1 for the IonPac Trace Cation Concentrator (TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1 and TCC-XLP1)
2 Page 1 of 17 PRODUCT MANUAL FOR TRACE CATION CONCENTRATOR (TCC) TCC-LP1 Column Low Pressure, 4 x 35 mm (P/N ) TCC -ULP1 Column Ultra Low Pressure, 5 x 23 mm (P/N ) TCC -XLP1 Column Extremely Low Pressure, 6 x 16 mm (P/N ) Dionex Corporation, 2010 Document No Revision 09 September 2010
3 Page 2 of 17 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION INSTALLATION TCC Operation Precautions Column Description OPERATION Sample Loading Reagent and Sample Handling Concentrator Capacity EXAMPLE APPLICATIONS Determination of the Common Inorganic Cations using the TCC-ULP1 Column Concentration in the Manual Mode TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE High Backpressure from a Contaminated Inlet Bed Support High Background, Noise, or Baseline Instability Poor Peak Shape APPENDIX A A.1 Recommended Operating Pressures A.2 Column Start-up A.3 Column Storage A.4 Column Cleanup of Polyvalent Cations and Acid-soluble Contaminants A.5 Column Cleanup Of Organic/Cationic Contaminants... 17
4 Page 3 of 17 IMPORTANT INFORMATION Several icons are used throughout this document to emphasize important points. The symbols are shown below, along with the purpose of the information. SAFETY Safety information can help prevent bodily harm. WARNING Warning information can help prevent equipment harm. CAUTION Caution information can help prevent problems. NOTE Note information can help with tips for improved use.
5 Page 4 of 17 SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION The IonPac Trace Cation Concentrator Low Pressure (TCC-LP1, P/N ), Ultra Low Pressure (TCC-ULP1, P/N ), and Extremely Low Pressure (TCC-XLP1, P/N ) Columns are designed primarily for high purity water analysis. The function of the columns is to strip ions from a measured volume of a relatively clean aqueous sample matrix. This process concentrates the desired analyte species onto the columns leading to a lowering of detection limits by 2-5 orders of magnitude. The unique advantage of the columns to the analytical chemist is the capability of performing routine Low Pressure, Ultra Low Pressure, and Extremely Low Pressure Trace analyses of sample matrix ions at µg/l levels without extensive and laborious sample pretreatment. The TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, and TCC-XLP1 columns are packed with a 20 µm styrene/divinylbenzene copolymer that is grafted to yield a resin with carboxylate functional groups. Due to its highly cross-linked structure, the resin is solvent compatible. The capacity of the TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, and TCC-XLP1 is 260 µeq/column with a void volume of approximately 250 µl. The physical rigidity of this resin allows the TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, and TCC-XLP1 to be used at pressures up to 3,000 psi (20.68 MPa). The TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, and TCC-XLP1 can be readily converted between the acid and the salt form without significant changes in the operating pressure. The recommended maximum flow rate is 5 ml/min. The back pressure generated by the TCC-LP1 is less than 70 psi (0.48 MPa) at 1 ml/min, the TCC-ULP1 is less than 45 psi (0.31 MPa) at 1 ml/min, and the TCC-XLP1 is less than 30 psi (0.21 MPa) at 1 ml/min. The large resin particle size (20 µm) in the TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, and TCC-XLP1 makes it possible to do manual injections onto the concentrator. Syringes with up to 3 ml capacities can be used to manually push samples through the TCC-LP1. It takes approximately 1 minute to manually push 3 ml of sample through the TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, and TCC-XLP1 columns. The TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, and TCC-XLP1 columns can be used with methanesulfonic acid, sulfuric acid, and hydrochloric acid eluents, with or without solvent, to concentrate samples on 5-mm, 4-mm, 3-mm, or 2-mm analytical systems. This manual assumes that you are familiar with the installation and operation of the DIONEX Ion Chromatograph (IC) and the suppressor. If you do not understand the operation of the system, take the time to familiarize yourself with the various system components before beginning an analysis. The TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, and TCC-XLP1 have threaded PEEK end fittings for use with ferrule/bolt liquid line fittings. If you find it necessary to install a component with 1/4-28 ports and therefore need to obtain or make one or more transition lines between and 1/4-28 threaded ThermoFlare ports, DIONEX recommends the use of Tefzel liquid lines with a PEEK ferrule/bolt fitting on one end and a 1/4-28 ThermoFlare fitting on the other end. See, DIONEX Liquid Line Fittings, for detailed instructions on purchasing or making these lines. Assistance is available for any problem during the shipment or operation of Dionex instrumentation, columns, and consumables through the Dionex North America Technical Call Center at DIONEX-0 ( ) or through any of the Dionex Offices listed in Dionex Worldwide Offices on the Dionex Reference Library CD-ROM.
6 Page 5 of 17 TABLE 1 Concentrator Column Packing Specifications Column TCC-LP1 4-mm TCC-ULP1 5-mm TCC-XLP1 6-mm Particle Diameter Substrate X-Linking Column Capacity µeq/col µeq/col µeq/col Functional Group Carboxylic Acid Carboxylic Acid Carboxylic Acid Hydrophobicity Very low Very low Very low TABLE 2 Concentrator Column Operating Parameters Column TCC-LP1 4-mm TCC-ULP1 5-mm TCC-XLP1 6-mm Typical Backpressure MPa at 30 ºC Standard Flow Rate ml/min Maximum Flow Rate ml/min < 70 (0.48) < 45 (0.31) < 30 (0.21)
7 Page 6 of 17 SECTION 2 INSTALLATION 2.1.TCC Operation Precautions The columns are shipped with 2.5 mm methanesulfonic acid as the storage solution. Flush the column for 30 minutes with eluent before attempting to concentrate sample. Pump the effluent directly to a waste container while washing the column. DO NOT pump this effluent through the CAUTION guard column, analytical column and/or the suppressor. 2.2.Column Description The IonPac Trace Cation Concentrator - Low Pressure (TCC-LP1, 4x35 mm) and IonPac Trace Cation Concentrator Ultra Low Pressure (TCC-ULP1, 5x23 mm) columns consist of the following components. 1. Bed Support Assembly (P/N ) Ferrule Column End Fitting (P/N ) Ferrule Plug (P/N ) FIGURE 1 TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1 Column Components The IonPac Trace Cation Concentrator Extremely Low Pressure (TCC-XLP1, 6x16 mm) column consists of the following components Ferrule Plug (P/N ) 2. Column Body 6 x 16 mm (P/N ) 3. Bed Support (Frit) (P/N ) 4. Bed Support Assembly (P/N ) 5. 9-mm Column End Fitting (P/N ) 1 4 FIGURE 2 TCC-XLP1 Column Components
8 Page 7 of 17 SECTION 3 OPERATION 3.1.Sample Loading Always use the high pressure pulse damper (Dionex P/N ) after the DQP pump or DXP pump to ensure the concentrator column does not get exposed to pump pulsations. It is possible to WARNING damage the resin when exposed to high pump pulsations. WARNING To prevent overloading the TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, or TCC-XLP1, and/or loss of sample analytes, determine the concentration linearity over the desired analytical concentration range. See Section 3.4.1, Capacity Consideration of Concentrators. Sample loading can be performed manually with a < 3 ml syringe. It takes approximately 1 minute to manually inject 3 ml of sample through the TCC-LP1. Alternately, you can use a separate positive displacement pump such as the Dionex DQP pump (P/N ). When using a pump, ensure that a high pressure damper is used. Pump flow rates of approximately 3 ml/min can be used while maintaining sample concentration efficiencies high enough to ensure good quantification. WARNING The flow direction during the concentration step is critical. In order to ensure optimal system performance, it is recommended that concentration always be performed in a back flush manner. After the sample has been loaded onto the TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, or TCC-XLP1 in the direction opposite to the eluent flow, it is then back flushed with eluent onto the guard and analytical columns (see Figure 4, Loading the TCC-LP1, TCC- ULP1, or TCC-XLP1 Column ). This configuration concentrates the cations in a tight band at the bottom of the TCC columns. When injected, all of the ions are rapidly eluted off of the TCC columns, and onto the guard and analytical columns. If the sample is loaded onto the TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, or TCC-XLP1 in the same flow direction as the eluent flow, the cations are concentrated at the head of the column rather than at the bottom. When injected, the cations begin chromatographic separation on the concentrator before reaching the guard and analytical columns. Therefore, the retention time of the analytes would be significantly longer than a standard loop injection. Normally the function of the concentrator is to strip the ions of interest from the sample matrix and not to act as an analytical column.
9 Page 8 of 17 Figure 3 shows the configuration for sample loading using a Rheodyne valve. FIGURE 3 Configuration for Determining Trace Levels of Cations Figure 4 shows the configuration for sample loading using a slider valve. FIGURE 4 Loading the TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, or TCC-XLP1 Column
10 Page 9 of Reagent and Sample Handling The use of the TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, or TCC-XLP1 column has certain limitations. At trace analyte concentration levels (µg/l), the results of the analysis depend on carefully following good laboratory practices. All sources of contamination must be eliminated. The following sections focus on critical points that must be observed when using the TCC-LP1, TCC- ULP1, or TCC-XLP1 concentrator columns. Proper consideration of these points will enable the analyst to obtain accurate and reproducible results at trace analyte levels Water Quality All water used in the preparation of standards and eluents must be deionized water with a specific resistance of 18.2 megohm-cm. The quality of the dilution water must be determined by Ion Chromatography since even deionized water with a specific resistance of 18.2 megohm-cm may contain trace levels of the ions of interest. To do this, analyze the water in exactly the same manner as your sample Sample Collection and Storage CAUTION Never use plastic syringes with rubber pistons for any loading of trace ions. These materials cause non-reproducible results. At trace analyte concentration levels (µg/l), chances of contamination during collection or storage are high. Every container and every procedural step constitutes a potential source of contamination. Polystyrene containers with leak-tight caps can be used to store 1 to 5 µg/l levels of inorganic and organic cations for up to 8 days. Recommended storage vessels are Corning tissue culture flasks. The following procedure should be used for storage of µg/l level samples. A. Rinse the polystyrene container and cap twice with deionized water having a specific resistance of 18.2 megohmcm. Fill the container until it overflows, cap it securely, and soak for 4 hours. B. Empty the container and refill it with deionized water having a specific resistance of 18.2 megohm-cm. Cap the container securely. It should remain filled at least 24 hours before sample collection. C. Empty the container and rinse it twice with the sample to be collected. Fill the container with the sample until it overflows and then cap the container securely. Be sure that the sample line does not touch the container Standards It is good practice to run standards at the beginning, middle, and end of each day to ensure constant instrument response. Because external standard quantification is used, it is critical that standard solutions are correctly prepared. A. 1,000 mg/l (1 mg/l = 1 ppm) stock standard solutions should be prepared by accurately weighing amounts of salts as described in your instrument manual. These solutions are stable over a period of several months. B. 1 mg/l stock standard solutions may be prepared by diluting 1 ml of 1,000 mg/l stock standard to 1,000 ml in a volumetric flask. These solutions should then be transferred to clean polystyrene containers. They may be stored for up to one month. C. 1 µg/l working standard solutions may be prepared by diluting 1 ml of the 1 mg/l stock standard to 1,000 ml. These working standards are stored in polystyrene containers. They are stable up to 8 days, but Dionex recommends daily preparation since standard response is critical in the results of your analysis.
11 Page 10 of Concentrator Capacity Capacity Considerations for Concentrators As in all ion exchange systems, the resin has a finite capacity. It can strip a given amount of ions from water. When the capacity of the concentrator is exceeded, the stripping will not be quantitative. This condition is referred to as column overload. When estimating the capacity of a concentrator, one must remember that the column is used in a dynamic state where the liquid containing the analytes is flowing over the resin at a finite rate. This reduces the capacity somewhat since the analyte ions have less time to interact with the resin surface. Low concentrator column capacity creates the following practical implications: A. Trace analysis of an analyte is difficult in the presence of µg/l concentrations of species which exhibit higher or similar affinities for the resin. If the dynamic column capacity is exceeded, high affinity ions will displace the analytes on the ion exchange sites and result in their elution to waste during the loading process. B. Conversely, qualitative analysis of ions with higher affinities for the resin in the presence of high concentrations of ions with low affinities is possible. Again, the key to successful analysis is that the ionic content of the high affinity ion to be quantitated may not exceed the effective column capacity. C. Do not dilute samples to be concentrated in eluent because the eluent ions elute the ions of interest. D. A plot of response versus concentration should be generated as in Figure 5, Linearity of Lithium Concentrator Injection, for the determination of the maximum amount of sample or standard that can be quantitatively loaded. In Figure 4, Linearity of Lithium Concentrator Injection, the break in the curve where linearity starts to change is at a concentration volume of 1 ml of 250 µg/l lithium. For practical purposes the amount concentrated for a series of samples should be 75% of this value. This will ensure that there is a safety margin built into the concentration process in case a sample in a series of concentration experiments has a slightly higher ionic concentration. FIGURE 5 Linearity of Lithium Concentrator Injection
12 Page 11 of Determination of the Concentrator Column Breakthrough Volume The breakthrough volume of an analyte ion is that volume of sample which causes an ion of interest to be eluted from, rather than retained or concentrated on, the concentrator column. The breakthrough volume for a concentrator column is usually defined as the volume of sample necessary to elute the most weakly retained ions of interest in the sample. The more strongly retained ions in the sample, such as NH 4 +, can elute the more weakly retained ions in the sample, such as Li +. It is also possible for a high concentration of a weakly retained ion such as Li + to elute a more strongly retained ion present at low concentration. This can occur if one is attempting to concentrate trace ions in a concentrated matrix. The breakthrough is dependent upon several factors. A. The volume of sample loaded. B. The rate at which the sample is loaded. C. The ph of the sample. D. The ionic strength of the sample. E. The amount and capacity of resin in the column. The breakthrough volume is determined as follows. A. Prepare 1 L of a solution that closely simulates the type of sample to be analyzed. For example, if the sample contains high levels of NH 4 +, the simulated sample should also contain NH 4 +. The ammonium ion will act as an eluent (E2). B. Prepare a 1 mg/l standard of the first eluting ion of interest (e.g., Li + ). C. Set up the Ion Chromatograph, as shown in Figure 6, Linearity Determinations for Concentrator Injection. D. Equilibrate the TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, or TCC-XLP1 with the eluent (E1) to be used in the analysis. Set the flow rate necessary to achieve a stable baseline and wash the column in this manner for at least 10 minutes. E. Switch to the simulated sample as an eluent (E2). Without delay, manually inject 50 µl of the 1 mg/l standard. F. Record the resulting chromatogram and calculate the breakthrough volume, as shown in Figure 7, Typical Data Obtained in the Determination of the Breakthrough Volume. G. For practical purposes, the volume concentrated should be below 75% of the breakthrough volume.
13 Page 12 of 17 FIGURE 6 Linearity Determinations for Concentrator Injection Breakthrough Volume Inject # ml Simulated Sample = Time (min) x Flow Rate (ml/min) Time (min) that the simulated sample is pumped through the TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, or TCC-XLP1 after the single ion injection FIGURE 7 Typical Data Obtained in the Determination of the Breakthrough Volume
14 Page 13 of 17 SECTION 4 EXAMPLE APPLICATIONS 4.1.Determination of the Common Inorganic Cations using the TCC-ULP1 Column The following example demonstrates the use of the TCC-ULP1 for the determination of µg/l-concentration of the common inorganic cations. Sample Loop Volume: See Chromatogram Concentrator Column: TCC-ULP1 5 x 23mm Analytical Column: IonPac CG12, CS12 4mm Analytical Column Eluent: 25 mm Methanesulfonic acid Eluent Flow Rate: 1.0 ml/min Injection Volume: 1.0 ml Temperature: 35 C SRS Suppressor: Cation Self-Regenerating Suppressor, CSRS -ULTRA AutoSuppression Recycle Mode Peaks µg/l (ppb) 1. Lithium Sodium Ammonium Potassium Magnesium Calcium µs min FIGURE 8 Common Inorganic Cations
15 Page 14 of Concentration in the Manual Mode The following example demonstrates the advantages of sample concentration with low sensitivity detection versus direct injection with high sensitivity detection. Sample Loop Volume: See Chromatogram Concentrator Column: TCC-LP1 4 x 35mm Analytical Column: IonPac CS14 Analytical Column Eluent: 10 mm Methanesulfonic acid Eluent Flow Rate: 1.0 ml/min Injection Volume: 1.0 ml SRS Suppressor: Cation Self-Regenerating Suppressor, CSRS -ULTRA AutoSuppression Recycle Mode or AES Suppressor Cation Atlas Electrolytic Suppressor, CAES or MMS Suppressor Cation MicroMembrane Suppressor, CMMS III MMS Regenerant: 100 mn TBAOH (Use Dionex Cation Regenerant Solution P/N ) Expected Background Conductivity: < 2 µs Expected System Operating Back Pressure: < 1,300 psi (8.96 MPa) Peaks µg/l (ppb) 1. Lithium Sodium Ammonium Potassium Magnesium Calcium 5.0 FIGURE 9 Manual Concentration versus Direct Injection
16 Page 15 of 17 SECTION 5 TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE The purpose of the Troubleshooting Guide is to help you solve operating problems that may arise while using the TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, and TCC-XLP1 columns. For more information on problems that originate with the Ion Chromatograph, refer to the Troubleshooting Guide in the appropriate operator s manual. If you cannot solve the problem on your own, call your nearest Dionex Regional Office (see, Dionex Worldwide Offices on the Dionex Reference Library CD-ROM). 5.1.High Backpressure from a Contaminated Inlet Bed Support If the TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, or TCC-XLP1 column displays high backpressure, the bed support in the column inlet may be contaminated. A contaminated bed support may also lead to loss of peak asymmetry. WARNING WARNING For proper operation in the SP10 Auto Neutralizer, the TCC columns should generate no more than 70 psi of backpressure at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. If any of the column packing becomes lodged between the end of the column and the bed support washer assembly, no amount of tightening will seal the column. Be sure that the washer and the end of the column are clean before screwing the end fitting back on to the column. Follow the instructions below to change the bed support assembly using one of the two spare bed support assemblies included in the ship kit provided with the column. A. Disconnect the column from the system. B. Using two open-end wrenches, carefully unscrew the inlet (top) column end fitting. C. Turn the end fitting over and tap it against a bench top or other hard, flat surface to remove the bed support and seal assembly. If the bed support must be pried out of the end fitting, use a sharp pointed object such as a pair of tweezers, but be careful that you DO NOT SCRATCH THE WALLS OF THE END FITTING. Discard the old assembly. D. Place a new bed support assembly in the end fitting. Before assembling, clean the column body threads and the end fitting threads of any resin particles. If any resin remains on the threads of either the column body or the end fitting, the column may leak regardless of how tight the end fitting is turned onto the column body. Use the end of the column to carefully start the bed support assembly into the end fitting. E. Screw the end fitting back onto the column. Tighten it finger tight and then, using two open-end wrenches, tighten it an additional 1/4 turn (25 in x lb). Tighten further only if leaks are observed. F. Reconnect the column to the system and resume operation. Column TCC-LP1 (P/N) TCC-ULP1 (P/N) TCC-XLP1 (P/N) Bed Support Assembly End Fitting (10-32 Ferrule Type)
17 Page 16 of High Background, Noise, or Baseline Instability Normally, problems such as high background, noise, or baseline instability will not be attributable to the TCC-LP1, TCC- ULP1, or TCC-XLP1 column. These problems usually originate in either the analytical column or the post-column detection chemistry. Before checking the TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, or TCC-XLP1 as the source of system background noise, consult the appropriate troubleshooting sections in the analytical column's, the Ion Chromatograph Operator s Manual, and the detector manual. If the source of the high background noise is isolated to the TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, or TCC-XLP1, then proceed with the following steps. A. Be sure that the TCC column is not leaking. B. Be sure that the eluents are correctly formulated. C. If you are using an Cation Micro Membrane Suppressor III (CMMS III), be sure that the regenerant is formulated correctly. D. Be sure that the eluents are made from chemicals with the recommended purity (see Section 3, Operation ). E. Be sure that the deionized water used to prepare the reagents has a specific resistance of 18.2 megohm-cm. F. Be sure that the Cation Self-Regenerating Suppressor (CSRS ULTRA II), the Cation Micro Membrane Suppressor (CMMS III), or the Cation Atlas Electrolytic Suppressor (CAES) is suppressing correctly by bypassing the TCC column and making direct injections. 5.3.Poor Peak Shape In some instances, poor peak shape in Ion Chromatography may be caused by a contaminated TCC column. To clean the TCC Column, see, Column Cleanup of Polyvalent Cations and Acid-Soluble Contaminants in the Column Care Appendix. When pursuing pre-concentration with a pump, ensure that the pump has a pulse damper installed. Failure to dampen the pump pulsations may result in damage to the TCC columns. Assistance is available for any problem during the shipment or operation of Dionex instrumentation, columns, and consumables through the Dionex North America Technical Call Center at DIONEX-0 ( ) or through any of the Dionex Offices listed in Dionex Worldwide Offices on the Dionex Reference Library CD-ROM.
18 Page 17 of 17 APPENDIX A Column Care A.1 Recommended Operating Pressures Operating a column above its recommended pressure limit can cause irreversible loss of column performance. The maximum recommended operating pressure for the IonPac Low Pressure Trace Cation Concentrator Column (TCC-LP1) is 3,000 psi. A.2 Column Start-up The column is shipped with 2.5 mm methanesulfonic acid as the storage solution. Flush the column for 30 minutes with eluent before attempting to concentrate sample. Pump the effluent directly to a waste container while washing the column. DO NOT pump this effluent through the guard column, analytical column and/or the suppressor. A.3 Column Storage The TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, TCC-XLP1 columns should be stored in the acid form. Flush approximately 5 ml of any typical HCl or methanesulfonic acid eluent through the TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, and TCC-XLP1. A.4 Column Cleanup of Polyvalent Cations and Acid-soluble Contaminants A. Prepare a 500 ml solution of 1 M HCl/0.1 M KCl. B. Disconnect the guard, analytical columns and the suppressor from the injection valve and the Conductivity Detector. Disconnect the Gradient Mixer or Cation Trap Column (CTC-1) from the gradient pump. Connect the TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, or TCC-XLP1 Column directly to the gradient pump. Direct the effluent from the TCC- LP1, TCC-ULP1, or TCC-XLP1 directly to a waste container. C. Set the flow rate to 1 ml/min. D. Pump the 1 M HCl/0.1 M KCl solution through the column for minutes. E. Equilibrate the TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, or TCC-XLP1 with eluent for 15 minutes at 1 ml/min before resuming normal operation. F. Reconnect the cation guard, analytical column and the suppressor between the injection valve and the Conductivity Detector. Reconnect the Gradient Mixer or Cation Trap Column (CTC-1) between the gradient pump and the Injection Valve. Resume operation. A.5 Column Cleanup Of Organic/Cationic Contaminants A. Prepare a 500 ml solution of 0.1 M HCl/80% acetonitrile. B. Disconnect the guard, analytical columns and the suppressor from the injection valve and the Conductivity Detector. Disconnect the Gradient Mixer or Cation Trap Column (CTC-1) from the gradient pump. Connect the TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, or TCC-XLP1 Column directly to the gradient pump. Direct the effluent from the TCC- LP1, TCC-ULP1, or TCC-XLP1 directly to a waste container. C. Set the flow rate to 1 ml/min. D. Pump the 0.1 M HCl/80% acetonitrile solution through the column for minutes. E. Equilibrate the TCC-LP1, TCC-ULP1, or TCC-XLP1 with eluent for 15 minutes at 1 ml/min before resuming normal operation. F. Reconnect the cation guard, analytical column and the suppressor between the injection valve and the Conductivity Detector. Reconnect the Gradient Mixer or Cation Trap Column (CTC-1) between the gradient pump and the Injection Valve. Resume operation.
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Technical Note Determination of Trace Anions in Concentrated Glycolic Acid INTRODUCTION There is a need for a reliable method to determine trace chloride and sulfate in glycolic acid. The presence of these
Technical Note Determination of Trace Anions in Concentrated Hydrofluoric Acid INTRODUCTION There is a need for a reliable method to determine trace anions in hydrofluoric acid. The large excess of fluoride
TECHNICAL NOTE 122 Separation of heat stable amine salts in methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solutions using high-pressure IC Authors Terri Christison and Linda Lopez Thermo Fisher Scientific, Sunnyvale, CA,
Overcoming Challenging Matrices in Ion Chromatography Presented by: Kirk Chassaniol Gulf Coast Conference 2014 October 14, 2014 Thermo Fisher Scientific NA IC Tech Support 1 The world leader in serving
Technical Note 26 Determination of in Water, Waste Water, and Solid Waste Extracts INTRODUCTION Chromium, while not unique in its properties, is commonly used in various industries because of the characteristics
METHOD 7199 DETERMINATION OF HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM IN DRINKING WATER, GROUNDWATER AND INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY 1.0 SCOPE AND APPLICATION 1.1 This method provides procedures for
California Environmental Protection Agency Air Resources Board PROCEDURE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE ANIONS AND CATIONS IN MOTOR VEHICLE EXHAUST BY ION CHROMATOGRAPHY Standard Operating Procedure No.
Application Note 9 Determination of Trace Anions in Concentrated Bases Using AutoNeutralization Pretreatment and Ion Chromatography Introduction The computer, semiconductor, and food industries need analytical
columns and Trap Columns IonPac AG, AS, mm Eluent Source: EG Temperature: C IonPac AC ( mm) Flow Rate:. m/min Eluent: Potassium hydroxide, Inj. Volume: m, preconcentrated mm from to min, mm mm from min
British American Tobacco Group Research & Development Method - Determination of ammonia in mainstream smoke 1 SCOPE OF APPLICATION The method is applicable to quantitative determination of the yields of
IC Application Work AW CH6-1048-012011 Anion and Cation analysis with Professional IC - automatic dilution and sample preparation with SPM Branch: Chemical industry; Water, wastewater, environmental protection,
PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS Thermo Scientific Dionex eluent suppressors for ion chromatography Suppression was introduced in 97, thereby bringing ion chromatography (IC) to the forefront of modern analytical
Chromatography Thermo Scientific Anion-Exchange Column Product Specifications Attain the optimal resolution of organic acids and inorganic anions using the new Thermo Scientific Dionex IonPac AS11-HC-4µm
columns I o n P a c AS and AS-H C Anion-E x c h a n g e C o l u m n s The IonPac AS anion-exchange column provides fast profiling of inorganic anions and organic acid anions using sodium hydroxide or potassium
Application Update 5 Determination of Organic Acids and Inorganic Anions in Lithium-Containing Boric Acid-Treated Nuclear Power Plant Waters INTRODUCTION For nuclear power plants using a pressurized water
Chromatography Thermo Scientific Dionex IonPac AS Anion-Exchange Column Product Specifications The Thermo Scientific Dionex IonPac AS column is a high-capacity, hydroxide-selective, anion-exchange column
Determination of Caffeine by HPLC Introduction It was a long history before real high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) had evolved. The very first indication of a chromatographic separation was
Thermo Scientific Dionex Ion Chromatography Solutions Global water safety bromate analysis in drinking water Safe drinking water public health assurance As a vital limited resource required for survival,
Accurate and Precise Automated Dilution and In-line Conductivity Measurement Using the AS-AP Autosampler Prior to Analysis by Ion Chromatography Carl Fisher and Linda Lopez Thermo Fisher Scientific, Sunnyvale,
METHOD 8030A ACROLEIN AND ACRYLONITRILE BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY 1.0 SCOPE AND APPLICATION 1.1 Method 8030 is used to determine the concentration of the following volatile organic compounds: Compound Name
CAPCELL PAK C18 IF2 Type http://hplc.shiseido.co.jp/e/column/html/if2_index.htm Page 1 of 2 List of Sales Representatives Contact Shiseido Technical Materials Catalog List HPLC Columns HPLC Instruments
METHOD 80 ACETONITRILE BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH NITROGEN-PHOSPHORUS DETECTION 1.0 SCOPE AND APPLICATION 1.1 Method 80 may be used to determine the concentration of acetonitrile (CAS No. 75-05-8) in aqueous
PRODUCT MAUAL OMIPAC PCX-100 GUARD COLUM (PCX-100 GUARD, P/ 042193 OMIPAC PCX-100 AALYTICAL COLUM (PCX-100 AALYTICAL, P/ 042189) QUICKSTART STEPS AD LIKS Click blue text below to get started. 1. The standard
ION CHROMATOGRAPHY SYSTEM S 150 WATER ANALYSIS ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS ANION & CATION ANALYSIS ION CHROMATOGRAPHY IIon Chromatography is an analytical separation technique based on ionic interactions. Dissolved
CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION II. II. GETTING STARTED a. Column Connectors b. Column Installation c. Column Equilibration d. ecord Installation e. Initial Column Efficiency Determination f. VanGuard Pre-columns
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS Introduction The Van London-pHoenix Company Fluoroborate Ion Selective Electrode is used to quickly, simply, accurately, and economically measure Fluoroborate in aqueous solutions.
Acclaim Mixed-Mode WCX-1 Product Manual for the Acclaim Mixed-Mode WCX-1 Column Page 1 of 28 PRODUCT MANUAL for the Acclaim Mixed-Mode WCX-1 Columns 4.6 x 150 mm, P/N (068353) 4.6 x 250 mm, P/N (068352)
808q Waters Ion Chromatography Method Anion Analysis Using Hydroxide Eluent and Indirect Conductivity Detection and EPA Method B-1011 for Nitrite and Nitrate Using UV Detection 2000 Required Instrumentation:
Metrosep A Supp 10-100 /4.0 Branch Environment, Food, Beverages Keywords IC; 850; 858; Metrosep A Supp 10-100/4.0; Cyanide; Sulfide; 2.850.9110; DC Mode Summary The determination of sulfide and cyanide
PRODUCT MANUAL for the ACCLAIM OA GUARD COLUMN 4.3 x 0 mm, P/N 0695 ACCLAIM OA ANALYTICAL COLUMN 4 x 50 mm, P/N 0690 4 x 50 mm, P/N 06903 QUICKSTART STEPS AND LINKS Click blue text below to get started..
For P/ACE MDQ and P/ACE MDQ plus Capillary Electrophoresis Systems A49109AE May 2015 AB Sciex Pte. Ltd and its affiliates disclaims all warranties with respect to this document, expressed or implied, including
Introduction to the theory of HPLC HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) depends on interaction of sample analytes with the stationary phase (packing) and the mobile phase to effect a separation.
Determination of Tartaric cid in Tolterodine Tartrate Drug Products by IC with Suppressed Conductivity Detection Suparerk Tukkeeree, Chanita Chantarasukon, and Jeff Rohrer Thermo Fisher Scientific, angkok,
Chemistry 3200 High Performance Liquid Chromatography: Quantitative Determination of Headache Tablets Liquid chromatography was developed by Tswett in early 1900 s and was shown to be a powerful separation
HPLC Columns MANUAL HILICpak VT-50 2D Shodex HPLC Columns Europe, Middle East, Africa, Russia For technical support please use contact details shown below: SHOWA DENKO EUROPE GmbH Shodex Business Konrad-Zuse-Platz
CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION II. III. IV. GETTING STARTED a. Column Installation b. Column Equilibration c. Initial Column Efficiency Determination COLUMN USE a. Guard Columns b. Sample Preparation c. ph Range
Application Note Inorganic Ions, Water Testing, Minerals, Metals, Basic Chemicals Analysis of Metals, Halides, and Inorganic Ions Using Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography Authors Anne Mack, Adam Bivens
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS Introduction COLE-PARMER INDUSTRIAL AMMONIUM ION ELECTRODE INSTRUCTION MANUAL The Cole-Parmer Industrial Ammonium Ion Electrode is used to quickly, simply, accurately, and economically
EPA Method 549.2 Revision 1.0 Determination of Diquat and Paraquat in Drinking Water by Liquid-Solid Extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection* UCT Products: ENVIRO-CLEAN