# How many grams of sodium metal is required to completely react with 2545 grams of chlorine gas?

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1 146 EXAMPLE PROBLEM: How many grams of sodium metal is required to completely react with 2545 grams of chlorine gas? 1 - Convert 2545 grams of chlorine gas to moles. Use formula weight. 2 - Convert moles chlorine gas to moles sodium using chemical equation. 3 - Convert moles sodium to grams. Use formula weight.

2 147 EXAMPLE PROBLEM: How many ml of M sodium hydroxide is required to completely react with 15.0 ml of 2.00 M sulfuric acid? 1 - Convert 15.0 ml of 2.00 M sulfuric acid to moles. Use concentration (2.00 moles/l) 2 - Convert moles sulfuric acid to moles sodium hydroxide. Use chemical equation. 3 - Convert moles sodium hydroxide to volume. Use concentration (0.250 moles/l) Shortcut: Solve using MILLIMOLES instead of moles!

3 148 CONCEPT OF LIMITING REACTANT - When does a chemical reaction STOP? Magnesium strip Flame, oxygen from air Magnesium oxide powder - When does this reaction stop? When burned in open air, this reaction stops when all the MAGNESIUM STRIP is gone. We say that the magnesium is LIMITING. - This reaction is controlled by the amount of available magnesium - At the end of a chemical reaction, the LIMITING REACTANT will be completely consumed, but there may be some amount of OTHER reactants remaining. We do chemical calculations in part to minimize these "leftovers". - Reactants that are left at the end of a chemical reaction (in other words, they are NOT the limiting reactant) are often called "excess". So reacting magnesium with "excess oxygen" means that magnesium is limiting.

4 149 STRUCTURE OF THE ELECTRON CLOUD The nuclear model describes atoms as consisting of a NUCLEUS containing protons and neutrons and an ELECTRON CLOUD containing electrons. The ELECTRON CLOUD is described as being a diffuse (lots of empty space) region of the atom. Nothing else about it is part of the nuclear model.... but the nuclear model is not useful to explain several things: - Does not explain why atoms react differently from one another - Does not explain how atoms emit and absorb light (atomic line spectra)

5 ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM (see p ) Different kinds of "light" have different energy contents GAMMA RAYS X RAYS ULTRA- VIOLET VISIBLE LIGHT INFRARED LIGHT MICROWAVES Higher energy Lower energy Higher Frequency / Shorter Wavelength Lower Frequency / Longer Wavelength VIOLET INDIGO BLUE GREEN YELLOW ORANGE RED - Different colors of visible light correspond to different amounts of energy

6 151 Source of white light Prism Rainbow (all colors represented) Prism Gaseous Helium excited by electricity LINE SPECTRUM - only a few specific colors appear!

7 152 - Atomic line spectra are UNIQUE to each element. They're like atomic "fingerprints". - Problem was that the current model of the atom completely failed to explain why atoms emitted these lines. An orbit that is FARTHER from the nucleus means that the electron has MORE energy An orbit that is CLOSER to the nucleus means that the electron has LESS energy - Electrons may gain or lose energy by either ABSORBING (to gain) or EMITTING (to lose) a PHOTON of light. (Photon = particle or "packet" of energy.) - If the electrons can gain or lose ANY amount of energy, then each atom would emit a RAINBOW rather than an LINE SPECTRUM.

8 153 BOHR MODEL - Theorized that electrons couldn't be just ANYWHERE around the nucleus. There must be restrictions on the motion of electrons that traditional physics did not explain. BLUE LIGHT EMITTED RED LIGHT EMITTED - theorized that electrons could only be certain distances from the nucleus. In other words, they could only have certain values for ENERGY. - Electrons could move only from one "energy level" to another DIRECTLY by giving up or abosrbing a photon (light) that was equal in energy to the distance between the energy levels. - The restrictions on where electrons could be in Bohr's model predicted that atoms would give LINE SPECTRA. - Bohr's model accurately described the line spectrum of hydrogen (first time this had been done!) - For other atoms, Bohr's model predicted a line spectrum, but the lines weren't the right colors!

9 154 Bohr's model didn't account for electron-electron interactions (which didn't exist in HYDROGEN) - To account for this added complexity, a more sophisticated model had to be devised: QUANTUM THEORY. Quantum theory is the modern picture of the atom and its electron cloud.

10 155 SHELLS, SUBSHELLS, AND ORBITALS - Bohr's model predicted that energy levels (called SHELLS) were enough to describe completely how electrons were arranged around an atom. But there's more to it! SHELL: Equivalent to Bohr's energy levels. Electrons in the same SHELL are all the same distance from the nucleus. They all have SIMILAR (but not necessarily the SAME) energy. - Shells are numbered ( Elements on the periodic table have shells numbered from 1 to 7) - Higher numbers correspond to greater distance from the nucleus and greater energy, and larger size! - Higher shells can hold more electrons than lower shells!

11 156 SUBSHELLS: Within a SHELL, electrons may move in different ways around the nucleus! These different "paths" are called SUBSHELLS - SHAPES of regions of space that electrons are able to exist in. "s" subshell (a spherical region) "p" subshell (a dumbbell shaped region) - Some atoms also have "f" subshells (not pictured) "d" subshell See p for nicer drawings of the subshells.

12 157 ORBITALS - are specific regions of space where electrons may exist - The SHAPE of an orbital is defined by the SUBSHELL it is in - The ENERGY of an orbital is defined by both the SHELL the orbital is in AND the kind of SUBSHELL it is in - Each orbital may, at most, contain TWO ELECTRONS ARRANGEMENT OF SHELLS, SUBSHELLS, AND ORBITALS - Shells are numbered. Each shell can contain the same number of SUBSHELLS as its number: 1st shell: ONE possible subshell (s) 2nd shell: TWO possible subshells (s, p) 3rd shell: THREE possible subshells (s, p, d) 4th shell: FOUR possible subshells (s, p, d, f)... and so on

13 158 - Each subshell can contain one or more ORBITALS, depending on how many different ways there are to arrange an orbital of that shape around the nucleus. "s" subshell "p" subshell: Three possible orientations One possible Maximum 6 electrons in 3 orbitals orientation Maximum 2 electrons in 1 orbital - There are five possible orbitals in a "d" subshell, and 7 possible orbitals in an "f" subshell! Maximum 10 electrons in 5 orbitals Maximum 14 electrons in 7 orbitals

14 159 ENERGY DIAGRAM - We can map out electrons around an atom using an energy diagram: 5p 4d 5s E N E R G Y 4p 3d 4s 3p 3s 2p "1s" means first shell, "s" subshell 2s 1s Each blank represents an ORIBITAL which can hold up to TWO electrons

15 160 Let's look at some example atoms: 5p Magnesium: Z=12, 12 electrons E N E R G Y 4d 5s 4p 3d 4s 3p 3s Outermost electrons of magnesium "valence electrons". These electrons are involved in chemical bonding! 2p 2s 1s

16 161 5p Aluminum: Z = 13 4d 5s E N E R G Y 4p 3d 4s 3p 3s 2p 2s Aluminum has THREE valence electrons! (All electrons in the outer shell are valence electrons!) Atoms tend to form ions or chemical bonds in order to end up with filled outer "s" and "p" subshells. This is called the "octet" rule. (Not all chemical bonds follow this - it's a RULE OF THUMB, not a scientific law!) 1s

17 162 Example: Oxygen, Z = 8 5p E N E R G Y 4d 5s 4p 3d 4s 3p 3s 2p 2s 1s Valence electrons for oxygen. (6 electrons) Oxygen needs two more electrons to complete its outer "p" subshell! In ionic compounds, oxygen has gained two electrons to become the oxide ion (2- charge). In molecular compounds, oxygen shares electrons with other atoms so that it has a share in eight electrons in its outer shell!

18 163 ELECTRON CONFIGURATION - A shorthand way to write about electron arrangement around an atom. Shell and subshell Number of electrons in the subshell! Valence electrons are the ones in the outermost SHELL, not just the last subshell. Aluminum has THREE valence electrons.

19 164 1 two elements wide IA H ELECTRON CONFIGURATION AND THE PERIODIC TABLE six elements wide IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA Helium is part of the "s" block! VIIIA He 2 3 Li Be B C N O F Ne ten elements wide Na Mg IIIB IVB VB Al Si P VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB S Cl Ar 4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr 5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe 6 Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn 7 Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt "inner" transition metals go here "s" block: last electron in these atoms is in an "s" orbital! "p" block: last electron in these atoms is in a "p" orbital! "d" block: last electron is these atoms is in a "d" orbital

20 To write an electron configuration using the periodic table, start at hydrogen, and count up the electrons until you reach your element! IA VIIIA H IIA IIIA IVA VA He VIA VIIA 2 Li Be B C N O F Ne 3 Na Mg IIIB IVB VB Al Si P VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB S Cl Ar 4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr 5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe 6 Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn 7 Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt "inner" transition metals go here Example: Phosphorus (P): A shortcut: "Noble gas core" notation starts at the previous noble gas instead of hydrogen:

### How many grams of sodium metal is required to completely react with 2545 grams of chlorine gas?

EXAMPLE PROBLEM: How many grams of sodium metal is required to completely react with 2545 grams of chlorine gas? 1 - Convert 2545 grams of chlorine to moles chlorine using formula weight 2 - Convert moles

### - Atomic line spectra are UNIQUE to each element. They're like atomic "fingerprints".

- Atomic line spectra are UNIQUE to each element. They're like atomic "fingerprints". - Problem was that the current model of the atom completely failed to explain why atoms emitted these lines. An orbit

### ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum number "map" of electrons around an atom.

178 (MAGNETIC) SPIN QUANTUM NUMBER: "spin down" or "spin up" - An ORBITAL (region with fixed "n", "l" and "ml" values) can hold TWO electrons. ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum

### How many ml of M sodium hydroxide is required to completely react with 15.0 ml of 2.00 M sulfuric acid?

147 EXAMPLE PROBLEM: How many ml of 0.250 M sodium hydroxide is required to completely react with 15.0 ml of 2.00 M sulfuric acid? 1 - Convert 15.0 ml to moles using concentration (2.00 mol acid per liter).

### - Light has properties of WAVES such as DIFFRACTION (it bends around small obstructions).

170 LIGHT wavelength Diffraction frequency = wavelengths / time = - Light has properties of WAVES such as DIFFRACTION (it bends around small obstructions). - Einstein noted that viewing light as a particle

### -"l" also contributes ENERGY. Higher values for "l" mean the electron has higher energy.

175 - Giving the four parameters will uniquely identify an electron around an atom. No two electrons in the same atom can share all four. These parameters are called QUANTUM NUMBERS. PRINCIPAL QUANTUM

### ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum number "map" of electrons around an atom.

160 ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum number "map" of electrons around an atom. 4p 3d 4s 3p 3s 2p 2s 1s Each blank represents an ORBITAL, and can hold two electrons. The 4s subshell

### -"l" also contributes ENERGY. Higher values for "l" mean the electron has higher energy.

170 - Giving the four parameters will uniquely identify an electron around an atom. No two electrons in the same atom can share all four. These parameters are called QUANTUM NUMBERS. PRINCIPAL QUANTUM

### - Why are phase labels required? Because phase changes either absorb or release energy. ... what does this mean?

157 SINCE the enthalpy change does NOT depend on path, this means that we can use standard values for enthalpy to predict the heat change in reactions that we have not tested in a calorimeter. THERMOCHEMICAL

### - A CHEMICAL BOND is a strong attractive force between the atoms in a compound. attractive forces between oppositely charged ions

CHEMICAL BONDS - A CHEMICAL BOND is a strong attractive force between the atoms in a compound. 3 TYPES OF CHEMICAL BOND Ionic bonds attractive forces between oppositely charged ions sodium chloride Covalent

### - A CHEMICAL BOND is a strong attractive force between the atoms in a compound. attractive forces between oppositely charged ions

191 CHEMICAL BONDS - A CHEMICAL BOND is a strong attractive force between the atoms in a compound. 3 TYPES OF CHEMICAL BOND Ionic bonds attractive forces between oppositely charged ions sodium chloride

### (FIRST) IONIZATION ENERGY

181 (FIRST) IONIZATION ENERGY - The amount of energy required to remove a single electron from the outer shell of an atom. - Relates to reactivity for metals. The easier it is to remove an electron, the

### - Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table.

179 PERIODIC TRENDS - Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table. ATOMIC RADIUS - The distance between the nucleus of the atoms and the outermost shell of the electron

### ... but using electron configurations to describe how aluminum bromide forms is a bit cumbersome! Can we simplify the picture a bit?

193... but using electron configurations to describe how aluminum bromide forms is a bit cumbersome! Can we simplify the picture a bit? LEWIS NOTATION / ELECTRON-DOT NOTATION - Lewis notation represents

### - Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table.

180 PERIODIC TRENDS - Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table. ATOMIC RADIUS - The distance between the nucleus of the atoms and the outermost shell of the electron

### Lewis dot structures for molecules

1 Lewis dot structures for molecules In the dot structure of a molecule, - SHARED valence electrons are shown with dashes - one per pair. - UNSHARED valence electrons ("lone pairs") are represented by

### CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS

48 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS - Dalton's theory does not mention this, but there is more than one way for atoms to come together to make chemical compounds! - There are TWO common kinds of chemical compound, classified

### CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS

48 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS - Dalton's theory does not mention this, but there is more than one way for atoms to come together to make chemical compounds! - There are TWO common kinds of chemical compound, classified

### - Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table.

179 PERIODIC TRENDS - Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table. ATOMIC RADIUS - The distance between the nucleus of the atoms and the outermost shell of the electron

### - Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table.

186 PERIODIC TRENDS - Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table. ATOMIC RADIUS - The distance between the nucleus of the atoms and the outermost shell of the electron

### VIIIA He IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA. Li Be B C N O F Ne. Na Mg VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB S. K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br

188 THE FIRST TWO PERIODIC TRENDS IN A NUTSHELL LARGER IONIZATION ENERGY SMALLER RADIUS IA H IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIIIA He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg IIIB IVB VB Al Si P VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB S Cl Ar

### CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS

48 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS - Dalton's theory does not mention this, but there is more than one way for atoms to come together to make chemical compounds! - There are TWO common kinds of chemical compound, classified

### Atomic weight: This is a decimal number, but for radioactive elements it is replaced with a number in parenthesis.

47 Blocks on the periodic table 11 Sodium 22.99 Atomic number: This is always a whole number. The periodic table is arranged by atomic number! Element symbol: A one or two letter abbreviation for the name

### VIIIA H PREDICTING CHARGE

58 IA PREDICTING CHARGE VIIIA H IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA You can reliably determine the charge using our method for Groups IA, IIA, IIIB, Aluminum, and the Group VA, VIA, and VIIA NONMETALS Li Be B C N

### Example: If a simple ionic compound is made of these two ions, what is its formula? In the final formula, don't write the charges on the ions!

88 WRITING AN IONIC FORMULA - if you know the ions that make up a compound, all you need to do is find the smallest ratio of cation to anion the compound needs to have an overall charge of zero Example:

### CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. - Dalton's theory does not mention this, but there is more than one way for atoms to come together to make chemical compounds!

69 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS - Dalton's theory does not mention this, but there is more than one way for atoms to come together to make chemical compounds! - There are TWO common kinds of chemical compound, classified

### Atomic weight: This is a decimal number, but for radioactive elements it is replaced with a number in parenthesis.

47 Blocks on the periodic table 11 Sodium 22.99 Atomic number: This is always a whole number. The periodic table is arranged by atomic number! Element symbol: A one or two letter abbreviation for the name

### VIIIA H PREDICTING CHARGE

58 IA PREDICTING CHARGE VIIIA H IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA You can reliably determine the charge using our method for Groups IA, IIA, IIIB, Aluminum, and the Group VA, VIA, and VIIA NONMETALS Li Be B C N

### CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS

48 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS - Dalton's theory does not mention this, but there is more than one way for atoms to come together to make chemical compounds! - There are TWO common kinds of chemical compound, classified

### WRITING AN IONIC FORMULA

55 WRITING AN IONIC FORMULA - if you know the ions that make up a compound, all you need to do is find the smallest ratio of cation to anion the compound needs to have an overall charge of zero Example:

### WRITING AN IONIC FORMULA

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