# A DOT STRUCTURE FOR A LARGER MOLECULE ETHANOL! Count valence electrons

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1 212 A DOT STRUCTURE FOR A LARGER MOLECULE Count valence electrons Pick central atom and draw skeletal structure - central atom is usually the one that needs to gain the most electrons! - skeletal structure has all atoms connected to center with single bonds Distribute remaining valence electrons around structure, outer atoms first. Follow octet rule until you run out of electrons. Check octet rule - each atom should have a share in 8 electrons (H gets 2). if not, make double or triple bonds. ETHANOL! This formula gives us a hint to the structure of the molecule. Ethanol has THREE centers: the two carbon atoms and the oxygen atom. The hydrogen atoms can only take TWO electrons, so the remaining four must go onto the oxygen atom.

2 213 A DOT STRUCTURE FOR A MOLECULE WITH DELOCALIZED BONDS (OZONE) Count valence electrons Pick central atom and draw skeletal structure - central atom is usually the one that needs to gain the most electrons! - skeletal structure has all atoms connected to center with single bonds Distribute remaining valence electrons around structure, outer atoms first. Follow octet rule until you run out of electrons. Check octet rule - each atom should have a share in 8 electrons (H gets 2). if not, make double or triple bonds. OUT OF ELECTRONS Central oxygen has only six electrons All atoms have a share in eight electrons! The structure we drew implies that one of the outer oxygen atoms is closer to the central oxygen atom than the other one. Experimentally, though, we find the two oxygen atoms to be the SAME distance from the center. In the ozone molecule, electrons are actually being shared between ALL THREE oxygen atoms at the same time. This is called a DELOCALIZED BOND. The structures in the green box are called RESONANCE STRUCTURES. The "real" structure of ozone is an "average" of the two resonsnce structures. The "double bond" electrons in these structures are actually shared between all three oxygen atoms

3 214 A DOT STRUCTURE FOR A POLYATOMIC ION Count valence electrons Pick central atom and draw skeletal structure - central atom is usually the one that needs to gain the most electrons! - skeletal structure has all atoms connected to center with single bonds Distribute remaining valence electrons around structure, outer atoms first. Follow octet rule until you run out of electrons. Check octet rule - each atom should have a share in 8 electrons (H gets 2). if not, make double or triple bonds. An odd number of electrons? Lewis structures for molecules generally involve PAIRS of electrons! To get a charge of +1 for the molecule, it has to have lost a single electron! Draw brackets around the structure of an ion, then indicate the ion's charge in the upper right hand corner - just as we normally do with ions!

4 215 EXPANDED VALENCE and other exceptions to the "octet rule" - Some atoms do not always obey the octet rule. A few, like BORON, will bond in such a way that they end up with less than eight electrons.... but many more bond in such a way that they end up with a share in MORE THAN EIGHT electrons! - Any atom in period three or greater can do this. SULFUR and PHOSPHORUS compounds commonly do this!... these atoms have unfilled "d" orbitals that may participate in bonding! - All noble gas compounds (example: XENON compounds with oxygen and fluorine) exhibit this behavior!

5 216 EXAMPLES: - The central SULFUR atom has a share in TWELVE total electrons, not eight! - The SHAPE of the sulfur hexafluoride molecule in three dimensions agrees with the picture of six fluorine atoms each sharing a pair of electrons with a sulfur center. This structure obeys the octet rule. This molecule does NOT obey the octet rule. Phosphorus ends up with ten electrons instead of eight.

6 217 FORMAL CHARGE - You can often draw more than one structure for a molecule that appears correct. How can you determine which one is more likely? - USE FORMAL CHARGE! - Formal charge is a hypothetical charge on each atom in a structure. It assumes: All bonding electrons are shared EQUALLY between atoms Lone pairs are NOT shared. FORMAL CHARGE ORIGINAL # OF VALENCE ELECTRONS NUMBER OF BONDS NUMBER OF UNSHARED ELECTRONS * The sum of the formal charges of all atoms in a structure should equal to the charge of the molecule (0 for neutral molecules) The "better" Lewis structure will have: - Lower magnitudes of formal charge ( 0 0 is better than +2-2) - Negative formal charges on ELECTRONEGATIVE atoms, or positive formal charges on atoms that are less electronegative.

7 218 EXAMPLE:... calculate formal charges to tell which structure is more likely! the structure on the LEFT is preferred, since it has lower formal charges than the resonance structures on the right. We predict that the OXYGEN will have a double bond.

8 we can determine which of these structures is more likely by calculating formal charges! Which structure is more likely? * The HCN structure is more likely. It has lower formal charges than the HNC structure. * The HNC structure has a positive formal charge on electronegative NITROGEN (and a negative charge on CARBON). We don't think that carbon would be able to pull electrons away from nitrogen!

9 220 Let's look at sulfur trioxide. Skeletal structure: Resonance structures. Expanded valence (Sulfur is period 3) To decide which structure is preferred, let's look at formal charges.

10 221 Resonance structures. Expanded valence (Sulfur is period 3) BASED ON FORMAL CHARGE, the expanded valence structure is preferred. The correct (as in, agrees with experimental data) structure is typically the one with minimized formal charges - EVEN IF that structure does not obey the octet rule! REMEMBER: Period 2 atoms never end up with more than eight electrons1

11 222 PREDICTING MOLECULAR SHAPE The shape of simple molecules (and parts of larger molecules) can be easily predicted using the VSEPR model VSEPR = Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Model - Each BOND or LONE PAIR OF ELECTRONS around an atom will try to move itself as far away from other bonds or lone pairs as possible! For the two red circles to be farthest apart, they must be 180 degrees apart LINEAR MOLECULES ANY diatomic (two-atom) molecule is linear, but only some three-atom molecules are!

12 223 For the three red circles to be farthest apart, they spread out so that each is 120 degrees from the others! TRIGONAL PLANAR MOLECULES

13 224 These hydrogen atoms might appear at first glance to be 90 degrees apart, but remember that molecules exist in THREE DIMENSIONS, not two! Each hydrogen atom is actually degrees apart, forming a TETRAHEDRON. These atoms are in the plane of the paper! This atom is behind the paper! This atom is pointing out at you! To see the tetrahedron in three dimensions WITHOUT buying a molecular model kit, just take four balloons, blow them up, and then tie them together. The knot will be the central atom, and the balloons will line themselves up to be degrees apart.

14 225 Here's a computer ball-and-stick rendering of the methane molecule.

15 226 DERIVATIVES OF THE TETRAHEDRON - What if there are lone pairs? The way the shape of a molecule is described depends on the ATOMS in the molecule, even though lone pairs play a role in the positions of the atoms. Since there are four "things" around the nitrogen atom, we would expect them to be approximately degrees apart (in other words, TETRAHEDRAL). BUT... only three of these things are atoms. The atoms are arranged in a PYRAMID shape, so we call this molecule PYRAMIDAL! The lone pair takes one position in the tetrahedron By just looking at the atoms, you can see the pyramid - with the central nitrogen atom as the top and the hydrogen atoms forming the base of the pyramid.

16 227 Since there are four "things" around the oxygen atom, we would expect them to be approximately degrees apart (in other words, TETRAHEDRAL). BUT... only two of these things are atoms. The atoms are all in a single plane, but they are not lined up in a straight line. We call this shape "BENT". Lone pairs take up two positions in the tetrahedron We sometimes draw the Lewis structure of water this way to emphasize the "bent" nature of the molecule! * These atoms are in the same plane, like carbon dioxide. But they are not arranged linearly! Notice that this molecule has two "sides", one with the oxygen atom and one with hydrogen atoms.

17 228 SHAPES OF EXPANDED VALENCE MOLECULES There are five atoms bonded to the central phosphorus atom, and they will attempt to get as far apart as possible from one another! The top and bottom atoms are 90 degrees apart from the atoms around the center. The atoms around the center are 120 degrees apart from each other. There are acually two DIFFERENT bond angles in this structure. It's called TRIGONAL BIPYRAMIDAL. There are several derivatives of the trigonal bipyramidal shape (like the tetrahedral shape) - depending on how many things around the central atom are atoms!

18 229 There are six atoms bonded to the central sulfur atom, and they will attempt to get as far apart as possible from one another! All bond angles in this arrangement are 90 degrees! This shape is called OCTAHEDRAL, since it has eight sides. Like the tetrahedral and trigonal bipyramidal arrangements, there are several derivatives of the octahedron - depending on how many of the six things around the center are atoms!

19 230 Here's a ball-and-stick rendering of the sulfur hexafluoride molecule:

20 231 POLARITY - When atoms share electrons, the electrons might not be EVENLY shared. Shared electrons may spend more time around one atomic nucleus than the other. - When electrons are shared UNEVENLY, this results in a POLAR BOND.... but how can we tell whether or not a bond will be POLAR? Use experimental data on ELECTRONEGATIVITY! ELECTRONEGATIVITY: -A measure of how closely to itself an atom will hold shared electrons - A bond where there is a LARGE electronegativity difference between atoms will be either POLAR or (for very large differences) IONIC! - A bond with little or no electronegativity difference between atoms will be NONPOLAR

21 232 ELECTRONEGATIVITY TRENDS (AGAIN!) - You may look up elecronegativity data in tables, but it helps to know trends! INCREASING ELECTRO- NEGATIVITY IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 2 Li Be B C N O F 3 Na Mg IIIB IVB VB Al Si P VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB S Cl 4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br 5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I 6 Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At 7 Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt "inner" transition metals go here - FLUORINE is the most elecronegative element, while FRANCIUM is the least! - All the METALS have low electronegativity, and metal/nonmetal combinations form IONIC bonds - HYDROGEN is similar in electronegativity to CARBON, so C-H bonds are considered NONPOLAR

22 233 ELECTRONEGATIVITY EXAMPLE Electronegativity values Difference = 1.9 Fluorine is much more electronegative than hydrogen. This is a POLAR BOND, and the shared electrons will be held more closely to FLUORINE! This end of the molecule will have a slight NEGATIVE charge, since the shared electrons are closer to FLUORINE! This end of the molecule will have a slight POSITIVE charge, since the shared electrons are pulled away from HYDROGEN!

23 234 POLARITY OF MOLECULES So what can a molecule's LEWIS STRUCTURE, SHAPE, and the POLARITY of its bonds tell us?... the POLARITY of the overall molecule, which will tell us (among other things) what a given molecule will mix with or dissolve in! POLAR MOLECULES - Will dissolve in or dissolve other polar molecules - Will dissolve some ionic compounds - Will NOT easily dissolve nonpolar molecules Example: WATER NONPOLAR MOLECULES - Will dissolve in or dissolve other nonpolar molecules - Will NOT easily dissolve polar molecules or ionic compounds Example: OILS For a molecule to be polar, it must... Have polar bonds! (Any molecule that contains no polar bonds must be nonpolar!) Have polar bonds arranged in such a way that they don't balance each other out! (This is why you need to know the structure and shape of the molecule)

24 235 Examples: Shape? This is a TRIGONAL PLANAR molecule. There are THREE THINGS around the central atom: =O, -H, -H Polar? C-H bonds are nonpolar, but the C=O bond should be polar. Electrons are pulled towards the oxygen and this pull is not "cancelled" by the opposing hydrogen atoms (they're not very electronegative). POLAR MOLECULE. Shape? PYRAMIDAL. There are four things around the central nitrogen, but only three are atoms. Tetrahedral bond angles (109.5), but pyramidal shape. Polar? N-H bonds are polar, and since the molecule has nitrogen "side" (the top of the pyramid), the molecule is POLAR. The nitrogen end is slightly negative, while the hydrogen end is slightly positive. Shape: LINEAR. Only two groups attached to carbon. Polar? C=O bonds should be polar, but took at the arrangement! The molecule is NONPOLAR, since the oxygens directly oppose one another!

25 236 This ball-and-stick model shows electrostatic potential - red for more negative and blue for more positive oxygen "side", slightly negative hydrogen "side", slightly positive

26 237 nitrogen "side" slightly negative hydrogen "side" slightly positive

27 238 This molecule is NONPOLAR. No positive "side" or negative "side"

### SHAPES OF EXPANDED VALENCE MOLECULES

228 SHAPES OF EXPANDED VALENCE MOLECULES There are five atoms bonded to the central phosphorus atom, and they will attempt to get as far apart as possible from one another! The top and bottom atoms are

### - When atoms share electrons, the electrons might not be EVENLY shared. Shared electrons may spend more time around one atomic nucleus than the other.

228 POLARITY - When atoms share electrons, the electrons might not be EVENLY shared. Shared electrons may spend more time around one atomic nucleus than the other. - When electrons are shared UNEVENLY,

### A DOT STRUCTURE FOR A LARGER MOLECULE ETHANOL! Count valence electrons

212 A DOT STRUCTURE FOR A LARGER MOLECULE Count valence electrons Pick central atom and draw skeletal structure - central atom is usually the one that needs to gain the most electrons! - skeletal structure

### Lewis dot structures for molecules

1 Lewis dot structures for molecules In the dot structure of a molecule, - SHARED valence electrons are shown with dashes - one per pair. - UNSHARED valence electrons ("lone pairs") are represented by

### - A CHEMICAL BOND is a strong attractive force between the atoms in a compound. attractive forces between oppositely charged ions

191 CHEMICAL BONDS - A CHEMICAL BOND is a strong attractive force between the atoms in a compound. 3 TYPES OF CHEMICAL BOND Ionic bonds attractive forces between oppositely charged ions sodium chloride

### - Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table.

179 PERIODIC TRENDS - Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table. ATOMIC RADIUS - The distance between the nucleus of the atoms and the outermost shell of the electron

### - A polar molecule has an uneven distribution of electron density, making it have ends (poles) that are slightly charged.

14 POLARITY and shape: - A polar molecule has an uneven distribution of electron density, making it have ends (poles) that are slightly charged. POLARITY influences several easily observable properties.

### - Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table.

180 PERIODIC TRENDS - Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table. ATOMIC RADIUS - The distance between the nucleus of the atoms and the outermost shell of the electron

### (FIRST) IONIZATION ENERGY

181 (FIRST) IONIZATION ENERGY - The amount of energy required to remove a single electron from the outer shell of an atom. - Relates to reactivity for metals. The easier it is to remove an electron, the

### - Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table.

179 PERIODIC TRENDS - Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table. ATOMIC RADIUS - The distance between the nucleus of the atoms and the outermost shell of the electron

### - A CHEMICAL BOND is a strong attractive force between the atoms in a compound. attractive forces between oppositely charged ions

CHEMICAL BONDS - A CHEMICAL BOND is a strong attractive force between the atoms in a compound. 3 TYPES OF CHEMICAL BOND Ionic bonds attractive forces between oppositely charged ions sodium chloride Covalent

### - A polar molecule has an uneven distribution of electron density, making it have ends (poles) that are slightly charged.

POLARITY and shape: - A polar molecule has an uneven distribution of electron density, making it have ends (poles) that are slightly charged. POLARITY influences several easily observable properties. -

### ... but using electron configurations to describe how aluminum bromide forms is a bit cumbersome! Can we simplify the picture a bit?

193... but using electron configurations to describe how aluminum bromide forms is a bit cumbersome! Can we simplify the picture a bit? LEWIS NOTATION / ELECTRON-DOT NOTATION - Lewis notation represents

### ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum number "map" of electrons around an atom.

160 ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum number "map" of electrons around an atom. 4p 3d 4s 3p 3s 2p 2s 1s Each blank represents an ORBITAL, and can hold two electrons. The 4s subshell

### ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum number "map" of electrons around an atom.

178 (MAGNETIC) SPIN QUANTUM NUMBER: "spin down" or "spin up" - An ORBITAL (region with fixed "n", "l" and "ml" values) can hold TWO electrons. ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum

### VIIIA He IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA. Li Be B C N O F Ne. Na Mg VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB S. K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br

188 THE FIRST TWO PERIODIC TRENDS IN A NUTSHELL LARGER IONIZATION ENERGY SMALLER RADIUS IA H IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIIIA He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg IIIB IVB VB Al Si P VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB S Cl Ar

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### - Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table.

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48 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS - Dalton's theory does not mention this, but there is more than one way for atoms to come together to make chemical compounds! - There are TWO common kinds of chemical compound, classified

### -"l" also contributes ENERGY. Higher values for "l" mean the electron has higher energy.

170 - Giving the four parameters will uniquely identify an electron around an atom. No two electrons in the same atom can share all four. These parameters are called QUANTUM NUMBERS. PRINCIPAL QUANTUM

### -"l" also contributes ENERGY. Higher values for "l" mean the electron has higher energy.

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### CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS

48 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS - Dalton's theory does not mention this, but there is more than one way for atoms to come together to make chemical compounds! - There are TWO common kinds of chemical compound, classified

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