2 Chemical Energy and ATP Energy is the ability to do work. Your cells are busy using energy to build new molecules, contract muscles, and carry out active transport. Without the ability to obtain and use energy, life would cease to exist.
3 Chemical Energy and ATP One of the most important compounds that cells use to store and release energy is adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP consists of adenine a 5-carbon sugar called ribose three phosphate groups
4 Storing Energy Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) looks almost like ATP, except that it has two phosphate groups instead of three. ADP contains some energy, but not as much as ATP. When a cell has energy available, it can store small amounts of it by adding phosphate groups to ADP, producing ATP. ADP is like a rechargeable battery that powers the machinery of the cell.
5 Releasing Energy Cells can release the energy stored in ATP by breaking the bonds between the second and third phosphate groups. Because a cell can add or subtract these phosphate groups, it has an efficient way of storing and releasing energy as needed.
6 Using Biochemical Energy One way cells use the energy provided by ATP is to carry out active transport. Many cell membranes contain sodium-potassium pumps. ATP provides the energy that keeps these pumps working, maintaining a balance of ions on both sides of the cell membrane.
7 Using Biochemical Energy ATP powers movement, providing the energy for motor proteins that contract muscle and power the movement of cilia and flagella. Energy from ATP powers the synthesis of proteins and responses to chemical signals at the cell surface.
8 Using Biochemical Energy ATP is not a good molecule for storing large amounts of energy over the long term. It is more efficient for cells to keep only a small supply of ATP on hand. Cells can regenerate ATP from ADP as needed by using the energy in foods like glucose.
9 Heterotrophs and Autotrophs What happens during the process of photosynthesis? In the process of photosynthesis, plants convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy stored in the bonds of carbohydrates.
10 Heterotrophs and Autotrophs Organisms that obtain food by consuming other living things are known as heterotrophs. Some heterotrophs get their food by eating plants. Other heterotrophs, such as this cheetah, obtain food from plants indirectly by feeding on plant-eating animals. Still other heterotrophs, such as mushrooms, obtain food by decomposing other organisms.
11 Heterotrophs and Autotrophs Organisms that make their own food are called autotrophs. Plants, algae, and some bacteria are able to use light energy from the sun to produce food. The process by which autotrophs use the energy of sunlight to produce high-energy carbohydrates that can be used for food is known as photosynthesis.
12 8.2 Photosynthesis: An Overview
13 Light Energy from the sun travels to Earth in the form of light. Sunlight is a mixture of different wavelengths, many of which are visible to our eyes and make up the visible spectrum. Our eyes see the different wavelengths of the visible spectrum as different colors: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.
14 Pigments Plants gather the sun s energy with light-absorbing molecules called pigments. The plants principal pigment is chlorophyll.
15 Pigments The two types of chlorophyll found in plants, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, absorb light very well in the blue-violet and red regions of the visible spectrum, but not in the green region, as shown in the graph. Leaves reflect green light, which is why plants look green.
16 Pigments Plants also contain red and orange pigments such as carotene that absorb light in other regions of the spectrum. Most of the time, the green color of the chlorophyll overwhelms the other pigments, but as temperatures drop and chlorophyll molecules break down, the red and orange pigments may be seen.
17 Chloroplasts Photosynthesis takes place inside organelles called chloroplasts. Chloroplasts contain saclike photosynthetic membranes called thylakoids, which are interconnected and arranged in stacks known as grana.
18 Chloroplasts Pigments are located in the thylakoid membranes. The fluid portion outside of the thylakoids is known as the stroma.
19 Energy Collection Because light is a form of energy, any compound that absorbs light absorbs energy. Chlorophyll absorbs visible light especially well. When chlorophyll absorbs light, a large fraction of the light energy is transferred to electrons. These high-energy electrons make photosynthesis work.
20 High-Energy Electrons What are electron carrier molecules? An electron carrier is a compound that can accept a pair of high-energy electrons and transfer them, along with most of their energy, to another molecule.
21 High-Energy Electrons The high-energy electrons produced by chlorophyll are highly reactive and require a special carrier.
22 High-Energy Electrons Think of a high-energy electron as being similar to a hot potato. If you wanted to move the potato from one place to another, you would use an oven mitt a carrier to transport it. Plants use electron carriers to transport high-energy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules.
23 High-Energy Electrons NADP + (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) is a carrier molecule. NADP + accepts and holds two high-energy electrons, along with a hydrogen ion (H + ). In this way, it is converted into NADPH. The NADPH can then carry the high-energy electrons to chemical reactions elsewhere in the cell.
24 An Overview of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high-energy sugars and oxygen. In symbols: 6 CO H 2 O C 6 H 12 O O 2 In words: Carbon dioxide + Water Sugars + Oxygen
25 An Overview of Photosynthesis Plants use the sugars generated by photosynthesis to produce complex carbohydrates such as starches, and to provide energy for the synthesis of other compounds, including proteins and lipids.
26 Light-Dependent Reactions Photosynthesis involves two sets of reactions. The first set of reactions is known as the light-dependent reactions because they require the direct involvement of light and light-absorbing pigments.
27 Light-Dependent Reactions The light-dependent reactions use energy from sunlight to produce ATP and NADPH. These reactions take place within the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast.
28 Light-Dependent Reactions Water is required as a source of electrons and hydrogen ions. Oxygen is released as a byproduct.
29 Light-Independent Reactions Plants absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and complete the process of photosynthesis by producing sugars and other carbohydrates. During light-independent reactions, ATP and NADPH molecules produced in the light-dependent reactions are used to produce highenergy sugars from carbon dioxide.
30 Light-Independent Reactions No light is required to power the light-independent reactions. The light-independent reactions take place outside the thylakoids, in the stroma.
31 The Light-Dependent Reactions: Generating ATP and NADPH The light-dependent reactions encompass the steps of photosynthesis that directly involve sunlight. The light-dependent reactions occur in the thylakoids of chloroplasts.
32 The Light-Dependent Reactions: Generating ATP and NADPH Thylakoids contain clusters of chlorophyll and proteins known as photosystems. Photosystems absorb sunlight and generate high-energy electrons that are then passed to a series of electron carriers embedded in the thylakoid membrane.
33 Photosystem II Light energy is absorbed by electrons in the pigments within photosystem II, increasing the electrons energy level. The high-energy electrons are passed to the electron transport chain, a series of electron carriers that shuttle high-energy electrons during ATP-generating reactions.
34 Photosystem II The thylakoid membrane provides new electrons to chlorophyll from water molecules. Enzymes of the inner surface of the thylakoid break up water molecules into 2 electrons, 2 H + ions, and 1 oxygen atom.
35 Photosystem II The 2 electrons replace the high-energy electrons that have been lost to the electron transport chain. Oxygen is released into the air. This reaction is the source of nearly all of the oxygen in Earth s atmosphere. The H + ions are released inside the thylakoid.
36 Electron Transport Chain Energy from the electrons is used by proteins in the electron transport chain to pump H + ions from the stroma into the thylakoid space.
37 Electron Transport Chain At the end of the electron transport chain, the electrons pass to photosystem I.
38 Photosystem I Because some energy has been used to pump H + ions across the thylakoid membrane, electrons do not contain as much energy as they used to when they reach photosystem I. Pigments in photosystem I use energy from light to reenergize the electrons.
39 Photosystem I At the end of a short second electron transport chain, NADP + molecules in the stroma pick up the high-energy electrons and H + ions at the outer surface of the thylakoid membrane to become NADPH.
40 Hydrogen Ion Movement and ATP Formation H + ions accumulate within the thylakoid space from the splitting of water and from being pumped in from the stroma. The buildup of H + ions makes the stroma negatively charged relative to the space within the thylakoids.
41 Hydrogen Ion Movement and ATP Formation This gradient, the difference in both charge and H + ion concentration across the membrane, provides the energy to make ATP.
42 Hydrogen Ion Movement and ATP Formation H + ions cannot directly cross the thylakoid membane. However, the thylakoid membrane contains a protein called ATP synthase that spans the membrane and allows H + ions to pass through it.
43 Hydrogen Ion Movement and ATP Formation Powered by the gradient, H + ions pass through ATP synthase and force it to rotate. As it rotates, ATP synthase binds ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP.
44 Hydrogen Ion Movement and ATP Formation This process, called chemiosmosis, enables light-dependent electron transport to produce not only NADPH (at the end of the electron transport chain), but ATP as well.
45 Summary of Light-Dependent Reactions The light-dependent reactions produce oxygen gas and convert ADP and NADP + into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH. ATP and NADPH provide the energy needed to build high-energy sugars from low-energy carbon dioxide.
46 The Light-Independent Reactions: Producing Sugars During the light-independent reactions, commonly referred to as the Calvin cycle, plants use the energy that ATP and NADPH contains to build stable high-energy carbohydrate compounds that can be stored for a long time.
47 Carbon Dioxide Enters the Cycle Carbon dioxide molecules enter the Calvin cycle from the atmosphere. An enzyme in the stroma of the chloroplast combines carbon dioxide molecules with 5-carbon compounds that are already present in the organelle, producing 3-carbon compounds that continue into the cycle.
48 Carbon Dioxide Enters the Cycle For every 6 carbon dioxide molecules that enter the cycle, a total of twelve 3-carbon compounds are produced.
49 Sugar Production At midcycle, two of the twelve 3- carbon molecules are removed from the cycle. These molecules become the building blocks that the plant cell uses to produce sugars, lipids, amino acids, and other compounds.
50 Sugar Production The remaining ten 3-carbon molecules are converted back into six 5-carbon molecules that combine with six new carbon dioxide molecules to begin the next cycle.
51 Summary of the Calvin Cycle The Calvin cycle uses 6 molecules of carbon dioxide to produce a single 6-carbon sugar molecule.
52 Summary of the Calvin Cycle The energy for the reactions is supplied by compounds produced in the lightdependent reactions.
53 Summary of the Calvin Cycle The plant uses the sugars produced by the Calvin cycle to meet its energy needs and to build macromolecules needed for growth and development. When other organisms eat plants, they can use the energy and raw materials stored in these compounds.
54 The End Results The two sets of photosynthetic reactions work together the lightdependent reactions trap the energy of sunlight in chemical form, and the light-independent reactions use that chemical energy to produce stable, high-energy sugars from carbon dioxide and water. In the process, animals, including humans, get food and an atmosphere filled with oxygen.
55 Temperature, Light, and Water The reactions of photosynthesis are made possible by enzymes that function best between 0 C and 35 C. Temperatures above or below this range may affect those enzymes, slowing down the rate of photosynthesis or stopping it entirely.
56 Temperature, Light, and Water High light intensity increases the rate of photosynthesis. After the light intensity reaches a certain level, however, the plant reaches its maximum rate of photosynthesis, as is seen in the graph.
57 Temperature, Light, and Water Because water is one of the raw materials in photosynthesis, a shortage of water can slow or even stop photosynthesis. Water loss can also damage plant tissues. Plants that live in dry conditions often have waxy coatings on their leaves to reduce water loss. They may also have biochemical adaptations that make photosynthesis more efficient under dry conditions.
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