# Calculate a rate given a species concentration change.

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1 Kinetics Define a rate for a given process. Change in concentration of a reagent with time. A rate is always positive, and is usually referred to with only magnitude (i.e. no sign) Reaction rates can be measured by: Taking samples from a reaction and analyzing, titration, spectroscopic methods. Continuous monitoring of reaction, spectroscopic methods, electrochemical techniques, measuring gas pressures. Understand the factors that affect reaction rate. Collision theory- reacting species must collide in order for reaction to occur. Reactions require orientation and activation barrier requirements. A catalyst lowers the activation barrier. Temperature changes energy or speed at which particles move, which effect the frequency of collisions. Particle size (heterogeneous reactions), greater surface area to volume ratio causes more collisions. Reagent concentration (homogeneous reactions), increasing concentration causes more collisions. Calculate a rate given a species concentration change. Understand the general form of the expression for the rate equation and determine order of reaction from this. K is the rate constant. X and Y denote the order of reaction with respect to their reagent, A and B respectively. X+Y is the overall order of the reaction. If either X or Y is 0, the reaction is independent of the concentration of that reactant. The values of x and y are not correlated to the stoichiometry of a reaction and is found experimentally. Determine orders and rate constants from initial rate data.

2 Understand the difference between a differential and an integrated rate equation. Differential equation determines the rate of reaction in terms of concentration. Integral equation calculates concentration in terms of time. Derive and use the integrated first order rate equation.

3 Understand and use the relationship between temperature and rate (the Arrhenius equation) to determine Ea and A. In the rate equation, the component that depends strongly on temperature is the k value. A is a constant. E a is the activation energy in J/mol. R is the universal gas constant, J mol -1 K -1. T is temperature in terms of Kelvin. Define an elementary reaction and determine rate laws and molecularlity for elementary reactions. Recognize that most reactions are made up of a series of elementary steps. The order of the reaction for each reactant should be equal to the number of molecules of that reactant involved in each collision. Elementary reactions are those that occur in a one-step process. The set of elementary reactions that make up an overall reaction is called the reaction mechanism. The rate-determining step is the slowest elementary reaction in a mechanism. The stoichiometry of the rate determining step determines the rate law. The number of molecules which react in an elementary reaction is called the molecularity of the reaction. Species which are produced in one step of a mechanism and consumed subsequently are called intermediates. They are often reactive molecules. Understand the nature of, and the different types of, catalysis Speeds up reaction without getting consumed. Allows reaction to proceed with lower activation energy. The proportion of molecules with sufficient energy to react increases. Heterogeneous- different phase as reactants. Surface enters reaction by adsorbing reactants and facilitating the breaking of bonds. E.g. Haber-Bosch process for ammonia. Homogeneous- same phase. Difficult to separate from reagents and products. Enzymes- are homogeneous biological catalysts. Usually large protein molecules.

4 Stereochemistry Understand concept of isomerism Concept of hybridization is used to explain a shape of a molecule. Many reactions and properties of molecules is related to its shape. Isomerism is the phenomenon where certain compounds, with the same molecular formula, exist in different forms owing to the different organizations of atoms. Recall concepts of structure and bonding from last semester One s and three p orbitals can hybridize to form four equivalent sp3 orbitals. sp3 hybrid orbitals have the large lobe of each orbital pointing toward the vertex of a tetrahedron. Distinguish between the different types of isomers: structural isomers stereoisomers conformational isomers configurational isomers enantiomers diastereoisomers Structural (constitutional) isomers- atoms are connected in a different order. Causes different physical and chemical properties. Sometimes differences are modest. Can have different functional groups. Conformational isomers- structures that can be interconverted by rotation about a single bond. Barrier to rotation about single bond is low. An infinite number of conformations exist about any single bond. Sawhorse representations can be used to depict these isomers. Staggered conformation is lower in energy than eclipse conformation. Rare to isolate conformational isomers. Usually present as equilibrium mixture In biology, only certain conformations will bind to receptors. Configurational isomers- are those that cannot be interconverted without breaking bonds. Due to the presence of pi bonds, which require a significant amount of energy. This ideas to two stereoisomers with different physical properties. Stereoisomer requirements: at both ends of the double ended must have different substituents. Stereoisomers- Enantiomers are non-superimposable with its mirror image stereoisomers. These are identified to be chiral. They have no plane of symmetry. A carbon atom with 4 different groups will be chiral, thus has an enantiomer pair. Enantiomers have the same physical and chemical properties. (density, bp, mp, reactivity) React differently to other enantiomers, and plane polarized light. Each enantiomer rotates the same amount in different directions through a polarimeter. An equal mixture of each enantiomer is called a racemic mixture. Optical rotation has no direct correlation with structure (physical measurement). Only one type of enantiomer exists in nature. An opposite enantiomer can have different flavors, as it interacts differently to chiral surfaces. Diastereoisomers- stereoisomers that are not mirror images. Usually have very different chemical and physical properties. Usually exists when there are 2 stereogenic centers. Have relative stereochemistry. A meso compound is one that has an internal plane of symmetry making it achiral.

5 Systematically describe stereochemistry (E/Z, R/S) Sequence rules- Clockwise is rectus (R) and anticlockwise is sinister (S). The two higher priority groups are on the same side, zusammen (Z). The higher priority groups are on opposite sides, entgegen (E). Appreciate the relevance of all this in biology and medicine Structural Determination Know the common tools used to determine the structure of compounds: (Mass spectrometry (MS), UV-Vis spectroscopy, Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)) X-ray Crystallography- used to determine the arrangement of atoms, ions, molecules in a crystalline structure. Requires high-quality crystal of the sample. (Direct Method) Indirect Methods: Elemental analysis- the empirical formula. Percentage composition, relative masses of elements in compounds. Index of hydrogen deficiency (IDH)- some of rings and pi bonds. H Reference - H molecule divided by 2= IDH. Elements from group 17 (F, Cl, Br, I) added to the reference: subtract 1 H. No correction is necessary for the addition of group 16 elements For group 15 elements (N and P) added to the reference: add 1 H. Mass spectrometry- electron beam creates M + ions and more electrons. A 1:1 ratio refers to bromine and its isotopes. A 3:1 ratio indicates chlorine and its isotopes. UV-Vis Spectroscopy- electronic transition occurs with UV radiation absorption. Causes electrons to jump from bonding or lone pair orbitals into non-bonding or anti-bonding orbitals. The wavelength of radiation required depends on energy differences. Conjugation is the term used to describe systems that contain alternating single and double bonds.

6 More than 1 double bond required for conjugation. The energy gap between HOMO and LUMO decreases with increasing conjugation, which increases wavelength emitted. Infra-Red spectroscopy- molecular vibrations. Determines functional groups. Types of vibration: stretching (higher cm -1 ) and bending (lower). The stronger the bond the higher the cm -1. The C Y stretching frequency decreases with an increase in mass of Y. Hybridization effects cause the stretching cm -1 to increase from sp3 to sp. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy- information on how atoms are connected. Provides information on H atoms. Splitting occurs in a strong magnetic field. Resonance: the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by a spinning nucleus, resulting in flip of nuclear state. Chemical Shift: number of different types of environments. Integration: number of protons in an environment. Multiplicity: number of protons on the adjacent carbon atom. n+1 rule: number of protons + 1 = multiplicity. Shielded protons have higher electron density. Upfield shift = smaller delta. Deshielded protons have reduced electron density. Downfield shift = larger delta. Interpreting NMR Spectra: Alkanes: a narrow range in the up-field region- signal overlap can be an issue. Alkenes: region. Alcohols: vary from 0.5-5, although usually in the region. O-H signals are often broad. The reason is proton exchange via hydrogen bonding network with another (alcohol) molecule. Benzene and other aromatic compounds: typically Complex due to overlap and/or multiplet signal splitting. Amine: similar to alcohols, vary from N-H bonds are also often broad and signal splitting between the N-H and NH 2 group and its neighboring CH 2 is not seen due to proton exchange. Aldehydes: down-field at Although there are no protons on the neighboring group (C=O), coupling to the next neighbor (e.g. CH2) can lead to narrow splitting (triplet) of the aldehyde signal. Carboxylic acids: appear far down field at as a broad signal. Esters: Protons on the alpha carbon of the carbonyl group (C=O) are slightly de-shielded at while the protons on the carbon atom bound to the ester oxygen are more strongly de-shielded at This makes it possible to distinguish ethyl acetate from its constitutional isomer methyl propionate.

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