1 SOL PS.2 THE NATURE OF MATTER Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. All matter is made up of small particles called atoms. Matter can exist as a solid, a liquid, a gas, or plasma. Matter can be classified as elements, compounds, and mixtures. The atoms of any element are alike but are different from atoms of other elements. Compounds consist of two or more elements that are chemically combined in a fixed ratio. Mixtures also consist of two or more substances, but the substances are not chemically combined. Compounds can be classified in several ways, including: - acids, bases, salts - inorganic and organic compounds. Acids Acids make up an important group of compounds that contain hydrogen ions. When acids dissolve in water, hydrogen ions (H+) are released into the resulting solution. A base is a substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH ) into solution. ph is a measure of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution. The ph scale ranges from Solutions with a ph lower than 7 are acidic; solutions with a ph greater than 7 are basic. A ph of 7 is neutral. When an acid reacts with a base, a salt is formed, along with water.
2 Physical Properties Matter can be described by its physical properties, which include shape odor density melting point solubility boiling point color Some physical properties, such as density, boiling point, and solubility, are characteristic of a specific substance and do not depend on the size of the sample. Characteristic properties can be used to identify unknown substances. Equal volumes of different substances usually have different masses. Chemical Properties Matter can also be described by its chemical properties, which include acidity basicity combustibility (how easily it catches fire) reactivity A chemical property indicates whether a substance can undergo a chemical change.
3 SOL PS.3 HISTORICAL MODELS OF ATOMIC STRUCTURE Atomic Structure The atom is the basic building block of matter and consists of subatomic particles (proton, neutron, electron, and quark) that differ in their location, charge, and relative mass. Protons and neutrons are made up of smaller particles called quarks. Size at the atomic level is measured on the nanoscale Scientific Contributions Two models commonly used are the Bohr and the electron cloud (Quantum Mechanics) models. The Bohr model does not depict the three-dimensional aspect of an atom, and it implies that electrons are in static orbits. The electron cloud model better represents our current understanding of the structure of the atom. Solid Sphere
4 SOL PS.4 THE PERIODIC TABLE Elements There are more than 110 known elements. No element with an atomic number greater than 92 is found naturally in measurable quantities on Earth. The remaining elements are artificially produced in a laboratory setting. Elements combine in many ways to produce compounds that make up all other substances on Earth. Periodic Table The periodic table of elements is a tool used to organize information about the elements. Each box in the periodic table contains information about the structure of an element. An atom s identity is directly related to the number of protons in its nucleus. This is the basis for the arrangement of atoms on the periodic table of elements. The vertical columns in the table are called groups or families. Elements in the same column (family) of the periodic table contain the same number of electrons in their outer energy levels. This gives rise to their similar properties and is the basis of periodicity the repetitive pattern of properties such as boiling point across periods on the table. The horizontal rows are called periods. The periodic table of elements is an arrangement of elements according to atomic number and properties. The information can be used to predict chemical reactivity. The boxes for all of the elements are arranged in increasing order of atomic number.
5 Metals and Nonmetals The elements have an increasing nonmetallic character as one reads from left to right across the table. Along the stair-step line are the metalloids, which have properties of both metals and nonmetals. The nonmetals are located to the right of the stair-step line on the periodic table. Metals tend to lose electrons in chemical reactions, forming positive ions. Nonmetals tend to gain electrons in chemical reactions, forming negative ions. Reactions and Chemical Bonding Gaining or losing electrons makes an atom an ion. Gaining or losing neutrons makes an atom an isotope. However, gaining or losing a proton makes an atom into a completely different element. Atoms react to form chemically stable substances that are held together by chemical bonds and are represented by chemical formulas. To become chemically stable, atoms gain, lose, or share electrons. Compounds are formed when elements react chemically. When a metallic element reacts with a nonmetallic element, their atoms gain and lose electrons respectively, forming ionic bonds. Generally, when two nonmetals react, atoms share electrons, forming covalent (molecular) bonds.
6 SOL PS.5 CONSERVATION OF MATTER - PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES Physical and Chemical Changes Matter can undergo physical and chemical changes. In physical changes, the chemical composition of the substances does not change. In chemical changes, different substances are formed. Chemical changes are often affected by the surface area/volume ratio of the materials involved in the change. The Law of Conservation of Matter (Mass) states that regardless of how substances within a closed system are changed, the total mass remains the same. The Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but only changed from one form to another. Chemical Equations A chemical equation represents the changes that take place in a chemical reaction. The chemical formulas of the reactants are written on the left, an arrow indicates a change to new substances, and the chemical formulas of the products are written on the right. Chemical reactions are classified into two broad types: ones in which energy is released (exothermic) and ones in which energy is absorbed (endothermic). Nuclear Reactions Another type of change occurs in nuclear reactions. Nuclear energy is the energy stored in the nucleus of an atom. This energy can be released by joining nuclei together (fusion) or by splitting nuclei (fission), resulting in the conversion of minute amounts of matter into energy. In nuclear reactions, a small amount of matter produces a large amount of energy. However, there are potential negative effects of using nuclear energy, including radioactive nuclear waste storage and disposal.
7 SOL PS.6 FORMS OF ENERGY Potential & Kinetic Energy Energy is the ability to do work. Energy exists in two states. Potential energy is stored energy based on position or chemical composition. Students should know that the amount of potential energy associated with an object depends on its position. Kinetic energy is energy of motion. The amount of kinetic energy depends on the mass and velocity of the moving object. Forms of Energy Important forms of energy include radiant, thermal, chemical, electrical, mechanical, and nuclear energy. Visible light is a form of radiant energy and sound is a form of mechanical energy. Energy can be transformed from one type to another. In any energy conversion, some of the energy is lost to the environment as thermal energy.
8 SOL PS.7 THERMAL ENERGY Heat and Temperature Heat and temperature are not the same thing. Heat is the transfer of thermal energy between substances of different temperature. As thermal energy is added, the temperature of a substance increases. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance. Increased temperature means greater average kinetic energy of the molecules in the substance being measured, and most substances expand when heated. The temperature of absolute zero ( 273oC/0K) is the theoretical point at which molecular motion stops. Atoms and molecules are continuously in motion. Conduction, Convection, Radiation The transfer of thermal energy occurs in three ways: by conduction, by convection, and by radiation. As thermal energy is added to or taken away from a system, the temperature does not always change. There is no change in temperature during a phase change (freezing, melting, condensing, evaporating, boiling, and vaporizing) as this energy is being used to make or break bonds between molecules.
9 SOL PS.8 SOUND ENERGY Sound Waves Sound is produced by vibrations and is a type of mechanical energy. Sound needs a medium (solid, liquid, or gas) in which to travel. Sound travels in compression waves and at a speed much slower than light. In a compression wave, matter vibrates in the same direction in which the wave travels. All waves exhibit certain characteristics: wavelength, frequency, and amplitude. As wavelength increases, frequency decreases. A compression (longitudinal) wave consists of a repeating pattern of compressions and rarefactions. Wavelength is measured as the distance from one compression to the next compression or the distance from one rarefaction to the next rarefaction. Sound travels at a speed much slower than light. The speed of sound depends on two things: the medium through which the waves travel and the temperature of the medium. Resonance and Reflection Resonance is the tendency of a system to vibrate at maximum amplitude at certain frequencies. Reflection and interference patterns are used in ultrasonic technology, including sonar and medical diagnosis.
10 SOL PS.9 LIGHT ENERGY & TRANSVERSE WAVES Transverse Waves Visible light is a form of radiant energy that moves in transverse waves. All transverse waves exhibit certain characteristics: wavelength, crest, trough, frequency, and amplitude. As wavelength increases, frequency decreases. There is an inverse relationship between frequency and wavelength. Radiant energy travels in straight lines until it strikes an object where it can be reflected, absorbed, or transmitted. Electromagnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic waves are arranged on the electromagnetic spectrum by wavelength. All types of electromagnetic radiation travel at the speed of light, but differ in wavelength. The electromagnetic spectrum includes gamma rays, X-rays, ultraviolet, visible light, infrared, radio and microwaves. Radio waves are the lowest energy waves and have the longest wavelength and the lowest frequency. Gamma rays are the highest energy waves and have the shortest wavelength and the highest frequency. Visible light lies in between and makes up only a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
11 Reflection, Refraction, Diffraction As visible light travels through different media, it undergoes a change in speed that may result in refraction. Plane, concave, and convex mirrors all reflect light. Convex mirrors diverge light and produce a smaller, upright image. Concave mirrors converge light and produce an upright, magnified image if close and an inverted, smaller image if far away. Concave and convex lenses refract light. Convex lenses converge light. Concave lenses diverge light.
12 SOL PS.10 WORK, FORCE, & MOTION Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration Acceleration is the change in velocity per unit of time. An object moving with constant velocity has no acceleration. A decrease in velocity is negative acceleration or deceleration. A distance-time graph for acceleration is always a curve. Objects moving with circular motion are constantly accelerating because direction (and hence velocity) is constantly changing. Speed is the change in position of an object per unit of time. Velocity may have a positive or a negative value depending on the direction of the change in position, whereas speed always has a positive value and is non-directional. Newton's Laws Newton s three laws of motion describe the motion of all common objects. Mass and weight are not equivalent. Mass is the amount of matter in a given substance. Weight is a measure of the force due to gravity acting on a mass. Weight is measured in newtons. A force is a push or pull. Force is measured in newtons. Force can cause objects to move, stop moving, change speed, or change direction.
13 Work is done when an object is moved through a distance in the direction of the applied force. A simple machine is a device that makes work easier. Simple machines have different purposes: to change the effort needed (mechanical advantage), to change the direction or distance through which the force is applied, to change the speed at which the resistance moves, or a combination of these. Due to friction, the work put into a machine is always greater than the work output. The ratio of work output to work input is called efficiency. Mathematical formulas are used to calculate speed, force, work, and power. Speed = distance/time (s = d/t) Force = mass acceleration (F = ma) Work = force distance (W = Fd) Power = work/time (P = W/t).
14 SOL PS.11 ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM Static electricity, Current electricity, and Circuits Several factors affect how much electricity can flow through a system. Resistance is a property of matter that affects the flow of electricity. Some substances have more resistance than others. Friction can cause electrons to be transferred from one object to another. These static electrical charges can build up on an object and be discharged slowly or rapidly. This is often called static electricity. Electromagnets, Motors and Generators and their uses Electricity is related to magnetism. Magnetic fields can produce electrical current in conductors. Electricity can produce a magnetic field and cause iron and steel objects to act like magnets. Electromagnets are temporary magnets that lose their magnetism when the electric current is removed. Both a motor and a generator have magnets (or electromagnets) and a coil of wire that creates another magnetic field. A generator is a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Most of the electrical energy we use comes from generators. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical energy that is used to do work. Examples of motors include those in many household appliances, such as blenders and washing machines. Conductors, Semiconductors, Insulators A conductor is a material that transfers an electric current well. An insulator is material that does not transfer an electric current. A semiconductor is in-between a conductor and an insulator. The diode is a semiconductor device that acts like a one way valve to control the flow of electricity in electrical circuits. Solar cells are made of semiconductor diodes that produce direct current (DC) when visible light, infrared light (IR), or ultraviolet (UV) energy strikes them.
15 Light emitting diodes (LED) emit visible light or infrared radiation when current passes through them. An example is the transmitter in an infrared TV remote or the lighting course behind the screen in an LED TV or notebook computer screen. Transistors are semiconductor devices made from silicon, and other semiconductors. They are used to amplify electrical signals (in stereos, radios, etc.) or to act like a light switch turning the flow of electricity on and off
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