ITT Technical Institute ET215 Devices I Unit 1

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1 ITT Technical Institute ET215 Devices I Unit 1 Chapter 1 Chapter 2, Sections

2 Chapter 1 Basic Concepts of Analog Circuits Recall ET115 & ET145 Ohms Law I = V/R If voltage across a resistor increases then so does the current. Plotting voltage and current produces an IV Characteristic Curve. Note the curve produced by 2 resistors, R 1 and R 2

3 Likewise, recall a diode Plotting voltage and current produces the diode s IV Characteristic Curve.

4 Recall Harmonics Summation of odd harmonics will produce square waves.

5 Variable Resistors (encoders)

6 Reducing circuits to a Thevenin Equivalent

7 Transfer curve for a linear amplifier

8 Oscilloscope Review

11 Chapter 2 Section 2.1 Diodes and Applications The Atomic Structure of Semiconductors The PN Junction Biasing the Semiconductor Diode Diode Characteristics

12 Electron Shells and Orbits The distance from the nucleus determines the electron s energy. Energy levels are known as shells. Electrons in orbit farther from the nucleus are less tightly bound to the atom than those closer to the nucleus.

13 Electrons in the outermost shell are called Valence Electrons, and have the highest energy and are relatively loosely bound to their parent atom. Sometimes, a valance electron can acquire enough energy to break free from its parent atom. This free electron is called a conduction electron because it is not bound to any certain atom.

14 When a negatively charged electron is freed from an atom, the rest of the atom is positively charged and is said to be a positive ion.

15 Metallic Bonds: With a large number of atoms in a metallic crystal, the discrete energy level for the valance electron is blurred into a band called the valance band. Additionally, the next level from the nucleus in the atom is also blurred into a band of energies called the conduction band.

16 Covalent Bonds: Atoms of some solid materials form crystals: three-dimensional structures held together by strong bonds between the atoms. Sharing of valance electrons produces strong covalent bonds that hold the atoms together. Electronic devices are constructed from materials called semiconductors. The most commonly used material is silicon (also germanium). The important difference between a conductor and a semiconductor is the gap that separates the bands.

17 Electrons and Hole Current: When an electron jumps to the conduction band, a vacancy is left in the valence band. The vacancy is called a hole. Recombination occurs when a conduction-band electron loses energy and falls back into a hole in the valance band. Movement of free electrons is one type of current in a semiconductor and is called electron current.

18 Electrons and Hole Current: Another type of current occurs at the valence level, where holes created by the free electrons exist. Electrons remaining in the valence band are still attached to their atoms and are not free to move randomly in the crystal structure. However a valance electron can move into a nearby hole, thus leaving another hole where it cam from. Effectively, the hole has moved from one place to another in the crystal structure. This current is called hole current.

19 Electrons and Hole Current:

20 Chapter 2 Section 2.2 The PN Junction The controlled addition of impurities to the pure (intrinsic) semiconductor will drastically increase the conductivity of silicon or germanium. This process is called doping. Two categories of impurities are n-type and p-type. To increase the number of conduction-band electrons in pure silicon, a controlled number impurity atoms called donors are added to the silicon crystal. i.e., arsenic, phosphorus and antimony

21 Each atom forms a covalent bond with four adjacent silicon atoms, leaving one extra electron. The free electron becomes a conduction electron because it is not bonded to any atom ion the crystal. The electron in these n materials are called the majority carriers, the holes are called minority carriers. To increase the number of holes in pure silicon, a controlled number impurity atoms called acceptors are added to the silicon crystal. i.e., aluminum, boron, and gallium

22 When a piece of intrinsic silicon is doped so that half is n type and the other half is p type, a pn junction is formed. The n region has many free electrons and only a few thermally generated holes. The p region has many holes and only a few thermally generated free electrons. The pn junction is a basic diode and is fundamental to the operation of all solid-state devices. A diode is a device that allows current flow in only one direction.

23 When a pn junction is formed, some of the conduction electrons near the junction drift across into the p region and recombine with holes near the junction (see fig). The existence of the positive and negative ions on opposite sided of the junction creates a barrier potential (V B ) across the depletion region of approx 0.7V for silicon and 0.3V for germanium. (assume 0.7V in this text)

24 Conduction electrons in the n region must overcome both the attraction of the positive ions and the repulsion of the negative ions in order to migrate into the p region. After the ion layers build up, the area on both sides of the junction becomes essentially depleted of any conduction electrons or holes and is known as the depletion region. Any further movement of charge across the boundary requires that the barrier potential be overcome.

25 Chapter 2 Section 2.3 Biasing the Semiconductor Diode The term bias in electronics refers to a fixed dc voltage that sets the operating conditions for a semiconductor device. Forward Bias is the condition that permits current to flow across a pn junction.

26 Reverse bias is the bias condition that prevents current across the pn junction.

27 How reverse bias works: The negative side of the source attracts holes in the p region away from the pn junction, while the positive side of the source attracts electrons away from the junction due to the attraction of opposite charges. As electrons and holes move away from the junction, the depletion region begins to widen until the potential differences across it is equal to the external bias voltage. The depletion region becomes an insulator.

28 When a diode is reverse-biased, it must be able to withstand the maximum value of reverse voltage that is applied or it will break down. The maximum rated voltage for a diode is designed as peak inverse voltage (PIV). The PIV rating should be higher than the reverse voltage. Most diode circuits are not designed to operate in reverse breakdown, and the diode may be destroyed if it is.

29 Let s look at the diode. Diode schematic symbol and bias circuits

30 Typical diode packages and terminal identification

31 Diode characteristic curve

32 Plotting the IV curve for a diode on an oscilloscope. The oscilloscope is placed in the X-Y mode and the Y channel is inverted.

33 Ideal model of a diode as a switch.

34 The offset model for a diode. The barrier potential is included in this model.

35 The offset-resistance model for a diode. The barrier potential and forward ac resistance is included in this model

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Photovoltaics Basic Steps the generation of light-generated carriers; the collection of the light-generated carriers to generate a current; the generation of a large voltage across the solar cell; and