1 Classification of Living Amy Brown Science Stuff Things
2 Scientists have described and named a total of: 1.5 million species. It is estimated that the total number of species is about: 10 million.
3 Life on earth is constantly evolving and changing slowly over time. Scientists attempt to order the natural world by grouping and classifying all living organisms. As technologies improve, so have our systems of classification.
4 A Summary of Darwin s Theory of Evolution The species that are alive on Earth today are descended with modification from ancestral species that lived in the past. 1. Organisms produce more offspring than can survive. Of the offspring that do survive, many will never. reproduce 2. Because more organisms are produced than can survive, there is: intense competition for limited resources, such as food, water, and shelter. 3. Individuals that are best suited to their environment survive, reproduce, and pass their traits on to their offspring. Other organisms that are less suited for their environment often die, or will not be reproductively competitive. This is the process of natural selection and causes the many species of organisms on Earth to change over time.
5 For 3.5 billion years, life on Earth has been constantly changing. Natural selection has led to a staggering diversity in organisms. To study this diversity, scientists must give each organism a name and sort them into groups.
6 To study the diversity of life, biologists use a classification system to name organisms and them in a logical manner. group The branch of biology that classifies organisms and assigns each organism a universally accepted name.
7 Early Attempts at Classification Organisms were first classified more than 2000 years ago by the Greek philosopher,. Aristotle Aristotle first sorted organisms into two groups: plants and animals.
8 He divided animals into three groups: Land dwellers Can you see the problems with this system????? Water dwellers Air dwellers
9 He divided plants into three groups: Herbs Shrubs Trees
10 By the 15 th and 16 th centuries, it became obvious that there were many problems with this system of classification. Many organisms were placed in groups to which they had no real relationship with the other members of the group. Many new organisms were being discovered and needed to be classified. The use of common names was very confusing. For example: catfish, jellyfish, shellfish.
11 In response to the need for a better system of classification, the Swedish naturalist, Carolus Linnaeus _, developed the system of classification that we still use today.
12 Carolus Linnaeus ( ) Linnaeus set up a classification system based on. structural similarity He thought that the organisms that looked alike were: the most closely related. Linnaeus developed a system that placed an organism in a particular and group assigned it a. scientific name
13 He developed a naming system called binomial nomenclature that is still in use today. The system of assigning a scientific name that consists of two parts.
14 Division Plant Kingdoms Division Animal Phylum Phylum Each subset was further subdivided until he had developed of 7 classification. levels He first divided all organisms into large groups that he called. kingdoms He based his classification on two kingdoms: plant and animal. A kingdom would be further subdivided into smaller groups. Each subdivision of a kingdom is called a phylum in the animal kingdom, or a in the plant kingdom. division
15 List these in your notes! Organisms are placed in the same species if: they can mate and produce fertile offspring. In the system developed by Linnaeus, the kingdom was the biggest, broadest group. More recently scientists have added an additional level above the kingdom called a. domain A species contains: only one type of organism.
16 Rules of Binomial Nomenclature (Linnaeus) The scientific name always consists of two words: the genus and the species. All scientific names are in. Latin It is understood by all scientists. The genus name is always capitalized; the species name is never capitalized. The two names are always written: in italics or underlined. No two organisms can have the same name.
17 Below is a chart showing the classification of four different animals. Use the chart to answer the questions below. Animal #1 Animal #2 Animal #3 Animal #4 Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Arthropoda Arthropoda Arthropoda Arthropoda Hexapoda Hexapoda Hexapoda Hexapoda Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Nymphalidae Nymphalidae Papilionidae Nymphalidae Danaus Vanessa Papilio Danaus plexippus atalanta rutulus gilippus What is the scientific name of Animal #1? Danaus plexippus Which of these animals belong to the same phylum? Which of these animals belong to the same order? 1, 2, 3, and 4 1, 2, 3, and 4
18 Below is a chart showing the classification of four different animals. Use the chart to answer the questions below. Animal #1 Animal #2 Animal #3 Animal #4 Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Arthropoda Arthropoda Arthropoda Arthropoda Hexapoda Hexapoda Hexapoda Hexapoda Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Nymphalidae Nymphalidae Papilionidae Nymphalidae Danaus Vanessa Papilio Danaus plexippus atalanta rutulus gilippus Which of these animals is the most distantly related to the others? Which of these animals belong to the same family? Animal #3 1, 2, and 4
19 Below is a chart showing the classification of four different animals. Use the chart to answer the questions below. Animal #1 Animal #2 Animal #3 Animal #4 Animalia Animalia Animalia Animalia Arthropoda Arthropoda Arthropoda Arthropoda Hexapoda Hexapoda Hexapoda Hexapoda Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Lepidoptera Nymphalidae Nymphalidae Papilionidae Nymphalidae Danaus Vanessa Papilio Danaus plexippus atalanta rutulus gilippus Which two of these animals are the most closely related? How do you know? Animals 1 and 4 are the most closely related. They belong to the same genus.
20 To show the evolutionary relationship between different groups of organisms, scientists construct. phylogenetic trees Modern Taxonomy Modern taxonomists consider the phylogeny of an organism when attempting to classify it. Phylogeny: A phylogenetic tree is a family tree that shows: The evolutionary history of an organism. the evolutionary relationships thought to exist among different groups of organisms.
21 What is the closest relative to the Rotifers? What does a branch point represent? The phylogenetic tree to the left shows a few of the phyla of the Animal Kingdom. What is the common ancestor of all organisms shown on this tree? Protists Are the Cnidarians more closely related to the sponges or to the comb jellies (Ctenophores)? The Ctenophores Roundworms The last common ancestor shared by two or more organisms.
22 Traditionally, the morphology ( ) structure of the organism was the basis for its classification. Modern taxonomy now takes into account other types of evidence when attempting to classify an organism. Cellular Organization Biochemical Similarities
23 Morphology is classification based on: the structures possessed by the organism. The average person would use color and size, but these are the least important in classification.
24 Example: The bones found in the wing of a bird, the wing of a bat, the forearm of a human and the flipper of a whale are homologous to one another. Homologous structures have the same structure, but different functions.
25 Analogous structures: Similar in function but not in structure. Analogous structures are not derived from a common ancestor. Example: The wing of a bird and the wing of a butterfly have the same function, but there is nothing in common in their structure.
26 Vestigial Structures Vestigial Structure: A structure that is reduced in size and seems to be "left over" from a previous ancestor. Examples: Human Appendix Hips in snakes. The greater the number of homologous structures two organisms share, the more: closely related they are thought to be.
27 Archaeopteryx The fossil record gives us many clues as to the morphology of ancient species, but it is an incomplete record. Other lines of evidence must be considered when classifying an organism. Following are 5 additional areas of consideration.
28 Cellular Organization Similarity in cell structures provides evidence that organisms may be related. Examples: What kinds of plastids are present? Does the cell possess a nucleus? Is there a cell wall present? What is the cell wall composed of?
29 Evolutionary Relationships Fossils show that organisms alive today are similar to organisms that are now. extinct Example: 25 breeds of dogs all came from a wolf-like ancestor
30 Biochemical Similarities Similarities of chemical compounds found within cells can be used as evidence to show relationships between organisms. A comparison between the proteins of two organisms serves as a. molecular clock Simple mutations occur all the time, causing slight differences in the DNA and the proteins being built. When the proteins of two different organisms are compared, the number of differences in amino acid sequences is a clue as to how long ago two species diverged from a shared common ancestor.
31 Genetic Similarities Two organisms that bear no resemblance to one another anatomically may still be related to one another. Two different looking organisms may have similar genes in their DNA. Do the two organisms being compared have the same number of chromosomes? The same type of chromosomes? Example: Humans have a gene that is the code for building a protein called myosin. This protein is a primary component of our muscles. Yeasts (which have no muscles) have the same gene. The gene in yeasts produces the same myosin protein as it does in humans. In yeasts, this protein is used to materials around the inside of the cell. This genetic similarity is an indication that yeasts and humans share. a common ancestry
32 Embryological Similarities Similarities in embryological development provide evidence of phylogenetic relationships. Some organisms show no similarities as adults, but are very, very similar as. embryos
33 Cladistics is a relatively new method of: classifying organisms. Cladistics uses features called shared derived characters to establish evolutionary relationships. A derived character is a feature that: evolved only within the group under consideration. An example might be the feathers of birds. Birds are the only animals to have feathers. It is therefore assumed that feathers evolved within the bird group and were not inherited from a distant ancestor. Shared derived characters are strong evidence of common ancestry between the organisms that share them.
34 A diagram that shows the evolutionary relationships among a group of organisms. Hair Placenta Live birth What are the derived characters shown in this cladogram? Do amphibians have an amniote egg? NO Openings in skull for muscles Amniote egg Do turtles have an amniote egg? YES
35 Hair Placenta Live birth List the groups that give live birth to their young. Marsupials and placental mammals What are the derived characters of the monotremes? Amniote egg, openings in skull, and hair. Openings in skull for muscles Amniote egg Which two groups have the most shared derived characters? Marsupials and placental mammals
36 Kingdoms and Domains As new discoveries have been made, the systems of classification had to be changed. The first attempt at scientific classification was Linnaeus with his 2-kingdom system. Since the time of Linnaeus, many changes have been made in the ways that scientists classify organisms. Plantae Animalia Protista Plantae Animalia Archaebacteria Monera Protista Fungi Plantae Eubacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Animalia
37 A change to the 5 and 6-kingdom systems is the evidence that all living things seem to fall naturally into. three broad groups In recent years, this led to the establishment of a: 3-domain system. Domains are essentially: super kingdoms, a taxonomic level even higher than the kingdom level. The 6-kingdom system Kingdom Eubacteria Kingdom Archaebacteria Kingdom Protista Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Animalia Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea Domain Eukarya (all eukaryotes) The 3-domain system The domain Bacteria contains the Kingdom Eubacteria. The domain Archaea contains the Kingdom Archaebacteria. The domain Eukarya contains the Kingdoms Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia.
38 Domain Kingdom Cell Type Bacteria Eubacteria prokaryotic Kingdom Comparison Cell Structures Cell walls composed of peptidoglycans cyanobacteria Cell Organization Unicellular strep Food Getting? Autotrophs or heterotrophs staph Examples: Strep, staph, E. coli E. coli
39 Domain Kingdom Cell Type Archaea Archaebacteria prokaryotic Kingdom Comparison Cell Structures Cell walls do not contain peptidoglycans. These are very ancient organisms. Very primitive. Halophiles: (salt loving) Cell Organization Unicellular Food Getting? Examples: Autotroph or heterotrophs Methanogens Halophiles Thermophiles Thermophiles: (heat loving)
40 Domain Eukarya Ameba Kingdom Cell Type Protista eukaryotic Paramecium Cell Structures Cell Organization Food Getting? Examples: Cell walls composed of cellulose in some. Some have chloroplasts. Most are unicellular. Some are colonial. Some multicellular. Autotrophs or heterotrophs Ameba, Paramecium, Algae, Slime molds, giant kelp. Spirogyra Slime mold D i a t o m s Stentor V o l v o x Slime mold Euglena
41 Domain Kingdom Cell Type Eukarya Fungi Eukaryotic Bracket fungus mold Coral fungus Cell Structures Cell walls are composed of chitin. No chloroplasts Yeasts Corn smut Cell Organization Food Getting? Most are multicellular. Some are unicellular. Heterotrophs rusts Examples: Mushrooms, yeasts, puffballs, molds, mildews, smuts, and rusts. Morels
42 moss Domain Eukarya Kingdom Plantae Cell Type Eukaryotic ferns Cell Structures liverworts Cells walls are composed of cellulose. Chloroplasts are present. gingko Cell Organization Multicellular Food Getting? Autotrophs Examples: Mosses, ferns, liverworts, cone-bearing plants, flowering plants
43 Domain Eukarya Kingdom Cell Type Animalia Eukaryotic Cell Structures No cell walls. No chloroplasts Cell Organization Multicellular Food Getting? Examples: Heterotrophs Sponges, worms, mollusks, arthropods, fish, amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals.
44 Barriers between the species: What factors keep the species apart? Can this mate with this??? Mating is impossible under natural conditions for many organisms.
45 Bullfrog eggs may be fertilized by the sperm of the leopard frog. The eggs develop to a point, but do not survive. There is too much difference in the chromosomes.
46 Example: horse + donkey = mule The mule is sterile and will not be able to reproduce.
47 Many organisms simply do not come into contact with one another.
48 Many organisms, especially in the animal kingdom, will not mate unless certain behaviors are exhibited.
49 Classifying Organisms Using a Dichotomous Key Here are the leaves from seven trees. Use the dichotomous key to classify each leaf Magnolia Buckeye Redbud Pecan Birch Locust Sweet Gum
50 Created by Amy Brown Science Stuff Copyright January 2012 Amy Brown (aka Science Stuff) All rights reserved by author. This document is for your classroom use only. This document may not be electronically distributed or posted to a web site.
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Page 1 of 12 Section 1 Lesson 1 Living Versus Nonliving Characteristics of Living Things In order to be considered living, an organism must possess the following Six (6) characteristics. a. Living things