1 Summary of changes This resource outlines the main changes that have been made to the assessment and subject content from our previous GCSE Chemistry (4402) to the new specification (8462). Our new specifications have been developed in line with the regulatory requirements provided by the Department for Education (DfE) and Ofqual. 4.1 Atomic structure and the periodic A simple model of the atom, symbols, relative atomic mass, electronic charge and isotopes Atoms, elements and compounds C1.1.1a, b Atoms C1.1.3b Chemical C2.1.1a Structure and bonding Mixtures C1.4.1b Crude oil Scientific models of the atom (common content with physics) more methods of separation of mixtures Relative electrical charges of subatomic particles (common content with physics) C1.1.1c, d, e, f, g Atoms Size and mass of atoms (common content with physics) C2.3.1a, b, c, d Atomic structure relative dimension of nuclear radius compared to the whole atom Electronic structure (common content with physics) C1.1.1h Atoms
2 4.1.2 The periodic The periodic C1.1.2a The periodic C3.1.1a The early periodic C3.1.2a The modern periodic Development of the periodic Metals and non-metals Group 0 C1.1.2b The periodic Group 1 C2.1.1d Structure and bonding Group 7 C2.1.1e Structure and bonding C3.1.1a, b The early periodic C1.1.3a Chemical C3.1.3a, b Trends within the periodic C3.1.3e, f, g, h Trends within the periodic C3.1.2b The modern periodic isotopes. metals and nonmetals. boiling points of noble gases. reason for increase in reactivity down group. properties of Group 7 elements trends down group.
3 4.1.3 Properties of transition metals (chemistry only) Comparison with Group 1 elements Typical properties C3.1.3c Trends within the periodic C3.1.3d Trends within the periodic 4.2 Bonding, structure and the properties of matter Chemical bonds, ionic, covalent and metallic Chemical bonds Ionic bonding Ionic compounds C2.1.1b Chemical bonding C2.1.1c Structure and bonding C2.1.1f Structure and bonding details on bonding. direct reference to metal and non-metal atoms dot and cross representation of ionic compounds relating charge on ion to group number. models of sodium chloride structure Covalent bonding C1.5.2a Polymers C2.1 Structure and bonding (introduction) very large molecules 3-D model of
4 Metallic bonding C2.1.1g Structure and bonding C2.1 Structure and bonding (introduction) C2.1.1h, i Structure and bonding bonding. This content is no longer Higher How bonding and structure are related to the properties of The three states of matter State symbols Properties of ionic compounds C2.6.1a Making salts C2.2.2a, b Ionic compounds Some content is Higher Reworded to clarify Properties of small molecules C2.2.1a, b, c Molecules Polymers strength of intermolecular forces size of molecules. Higher Giant covalent structures C2.2.3a Covalent structures general properties of giant covalent structures Properties of metals and alloys C1.3.2c Alloys C2.2.4b, c Metals metals as giant structures.
5 Metals as conductors C2.2.4a Metals explanation of why metals conduct thermal energy. Higher C1.3.2a Alloys C1.3.3a, b Properties and uses of metals Structure and bonding of carbon Diamond C2.2.3b Covalent structures Graphite C2.2.3c, d Covalent structures Graphene and fullerenes C2.2.3e Covalent structures extra properties of diamond. New properties of graphite: covalent bonds hexagonal rings high melting point. Higher graphene structure of fullerenes properties of carbon nanotubes. Higher
6 4.2.4 Bulk and surface properties of matter including nanoparticles (chemistry only) Sizes of particles and their properties Uses of nanoparticles C2.2.6a Nanoscience size of particulates other than nanoparticles surface area to volume ratios comparison of properties with bulk materials. 4.3 Quantitative chemistry Conservation of mass and the quantitative interpretation of chemical equations Conservation of mass and balanced chemical equations Relative formula mass Mass changes when a reactant or product is a gas C1.1.3b, c Chemical C2.3.1f Atomic structure balancing symbol. sum of formula masses in balanced chemical equations.
7 4.3.2 Use of amount of substance in relation to masses of pure Moles C2.3.1g Atomic structure Amounts of in equations Using moles to balance equations Limiting reactants Concentration of solutions symbol for mole Avogadro constant use of relative formula mass to calculate number of moles Yield and atom economy of chemical (chemistry only) Percentage yield C2.3.3d, e Quantitative chemistry formula for calculation of percentage yield.
8 Atom economy C2.3.3a Quantitative chemistry formula for calculating percentage atom economy. C2.3.3b, c Quantitative chemistry Using concentrations of solutions in mol/dm 3 (chemistry only) Using concentrations of solutions in mol/dm 3 (chemistry only) C3.4.1g, h Analysing measuring concentration calculation of amount of moles of solute Use of amount of substance in relation to volumes of gases (chemistry only) Use of amount of substance in relation to volumes of gases (chemistry only) 4.4 Chemical changes Reactivity of metals
9 Metal oxides The reactivity series Extraction of metals and reduction C1.3.1c, d Extracting metals definition of reduction Oxidation and reduction in terms of electrons C1.3.1a, b, e, f, I, j Extracting metals C2.7.1e Electrolysis Reactions of acids Reactions of acids with metals Neutralisation of acids and salt production C2.6.2a, b Acids and bases Some content is Higher more detail on neutralisation Soluble salts C2.6.1c Making salts method of production of salts The ph scale and neutralisation Strong and weak acids C2.6.2d,e Acids and bases C2.6.1d Making ph scale.
10 salts Electrolysis The process of electrolysis Electrolysis of molten ionic compounds Using electrolysis to extract metals Electrolysis of aqueous solutions Representation of at electrodes as half equations C2.7.1a, b, c Electrolysis C2.7.1h Electrolysis C2.7.1e, g Electrolysis C2.7.1d, f, I Electrolysis definition of electrolyte. Some content is Higher extraction from molten compounds reason for extraction by electrolysis energy requirements of electrolysis. definitions of reduction and oxidation further examples of half equations.
11 4.5 Energy changes Exothermic and endothermic Energy transfer during exothermic and endothermic Reaction profiles The energy change of C2.5.1a, b, c Energy transfer in chemical C3.3.1d Energy from C3.3.1e, f, g Energy from conservation of energy further examples of use of endothermic. definition of activation energy. clarification on calculations from bond energies. C3.3.1a, b, c, i Energy from Chemical cells and fuel cells (chemistry only) Cells and batteries Fuel cells Some content is Higher
12 4.6 The rate and extent of chemical change Rate of reaction Calculating rates of Factors which affect the rates of chemical Collision theory and activation energy Factors that increase the rate of reaction C2.4.1a Rates of reaction C2.4.1c, d, e, f Rates of reaction C2.4.1b Rates of reaction C2.4.1c, e Rates of reaction measurement of quantity of reactant units. Some content is Higher Tier only explanation of collision theory Catalysts C2.4.1g Rates of reaction C3.3.1h Energy from enzymes as biological catalysts drawing reaction profiles for catalysed Reversible and dynamic equilibrium Reversible C2.3.3f Quantitative chemistry
13 Energy changes and reversible C2.5.1d Energy transfer in chemical Equilibrium C3.5.1c Making ammonia Higher The effect of changing conditions on equilibrium The effect of changing concentration The effect of temperature changes on equilibrium The effect of pressure changes on equilibrium 4.7 Organic chemistry C3.5.1d Making ammonia C3.5.1e, f Making ammonia C3.5.1g Making ammonia C3.5.1h Making ammonia effects of changing conditions and Le Chatelier s principle. effect of decreasing pressure on equilibrium Carbon compounds as fuels and feedstock Crude oil, hydrocarbons and alkanes C1.4.1a, c Crude oil C1.4.2a Hydrocarbons source of crude oil homologous series names of alkanes.
14 Fractional distillation and petrochemicals Properties of hydrocarbons Cracking and alkenes C1.4.2b Hydrocarbons C1.4.2c Hydrocarbons C1.4.3b Hydrocarbon fuels C1.5.1a, b, d, e Obtaining useful from crude oil C1.5.2a Polymers C1.6.1a, b, c Vege oils C1.6.2a, b Emulsions C1.6.3a, b Saturated and unsaturated oils use of fractions uses of fuels. properties of hydrocarbons complete combustion. demand for fuels Reactions of alkenes and alcohols (chemistry only) Structure and formulae of alkenes Reactions of alkenes C1.5.1b, c Obtaining useful from crude oil C1.5.3a Ethanol definition of alkenes first four members of series. functional group combustion with hydrogen, water and halogens.
15 Alcohols C1.5.3b Ethanol Carboxylic acids C3.6 introduction Alcohols, carboxylic acids and esters C3.6.1a, b Alcohols C3.6 introduction Alcohols, carboxylic acids and esters C3.6.2a, b Carboxylic acids C3.6.3a Esters C3.6.1c Alcohols Synthetic and naturally occurring polymers (chemistry only) Addition polymerisation C1.5.2a Polymers information on repeating unit Condensation polymerisation Amino acids Tier only DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and other naturally occurring polymers C1.5.2b, c, d Polymers Tier only.
16 4.8 Chemical analysis Purity, formulations and chromatography Pure Formulations Chromatography Identification of common gases Test for hydrogen Test for oxygen Test for carbon dioxide C1.2.1e Calcium carbonate Test for chlorine C1.2.1a, b, c, d, f, g Calcium carbonate
17 4.8.3 Identification of ions by chemical and spectroscopic means (chemistry only) Flame tests C3.4.1a Analysing masking of flame colours Metal hydroxides C3.4.1b, c Analysing Carbonates C3.4.1d Analysing soluble carbonates Halides C3.4.1e Analysing Sulfates C3.4.1f Analysing Instrumental methods C2.3.2 a Analysing Flame emission spectroscopy C2.3.2c Analysing 4.9 Chemistry of the atmosphere The composition and evolution of the Earth s atmosphere
18 The proportions of different gases in the atmosphere The Earth's early atmosphere How oxygen increased How carbon dioxide decreased C1.7.2a The Earth s atmosphere C1.7.2b, c The Earth s atmosphere C1.7.2f The Earth s atmosphere production of nitrogen by volcanoes solution of carbon dioxide in oceans. equation for photosynthesis role of algae. C1.7.1a, b, c, d The Earth s crust C1.7.2d, e, g, h, I, j The Earth s atmosphere Carbon dioxide and methane as greenhouse gases Greenhouse gases Human activities which contribute to an increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere Global climate change
19 The carbon footprint and its reduction Common atmospheric pollutants and their sources Atmospheric pollutants from fuels Properties and effects of atmospheric pollutants C1.4.3a Hydrocarbon fuels C1.4.3c Hydrocarbon fuels C1.4.3d, e Hydrocarbon fuels production of particulates sulfur dioxide oxides of nitrogen. toxicity of carbon monoxide.
20 4.10 Using resources Using the Earth s resources and obtaining po water Using the Earth's resources and sustainable development Po water Waste water treatment C3.2.2a, c, d Purifying water definition methods of production Alternative methods of extracting metals C1.3.1g Extracting metals C3.2.1a, b, c, d, e, f, g Hard and soft water C3.2.2b Purifying water processing of metal compounds obtained by bioleaching and phytomining. Tier only Life cycle assessment and recycling Life cycle assessment Ways of reducing the use of
21 resources Using materials (chemistry only) Corrosion and its prevention Alloys as useful materials C1.3.2b, c Alloys New topic bronze, gold and aluminium alloys Ceramics, polymers and composites C2.2.5a, b Polymers C2.2.4d Metals glass ceramics composites The Haber process and the use of NPK fertilisers (chemistry only) The Haber process Production and uses of NPK fertilisers C2.6.2c Acids and bases C3.5.1a, b Making ammonia Some content is Higher Tier only. uses of fertilisers treatment of phosphate rock to produce fertilisers.