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 6ds [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 6dt [3, 2, 2, 2] [] [24] 6du [2,3,2, 2,2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 6dv [] [] [6]

15 TRANSLATION PLANES OF ORDER 49 AND THEIR AUTOMORPHISM GROUPS 1221 Table VIII. 7aa 7dv. 7ab [2, 2, 2, 3, 2] [24, 2] [24, 2] 7ac [2, 3,2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 7ad [2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 7ae [2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2] [12, 12] [12, 2, 2] 7ag [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 7ah [] [] [6] 7ai [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 7aj [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 7ak [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 7am [2, 2, 3, 2] [] [24] 7an [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 7ao [2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [24, 2] [24, 2] 7ap [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 7aq [] [] [6] 7ar [] [] [6] 7as [2, 2,3, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 7at [] [] [6] 7au [] [] [6] 7av [] [] [6] 7ay [3, 2,2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 7ba [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 7bc [3, 2,2, 3,2] [12, 6] [12, 2] 7bd [3, 2,2, 2,3] [12, 6] [12, 2] 7be [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3] [24, 24] [24, 2, 2, 2] 7bf [2, 3,2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 7bg [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 7bi [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 7bj [3, 2, 2, 2] [] [24] 7bk [] [] [6] 7bl [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 7bm [] [] [6] 7bn [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 7bo [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 7bp [] [] [6] 7bq [2, 3, 2, 2] [] [24] 7br [3, 2, 2, 3] [12, 3] [12] 7bs [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 7bt [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 7bu [] [] [6] 7bv [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 7by [2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3] [24, 24] [24, 2, 2, 2] 7bz [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 8] [24, 4, 2] 7ca [2, 3,2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 7cf [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 7cg [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 7ci [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 7cj [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 7cl [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 7cm [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 7cn [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 7cp [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 7cq [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 7cr [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 7cs [2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [24, 2] [24, 2] 7ct [] [] [6] 7cu [] [] [6] 7cw [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 7cx [] [] [6] 7cy [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 7cz [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 7da [2, 3,2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 7dc [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 7dd [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3] [24, 24] [24, 2, 2, 2] 7de [2, 2,3, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 7df [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 7dh [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 7dj [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 7dk [] [] [6] 7dm [3, 2,2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 7dn [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 7do [] [] [6] 7dp [2, 2, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 3, 4, 2] [24] 7dq [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 7dr [2, 3,2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 7ds [2, 3, 2, 2] [] [24] 7dt [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 7du [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 7dv [2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2]

16 1222 C. CHARNES AND U. DEMPWOLFF Table IX. 8aa 8dv. 8aa [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 8ab [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 8ac [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 8ae [2,3, 2,2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 8af [2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 8ag [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 8ah [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 8ai [] [] [6] 8aj [2, 3, 2, 2] [] [24] 8ak [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 8al [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 8am [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 8an [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 8ap [2,3, 2,2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 8aq [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 8ar [] [] [6] 8as [2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 6, 4, 2] [24, 2] 8at [2,2, 3,2,2, 2,2, 2] [24, 16] [24, 4, 2, 2] 8au [3,3, 2,2,2] [9, 4, 2] [9] 8aw [] [] [6] 8ax [3,2, 2,3] [12, 3] [12] 8ay [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 8az [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 8ba [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 8bf [2, 2, 3, 2] [] [24] 8bg [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 8bh [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 8bi [2,3, 2,2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 8bj [] [] [6] 8bk [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 8bl [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 8bm [3, 2, 2, 3] [12, 3] [12] 8bn [] [] [6] 8bo [2, 3, 2, 2] [] [24] 8bp [2, 2, 3, 2] [] [24] 8bt [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 8bu [3, 3, 2] [] [18] 8bv [3, 2, 3] [] [18] 8bw [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 8bx [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 8by [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 8bz [2,3, 2,3,2] [12, 6] [12, 2] 8ca [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 8cc [] [] [6] 8cd [2,3, 2,2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 8ce [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 4] 8cf [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 8cg [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 8ch [3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 16] [24, 4, 4] 8ci [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 8cj [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 8ck [2,3, 2,2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 8cl [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 8cm [] [] [6] 8cn [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 8co [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 8cp [] [] [6] 8cq [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 8cr [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 8cs [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 8ct [3,2, 3,3,2, 2,2] [6, 9, 4, 2] [6] 8cu [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 8cv [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 8cw [3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 2] [24, 2] 8cx [2, 3, 2, 2] [] [24] 8cy [3,2, 2,2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 8cz [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 8da [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 8db [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 8dc [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 8dd [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 8de [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 8] [24, 2, 2, 2] 8df [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 8dh [2,2, 3,3,2, 2,2, 2] [24, 24] [24, 2, 2, 2] 8di [2, 2, 3, 2] [] [24] 8dj [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 8dk [2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [24, 2] [24, 2] 8dl [2, 7, 3, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 21, 4, 2] [12] 8dm [2,2, 3,2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 8dn [3, 3, 2] [] [18] 8do [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 8dp [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 8dq [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 8dr [2, 2, 3, 2] [] [24] 8ds [2,3, 2,2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 8dt [2,3, 2,2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 8du [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 8dv [3, 2, 2] [] [12]

17 TRANSLATION PLANES OF ORDER 49 AND THEIR AUTOMORPHISM GROUPS 1223 Table X. 9aa 9cu. 9aa [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 9ab [3, 3, 2, 2, 2] [9, 4, 2] [9] 9ac [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 9ad [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 9af [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 9ag [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 9ah [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [12, 8] [12, 2, 2, 2] 9ai [2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 9aj [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 5] [24, 10] [24, 2] 9ak [3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 2] [24, 2] 9al [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 9am [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 9an [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 9ao [3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 9ap [3, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [6, 3, 4, 2] [6] 9aq [2, 2, 3, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 9ar [3, 2, 3, 2] [12, 3] [12] 9as [] [] [6] 9at [3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 8] [24, 4, 2] 9av [2, 2, 3, 3, 2] [24, 3] [24] 9aw [2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 3] [24, 9] [24] 9ax [2, 3, 3, 2] [12, 3] [12] 9ay [3, 2, 2, 3] [12, 3] [12] 9az [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 9ba [2, 3, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 9bb [2, 2, 3, 3, 2, 2] [12, 12] [12, 2, 2] 9bc [2, 3, 2] [] [12] 9bd [3, 3, 2] [] [18] 9be [3, 3, 2] [] [18] 9bf [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 9bg [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 2] [24, 2] 9bh [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 8] [24, 2, 2, 2] 9bi [2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [48, 8] [48, 4, 2] 9bj [2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [48, 4] [48, 2, 2] 9bk [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 3] [24, 6] [24, 2] 9bl [3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 9bm [3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 9bn [2, 360, 2, 3] [6] [6] 9bo [2, 2, 3, 2] [] [24] 9bp [2, 3, 2, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 9, 4, 2] [12] 9bq [3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 9br [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 64] [24, 2, 4, 4, 2] 9bs [3, 2, 2] [] [12] 9bt [2, 2, 3, 2] [] [24] 9bu [2, 3, 5, 2] [12, 5] [12] 9bv [2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 6, 4, 2] [24, 2] 9bw [2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 4] [12, 2, 2] 9bx [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [12, 8] [12, 2, 2, 2] 9by [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 9bz [2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 3] [24, 4, 9] [24, 2, 2] 9ca [2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3, 2] [24, 8] [24, 4, 2] 9cb [2, 2, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 24] [12, 2, 2, 2] 9cc [2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 3, 4, 2] [24] 9cd [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 4] [24, 2, 2] 9ce [2, 2, 5, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 20] [24, 2, 2] 9cf [3, 2, 2, 3] [12, 3] [12] 9cg [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 32] [24, 4, 4, 2] 9ch [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [12, 12, 4, 2] [12, 2, 2] 9ci [2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 3, 2] [24, 12] [24, 2, 2] 9cj [2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 16] [24, 2, 2, 2, 2] 9ck [2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2] [48, 24] [48, 2, 2, 2] 9cl [2, 3, 2, 2, 5] [24, 5] [24] 9cm [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 16] [24, 4, 2, 2] 9cn [2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 9, 4, 2] [24] 9co [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2] [24, 6, 4, 2] [24, 2] 9cp [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3] [24, 24] [24, 4, 2] 9cq [2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2] [12, 2, 9, 16, 4] [12, 2] 9cr [2, 2, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2, 2] [24, 24] [24, 2, 2, 2] 9cs [2, 3, 2, 60, 2, 2] [12, 2] [12, 2] 9ct [2, 60, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 3] [6] [6] 9cu [2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 2, 58800, 2] [12, 8] [12, 2, 2, 2] References [1] A. Aho, B. W. Kernighan and P. J. Weinberger. The AWK Programming Language. Addison- Wesley, Reading, Mass., [2] R. D. Baker and G. L. Ebert, Construction of two-dimensional flag-transitive planes. Geom. Dedicata, 27 (1988), MR 89f:51017 [3] C. Charnes, Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University, [4] C. Charnes, Quadratic matrices and the translation planes of order 5 2. Coding Theory, Design Theory, Group Theory, Proceedings of the M. Hall Conference (Eds. D.Jungnickel, S.A. Vanstone), J. Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, 1993, pp MR 94h:51016

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