# Processes and Process Variables

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1 FACULTY OF CHEMICAL & ENERGY ENGINEERING Faculty of Petroleum & Renewable Energy Chapter 2 Processes and Process Variables Sem I (2013/14) 1 Course Learning Outcomes At the end of this course students will be able to Calculate the composition in term of mole fractions when the composition of a mixture is given in term of mass fractions and vice versa. Determine the average molecular weight of a mixture from the mass or molar composition of the mixture. 2

2 3.1 Mass and Volume Density (ρ) is mass per unit volume kg/m 3, g/cm 3, and lb m /ft 3 use to relate mass and volume Specific Volume is volume per unit mass m 3 /kg, cm 3 /g, and ft 3 /lb m an inverse of density Specific Gravity is the ratio of density ρ and ρ ref SG = ρ / ρ ref The reference ρ most commonly used is water at 4.0 o C ρ ref (H 2 O, 4.0 o C ) = g/cm kg/m lb m /ft 3 Specific gravity of some compounds are listed in Table B.1 3 Mass, Volume and Density Example - Calculate the density of mercury in lb m /ft 3 from a tabulated specific gravity, and calculate the volume in ft 3 occupied by 215 kg of mercury. (Table B.1 pg 631) From Table B.1 (pp 619) the Specific Gravity of mercury is ρ Hg =13.546(62.46 lb m /ft 3 ) = lb m /ft 3 V = 215 kg 1 lb m 1 ft 3 = (ft 3 ) kg lb m 5

3 3.2 Flowrate Flow rate - rate at which material is transported through process line Mass flow rate (mass/time) kg/s or lb m /s Volumetric flow rate (volume/time) m 3 /s or ft 3 /s The mass and volume is related by the fluid density (ρ) The density (ρ) of a fluid can be used to convert known volumetric flow rate to the mass flow rate and vice versa m (kg fluid/s) V (m 3 fluid/s) Chemical Composition Atomic Weight - the mass of atom on a scale that assign 12 C a mass exactly 12. Molecular Weight -the sum of atomic weight of atoms that constitute a molecule Atomic weight of Oxygen (O) = 16 Molecular Weight of molecular Oxygen (O 2 ) = 32 Gram-mole - amount whose mass is equal to its molecular weight units used - gmol, lb m -mole, kmol If Molecular weight of a substance is M, then there are M kg/kmol, M g/mol and M lb m /lb-mole of this substance Carbon monoxide (CO) has a molecular weight of 28; 1 mol of (CO) therefore contains 28 g 1 lb m -mole of (CO) contains 28 lb m and 1 kgmol of (CO) contains 28 kg 8

4 Molecular Weight Example : 34 kg of ammonia (NH 3 ): M = 17 are equivalent to? kmol NH 3 34 kg NH 3 1 kmol NH 3 = 2 kmol NH 3 17 kg NH 3 4 lb-moles of ammonia are equivalent to? lb m NH 3 4 lb-mole NH 3 17 lb m NH 3 = 68 lb m NH 3 1 lb-mole NH 3 One gram-mole of any species contains 6.02 x (Avogadro s number) molecules of that species 9 Conversion of mass flowrate to molar flow rate The molecular weight of a species can be used to relate the mass flow rate to corresponding molar flow rate Example: If ammonia (NH 3 ): M = 17 flows through a pipeline at a rate of 100 kg/h, the molar flowrate of the equivalent is 100 kg NH 3 1 kmol NH 3 = 5.88 kmol NH 3 h 17 kg NH 3 h If the output stream of a reactor contains NH 3 flowing at a rate of 850 lb-moles/min, the corresponding mass flowrate is 850 lb-moles NH 3 17 lb m NH 3 = lb m NH 3 min 1 lb-mole NH 3 min 10

5 Mass and Mole Fractions Process streams occasionally contain more than one substance To define the composition of mixture we need Mass Fraction : x A = mass of A kg A total mass kg total or g A g total or lb m A lb m total Mole Fraction : y A = moles of A total moles kmol A kmol total or mol A mol total or lb - moles A lb - moles total The percent by mass of A is 100 x A, and the mole percent of A is 100 y A 11 Average Molecular Weight Average molecular weight - Average of molecular weight of a mixture, M Base on mole fraction M = y 1 M 1 + y 2 M 2 +K= y i M i all components Base on mass fraction 1 M = x M x2 M 2 + K = all components xi Mi 12

6 Test yourself a) Calculate the average molecular weight (kg/kmol) of hydrocarbon gas mixture having the molar composition of 90% methane, 5% ethane and 5% propane. b) Using the average molecular weight obtained from question (a), calculate the percent mass composition of methane, ethane and propane. c) Calculate the average molecular weight (lb-mol/lb m ) of gas mixture having the mass composition of 76.7% nitrogen and 23.3% oxygen. Solution Question (a) Given : y C1 = 0.90, y C2 = 0.05, y C3 = 0.05 = 0.90 kmol C1 16 kg C kmol C2 30 kg C kmol C3 44 kg C3 + + kmol kmol C1 kmol kmol C2 kmol kmol C3 = 18.1 kg mixture/kmol

7 Solution Question (c) Given : x N2 = 0767, y O2 = lb m N 2 lb-mole N lb mo 2 lb-mole O 2 lb m 28 lb m N 2 lb m 32 lb m O 2 = lb-mole/lb m = 28.6 lb m mixture/lb-mole Concentration Massconcentration is the mass of component per unit volume of the mixture (g/cm 3, lbm/ft 3 or kg/m 3 ) Molar concentration is the number of moles of the component per unit volume of the mixture (mol/cm 3, lb-mole/ft 3 or kmol/m 3 ) Molarity is the value of the molar concentration of the solute expressed in gram-moles solute/liter solution 2-molar solution ofacontains 2 mola/ liter solution Concentration factor can be used to relate mass (molar) flow rate of a component of a continuous stream to the total volumetric flow rate of the stream Given: 6 liters of 0.02-molar solution of NaOH contains 6 liters 0.02 mol NaOH = 0.12 mol NaOH liter 16

8 Conversion of mass, molar and volumetric flow rate A 0.5 molar aqueous solution of sulfuric acid flows into a process unit at a rate of 1.25 m 3 /min. The specific gravity of the solution is Calculate (1) the mass concentration of H 2 SO 4 in kg/m 3, (2) the mass flow rate of H 2 SO 4 in kg/s, and (3) the mass fraction of H 2 SO 4 kg c HSO m = 0.5 mol H 2 SO 4 98 g 1 kg 10 3 liter liter mol 10 3 g 1 m 3 = 49 kg H 2 SO 4 m 3 17 Solution for (2) and (3) kg HSO 2 s q m 3 49 kg H 2 SO 4 1 min = min 1 m 3 60s kg 1.02 HSO 2 s = 4 ρ solution = (1.03)( 1000 kg/m 3 ) = 1030 kg/m 3 Q solution (kg/s) = 1.25 m 3 solution 1030 kg 1 min = kg/s min m 3 solution 60 s qh 1.02 kg HSO/s kg HSO x 2 SO = 4 = = H 2 SO 4 Q kg solution/s kg solution total 18

9 Parts per Million (ppm) and Parts per Billion (ppb) Concentration of trace species (present in extremely small amount) in mixtures of gases or liquids Defined as mass ratios (usually for liquid) or mole ratio (usually for gases) Signify how many parts (e.g. gram, moles) of the species present per million or billion parts (gram, moles) of the mixture If y i is the fraction of component i in the gas or liquid mixture, then by definition ppm i = y i x 10 6 ppb i = y i x Example: Use of ppm The current OSHA limit for HCN in air is 10.0 ppm. A lethal dose of HCN in air (from the Merck Index) is 300 mg/kg of air at room temperature. How many mg HCN/kg air is the 10.0 ppm? What fraction of the lethal dose is 10.0 ppm? What is the phase involved??? What is the suitable basis??? 20

10 FACULTY OF CHEMICAL & ENERGY ENGINEERING Faculty of Petroleum & Renewable Energy Process and Process Equipment in Chemical Industry Sem I (2013/14) 21 Course Learning Outcomes At the end of this course students will be able to 1. Describe chemical engineering process terms such as distillation, absorption, scrubbing, liquid extraction, crystallization, adsorption and leaching. 2. Explain various types of equipment involved in chemical engineering processes 22

11 Process and Process Unit Process - any operation that causes a physical or chemical change in a substance or a mixture of substances Material enters a process is referred as input or feed Material leaves is called as output or product Process Unit is an apparatus for carrying out the process input feed Process Unit output product 23 Process Units Adsorption Processes Absorption Distillation Extraction Filtration Stripping Evaporation Condensation Crystallization Heating Cooling Absorber Adsorber Boiler Compressor Decanter Distillation column Dryer Heat exchanger Fan Pump Scrubber Settler Stripper Evaporator Condenser Vaporizer Mixer Reactor 24

12 Process Overall schematic of chemical process industry Feed Reaction Separation Heat Recovery and Utility mixture pure component Characteristic of Separation Process Consist of Force Mixture Separation Agent Separation Device Pure Component product Separating Agent (i) Heat (ii) Solvent (iii) Pressure (iv) Gravity or Mechanical Process Flow Diagram

13 Reaction Raw materials reacted to form products Mechanism Material balance Energy balance Type of reactions Exothermic (releasing heat) Endothermic (absorbing heat) Example S + O 2 ---> SO 2 Equipment : Reactor Raw Material A Raw Material B Side Product Excess Raw Material Product C Q 1.7_p16.exe 30 Mixing There are two or more entering streams There is only one exit stream, a mixed stream The streams can be any phase, gas, liquid or solid. Mixer Feed 1, A Mixer Mixer Product, A + B = C The total balance is A + B = C Involving material balance Mixer Feed 2, B 31

14 Splitting Splitter Feed, A The total balance is A = B + C Composition of Streams A, B and C is the same for each. Splitter Exit 1, B There is only one independent material balance since all compositions are equal. Splitter Exit 2, C Involving material balance 32 Cooling Process fluid being cooled Heat being transferred from process fluid to the cooling fluid Mechanism Heat balance Equipment : Heat Exchanger, Cooler Process Fluid Input (T 3 ) Cooling Fluid Input (T 1 ) Cooling Fluid Output (T 2 ) Process Fluid Output (T 4 ) T 3 >T 4 >T 2 >T 1 33

15 Heating Process Fluid is being heated Heat is being transferred being from Hotter Fluid to Process Fluid Mechanism Heat balance. Equipment : Heat Exchanger Process Fluid Input (T 3 ) Hot Fluid Input (T 1 ) Hot Fluid Output (T 2 ) Process Fluid Output (T 4 ) T 1 >T 2 >T 4 >T 3 34 Separation Phase 1 Phase 1 Feed Feed Phase 2 Separation by phase creation MSA Phase 2 Separation by phase addition Feed Phase 1 Phase 2 Separation by barrier

16 Separation Feed Phase 1 Phase 1 Feed Force field or gradient Phase 2 Phase 2 Separation by solid agent Separation by Force Field or Gradient Separation Processes and Separating Agents by Phase Creation or Addition Process Absorption Adsorption Separating agent(s) Solvent Solid Adsorbent/resin Application(s) Removal of CO 2 and H 2 S from natural gas with amine solution. Separation of meta- and paraxylene, air separation, water demineralization Distillation Heat Propylene/propane separation, production of gasoline from crude oil, and air separation. Evaporation Heat Water desalination and manufactured of sugars. Stripping Stripping Gas Removal of benzene from wastewaters. Extraction Solvent Recovery of benzene, toluene, xylenes from gasoline reformate, removal of caffeine from coffee. Drying Heat Drying of ceramics, plastics and foods. 37

17 Distillation Raw Material (liquid or gas) is being separated by using Heating Contact between 2 phases (vapor & liquid) Material and energy balance needs to solve simultaneously If there is no packing and stages in the distillation column normally it is called flash column. Use to separate raw oil to gasoline, tar and coke. Raw Material (feed) Product (vapor) (having low boiling point) 3.2_p33.exe Q Product (liquid) (having high boiling point) 38 Distillation occurs because of the differences in the vapor pressure (volatility) of the components in the liquid mixture

18 Flash Vaporizer (Flash Distillation) Vapor Pressure reduction and/or heating will change the liquid into two phases: vapor and liquid. Liquid Q Involving heat and energy balances Water Example: Recovery of water from sea water. 40 Evaporation Raw Material (less concentrated) Water Q Heating mechanism will withdraw the water from the raw material Process Fluid will become concentrated Involving heat and energy balances Equipment : Evaporator Product (concentrated) 41

19 Drying Water being withdrawn from raw material through heating mechanism Dried Product Involving heat and energy balances Example Drying of clothes Process of making dry salted fish Raw Material (wet) water Q 42 Extraction (Liquid-Liquid) Multicomponent Liquid (A, B) Products (A,C) Extract Layer Multicomponent Liquid being separated using extraction technique by utilizing solvent Terminology: Component A : solute Component C : solvent Component B and C : solution Solvent (C) Involving material balance Products (A, B) Raffinate Layer Example: Separation of Water (A), Chloroform (B), using Acetone (C ) 43

20 Leaching (Solid Liquid Extraction) Mechanism Solvent (C) will extract solute A from slurry B Extract layer will consist of components A and C Some of the solute A left behind with solid B is called raffinate layer Involving material balance Example production of vegetable oils where organic solvent such as hexane, acetone and ether are being used extraction of oil from peanuts, soybeans, sunflower seeds and palm kernel. Raw Material Solid or fluid (A, B) Products (A,C) Extract Layer Slurry Products (A,B) Raffinate Solvent C 44 Absorption (Scrubber) Solute (A) being absorbed from gas phase (B) to liquid phase (C) Gas (B) Involving material balance Example: SO 3 being absorbed from air onto water SO 3 dissolved in water will be treated as wastewater Gas A, B Liquid (A,C) Solvent C Liquid 45

21 Stripping (Desorber) Solute (A) being absorbed from liquid phase (A, B) to vapor phase (C) Vapor (A, C) Involving material balance and energy balance Liquid A, B Vapor (C) Example: Steam stripping of naphtha, kerosene, and gas oil side cuts from crude distillation units to remove light ends. Liquid (A, B) 46 Humidifier The feed Gas (A) is not saturated Liquid (B) is evaporated in the process unit The vapor exit (A and B) product may or may not be saturated Involving material balance Gas A Wetter Gas A and B Example: Humidification of air using H 2 0 Volatile Feed Liquid (B) 47

22 Condenser Feed stream contain a condensable component (A) and a non-condensable component (B) Condensate is a liquid with the condensable component (A) only. Coolin g water The dry gas exit stream is saturated with the condensable component (B) at the temperature and pressure of the process. Involving material balance Moist Gas A and Condensable B Condensate Liquid (A) Exit Gas B 48 Adsorption Process whereby the solid (adsorbent) absorbing liquid from surrounding areas. Dry gas is the product For separation between gases, pressure is being used to change the phases of the components. Involving material balance Example Separation of water from air using alumina silica. To decrease the humidity of the air. Gas, Liquid Gas Adsorbent Gas/liquid being trapped in the adsorbent 49

23 Crystallization Saturated solution temperature being lowered down to produce crystal Mechanism Material Balance Heat Balance Example: Crystallization of p-xylene from p-xylene and m-xylene mixture Crystallization of sugar from sugar solution. Solution Other Product (Liquid) Product (crystal) Q 50 Filtration Solid being separated from slurry that contains liquid and solid. Mechanism Material Balance Example: Separation of palm oil from slurry that contains fiber and oil after the screw press. Process of making coconut milk Slurry Product (Liquid) Filtrate Cake (solid) 51

24 Screening Solid being separated according to size. Fine size solid will pass thru the screen. Mechanism Material balance Example Separation of coarse sugar and fine sugar. Sieving powder Solid Mixture Fine Solid Coarse Solid 52

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