# Placeholder zeros, even though they aren't SIGNIFICANT, still need to be included, so we know how big the number is!

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1 28 A few more math with significant figures examples: Placeholder zeros, even though they aren't SIGNIFICANT, still need to be included, so we know how big the number is! Addition: DENSITY CALCULATION To improve (make more precise) this calculated density, we must improve the poorest measurement. We must use a more precise device to measure the VOLUME (which only has two significant figures in this example)!

2 29 Exact Numbers - Some numbers do not have any uncertainty. In other words, they weren't measured! 1) Numbers that were determined by COUNTING! How many blocks are to the left? 2) Numbers that arise from DEFINITIONS, often involving relationships between units - Treat exact numbers as if they have INFINITE significant figures or decimal places!

3 30 Example You'll need to round the answer to the right number of significant figures! Convert 4.45 m to in, assuming that 2.54 cm = 1 in EXACT! Usually, in unit conversions the answer will have the same number of significant figures as the original measurement did. EXCEPTION: Temperature conversions, since these often involve ADDTION (different rule!)

4 31 DALTON'S ATOMIC THEORY : Publication of Dalton's "A New System of Chemical Philosophy", which contained the atomic theory - Dalton's theory attempted to explain two things: CONSERVATION OF MASS - The total amount of mass remains constant in any process, chemical or physical! LAW OF DEFINITE PROPORTIONS (also called the LAW OF CONSTANT COMPOSITION): All pure samples of a given compound contain the same proportion of elements by mass

5 32 The parts of Dalton's theory Matter is composed of small, chemically indivisible ATOMS ELEMENTS are kinds of matter that contain only a single kind of atom. All the atoms of an element have identical chemical properties. COMPOUNDS are kinds of matter that are composed of atoms of two or more ELEMENTS which are combined in simple, whole number ratios. Most importantly, CHEMICAL REACTIONS are REARRANGEMENTS of atoms to form new compounds. - Atoms are not gained or lost during a chemical reaction. - Atoms do not change their identity during a chemical reaction. - All the atoms that go into a chemical reaction must go out again!

6 33 HYDROGEN PEROXIDE Another look at chemical reactions The decomposition of hydrogen peroxide over time (or when poured over a cut) works like this: implying:... H O WATER H O OXYGEN GAS O... but wouldn't this mean that somehow an extra oxygen atom would form? Not according to Dalton's theory. Dalton's theory would predict a different RATIO of water and oxygen would form: H O H O O

7 34 - Dalton's theory sets LIMITS on what can be done with chemistry. For example: Chemistry can't convert lead (an element) into gold (another element). Sorry, alchemists! You can't have a compound form in a chemical reaction that contains an element that was not in your starting materials. You can only make a certain amount of desired product from a fixed amount of starting material.

8 35 Atomic structure - Until the early 20th century, chemists considered atoms to be indivisible particles. - The discovery of SUBATOMIC PARTICLES changed the way we view atoms! PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON The subatomic particles - a small, but relatively massive particle that carres an overall unit POSITIVE CHARGE - a small, but relatively massive, particle that carries NO CHARGE - slightly more massive than the proton - a small particle that carries an overall unit NEGATIVE CHARGE - about 2000 times LESS massive than either protons or neutrons

9 36 Putting it together... - In the early 20th century, there was a debate on the structure of the atom. RUTHERFORD EXPERIMENT Where do the particles go? Radioactive material A few bounce back A few particles slightly deflected Most particles pass through foil, undeflected Thin gold foil * This experiment was performed after the discovery of the electron, but before the discovery of the proton or neutron!

10 37 NUCLEAR MODEL - Atoms are mostly empty space - NUCLEUS, at the center of the atom, contains protons and neutrons. This accounts for almost all the mass of an atom - Electrons are located in a diffuse ELECTRON CLOUD surrounding the nucleus Electron cloud Electron cloud Nucleus Nucleus Why are atoms stable (why don't they change identity) during a reaction? The nucleus of an atom is not involved in chemical reactions, and the nucleus controls what kind of atom you have!

11 38 Atomic terms - ATOMIC NUMBER: The number of protons in the atomic nucleus. Each ELEMENT has the SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS in every nucleus. In neutral atoms, the number of ELECTRONS is also equal to the atomic number. Example: Helium has an atomic number of 2. Every helium atom has two protons in its nucleus. - MASS NUMBER: The number of protons PLUS the number of neutrons in the atomic nucleus, Atoms of the same element may have DIFFERENT mass numbers. - ISOTOPES: are atoms of the same element with different mass numbers. In other words, they have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

12 39 A few isotopes Hydrogen-1 Hydrogen-2 "Deuterium" Hydrogen-3 "Tritium" mass # atomic # Isotopes - Have identical CHEMICAL properties - Differ in MASS - May differ in stability. Elements may have some isotopes that are RADIOACTIVE

13 40 Atomic weight - The AVERAGE MASS of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element. Example: Hydrogen has an atomic weight of "atomic mass units" (Naturally-occurring hydrogen is almost all Hydrogen-1!) atomic weight of C: amu (Natural carbon is mostly carbon-12) atomic weight of Cl: amu (Natural chlorine is mostly chlorine-35)

14 41 Periodic Table - Mendeleev (1869): --- When atoms are arranged in order of their atomic weight, some of their chemical and physical properties repeat at regular intervals (periods) --- Some of the physical and chemical properties of atoms could be calculated based on atomic weight - Mendeleev was able to predict the properties of previously unknown elements using his "periodic law" Modern periodic table - organized based on ATOMIC NUMBER rather than ATOMIC WEIGHT. This eliminated some problems (elements out or order) with Mendeleev's original arrangement

15 42 Organization of the table GROUPS - columns - atoms in a group often have similar chemical (and sometimes physical) properties PERIODS - rows Group numbering: 1) Roman numerals: Similar to Mendeleev's groupings - "A" groups: Main group or "representative" elements - "B" groups: Transistion elements (also called transition metals) 2) Arabic numerals: IUPAC (international) accepted numbering system - Atoms in later periods are generally larger than in earlier periods - More on the significance of periods at the end of the course!

16 43 Groups and periods 1 2 IA VIIIA H - The "A" groups are called the IIA IIIA IVA VA He main (or representative) groups VIA VIIA Li Be - The "B" groups are called the B C N O F Ne transition elements 3 Na Mg IIIB IVB VB Al Si P VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB S Cl Ar 4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr 5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe 6 Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn 7 Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt GROUP numbers shown in GREEN PERIOD numbers shown in RED The elements in the purple box have similar chemistry to the transition elements, even though they are listed in the "A" groups. A/B group notation isn't perfect!

17 44 Categories of elements METALS - good conductors of heat and electricity - almost all solids at room temperature (exception: Mercury - Hg - is liquid) - appearance: shiny, mirrored surface - mostly grey - ductile (can be drawn into wires), malleable (can be hammered) - located on the left hand side of the periodic table NONMETALS - poor conductors of heat and electricity. Most nonmetals do not conduct well at all (insulators) - many of the nonmetals are gases at room temperature. A few solids, and one liquid (bromine) - color: Nonmetals may be white, black, purple, green, blue, orange, or colorless etc. - usually have low melting points in the solid form - solids tend to be brittle (not malleable) - break when hit - located on the right hand side of the periodic table

18 45 METALLOIDS / SEMICONDUCTORS - in between metals and nonmetals on the table - most periodic tables have a zig-zagging line where the metalloids are - properties tend to be "between" metals and nonmetals, too! - some have chemical reactivity like a nonmetal, but conduct electricity better than nonmetals - some have unusual electrical properties (silicon / germanium diodes), and are useful in electronics

19 46 Types of elements on the periodic table IA VIIIA H This red line appears in some way IIA IIIA He on most periodic tables. It's the IVA VA VIA VIIA dividing line between metals Li Be B C N O F and nonmetals You can find the Ne metalloids here! Na Mg IIIB IVB VB Al Si P VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB S Cl Ar K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt "inner" transition metals go here METALS shown in BLACK NONMETALS shown in BLUE METALLOIDS shown in PURPLE

### - Dalton's theory sets LIMITS on what can be done with chemistry. For example:

34 - Dalton's theory sets LIMITS on what can be done with chemistry. For example: Chemistry can't convert lead (an element) into gold (another element). Sorry, alchemists! You can't have a compound form

### Putting it together... - In the early 20th century, there was a debate on the structure of the atom. Thin gold foil

36 Putting it together... - In the early 20th century, there was a debate on the structure of the atom. RUTHERFORD EXPERIMENT Where do the particles go? Radioactive material A few bounce back A few particles

### Atomic structure. The subatomic particles. - a small, but relatively massive particle that carres an overall unit POSITIVE CHARGE

35 Atomic structure - Until the early 20th century, chemists considered atoms to be indivisible particles. - The discovery of SUBATOMIC PARTICLES changed the way we view atoms! PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON

### Example: Helium has an atomic number of 2. Every helium atom has two protons in its nucleus.

59 Atomic terms - ATOMIC NUMBER: The number of protons in the atomic nucleus. Each ELEMENT has the SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS in every nucleus. In neutral atoms, the number of ELECTRONS is also equal to the

### Atomic terms. Example: Helium has an atomic number of 2. Every helium atom has two protons in its nucleus.

Atomic terms - ATOMIC NUMBER: The number of protons in the atomic nucleus. Each ELEMENT has the SAME NUMBER OF PROTONS in every nucleus. In neutral atoms, the number of ELECTRONS is also equal to the atomic

### NUCLEAR MODEL. Electron cloud. Electron cloud. Nucleus. Nucleus

37 NUCLEAR MODEL - Atoms are mostly empty space - NUCLEUS, at the center of the atom, contains protons and neutrons. This accounts for almost all the mass of an atom - Electrons are located in a diffuse

### Periodic Table. - Mendeleev was able to predict the properties of previously unknown elements using his "periodic law" Modern periodic table

74 Periodic Table - Mendeleev (1869): --- When atoms are arranged in order of their atomic weight, some of their chemical and physical properties repeat at regular intervals (periods) --- Some of the physical

### Periodic Table. Modern periodic table

41 Periodic Table - Mendeleev (1869): --- When atoms are arranged in order of their atomic weight, some of their chemical and physical properties repeat at regular intervals (periods) --- Some of the physical

### Periodic Table. Modern periodic table

41 Periodic Table - Mendeleev (1869): --- When atoms are arranged in order of their atomic weight, some of their chemical and physical properties repeat at regular intervals (periods) --- Some of the physical

### CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS

48 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS - Dalton's theory does not mention this, but there is more than one way for atoms to come together to make chemical compounds! - There are TWO common kinds of chemical compound, classified

### CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS

48 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS - Dalton's theory does not mention this, but there is more than one way for atoms to come together to make chemical compounds! - There are TWO common kinds of chemical compound, classified

### Atomic weight: This is a decimal number, but for radioactive elements it is replaced with a number in parenthesis.

47 Blocks on the periodic table 11 Sodium 22.99 Atomic number: This is always a whole number. The periodic table is arranged by atomic number! Element symbol: A one or two letter abbreviation for the name

### Atomic weight: This is a decimal number, but for radioactive elements it is replaced with a number in parenthesis.

47 Blocks on the periodic table 11 Sodium 22.99 Atomic number: This is always a whole number. The periodic table is arranged by atomic number! Element symbol: A one or two letter abbreviation for the name

### CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS

48 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS - Dalton's theory does not mention this, but there is more than one way for atoms to come together to make chemical compounds! - There are TWO common kinds of chemical compound, classified

### CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS. - Dalton's theory does not mention this, but there is more than one way for atoms to come together to make chemical compounds!

69 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS - Dalton's theory does not mention this, but there is more than one way for atoms to come together to make chemical compounds! - There are TWO common kinds of chemical compound, classified

### ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum number "map" of electrons around an atom.

178 (MAGNETIC) SPIN QUANTUM NUMBER: "spin down" or "spin up" - An ORBITAL (region with fixed "n", "l" and "ml" values) can hold TWO electrons. ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum

### CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS

48 CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS - Dalton's theory does not mention this, but there is more than one way for atoms to come together to make chemical compounds! - There are TWO common kinds of chemical compound, classified

### ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum number "map" of electrons around an atom.

160 ORBITAL DIAGRAM - A graphical representation of the quantum number "map" of electrons around an atom. 4p 3d 4s 3p 3s 2p 2s 1s Each blank represents an ORBITAL, and can hold two electrons. The 4s subshell

### -"l" also contributes ENERGY. Higher values for "l" mean the electron has higher energy.

175 - Giving the four parameters will uniquely identify an electron around an atom. No two electrons in the same atom can share all four. These parameters are called QUANTUM NUMBERS. PRINCIPAL QUANTUM

### WRITING AN IONIC FORMULA

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### Atoms and the Periodic Table

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### Example: If a simple ionic compound is made of these two ions, what is its formula? In the final formula, don't write the charges on the ions!

88 WRITING AN IONIC FORMULA - if you know the ions that make up a compound, all you need to do is find the smallest ratio of cation to anion the compound needs to have an overall charge of zero Example:

### VIIIA H PREDICTING CHARGE

58 IA PREDICTING CHARGE VIIIA H IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA You can reliably determine the charge using our method for Groups IA, IIA, IIIB, Aluminum, and the Group VA, VIA, and VIIA NONMETALS Li Be B C N

### The Periodic Table of the Elements

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### IONIC COMPOUNDS. - USUALLY form from metals combining with nonmetals, or from metals combining with metalloids

52 IONIC COMPOUNDS - USUALLY form from metals combining with nonmetals, or from metals combining with metalloids Examples: - almost always solid at room temperature, and usually have relatively high melting

### - Atomic line spectra are UNIQUE to each element. They're like atomic "fingerprints".

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### WRITING AN IONIC FORMULA

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### Significant figures. We estimated the last digit, It's uncertain

21 Significant figures SIGNIFICANT FIGURES are a way to indicate the amount of uncertainty in a measurement. The significant figures in a measurement are all of the CERTAIN DIGITS plus one and only one

### -"l" also contributes ENERGY. Higher values for "l" mean the electron has higher energy.

170 - Giving the four parameters will uniquely identify an electron around an atom. No two electrons in the same atom can share all four. These parameters are called QUANTUM NUMBERS. PRINCIPAL QUANTUM

### - Light has properties of WAVES such as DIFFRACTION (it bends around small obstructions).

170 LIGHT wavelength Diffraction frequency = wavelengths / time = - Light has properties of WAVES such as DIFFRACTION (it bends around small obstructions). - Einstein noted that viewing light as a particle

### ... but using electron configurations to describe how aluminum bromide forms is a bit cumbersome! Can we simplify the picture a bit?

193... but using electron configurations to describe how aluminum bromide forms is a bit cumbersome! Can we simplify the picture a bit? LEWIS NOTATION / ELECTRON-DOT NOTATION - Lewis notation represents

### - A CHEMICAL BOND is a strong attractive force between the atoms in a compound. attractive forces between oppositely charged ions

CHEMICAL BONDS - A CHEMICAL BOND is a strong attractive force between the atoms in a compound. 3 TYPES OF CHEMICAL BOND Ionic bonds attractive forces between oppositely charged ions sodium chloride Covalent

### - A CHEMICAL BOND is a strong attractive force between the atoms in a compound. attractive forces between oppositely charged ions

191 CHEMICAL BONDS - A CHEMICAL BOND is a strong attractive force between the atoms in a compound. 3 TYPES OF CHEMICAL BOND Ionic bonds attractive forces between oppositely charged ions sodium chloride

### VIIIA H PREDICTING CHARGE

58 IA PREDICTING CHARGE VIIIA H IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA You can reliably determine the charge using our method for Groups IA, IIA, IIIB, Aluminum, and the Group VA, VIA, and VIIA NONMETALS Li Be B C N

### Lewis dot structures for molecules

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### (FIRST) IONIZATION ENERGY

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### - Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table.

179 PERIODIC TRENDS - Some properties of elements can be related to their positions on the periodic table. ATOMIC RADIUS - The distance between the nucleus of the atoms and the outermost shell of the electron

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### VIIIA He IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA. Li Be B C N O F Ne. Na Mg VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB S. K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br

188 THE FIRST TWO PERIODIC TRENDS IN A NUTSHELL LARGER IONIZATION ENERGY SMALLER RADIUS IA H IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA VIIIA He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg IIIB IVB VB Al Si P VIB VIIB VIIIB IB IIB S Cl Ar

### How many grams of sodium metal is required to completely react with 2545 grams of chlorine gas?

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### WRITING AN IONIC FORMULA

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### EXAMPLES. He VIA VIIA Li Be B C N O F Ne

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